This case-control study examined the perceived impact of bar-coded medication administration system (BCMA) on nurses’ ability to give medications, perceptions of medication errors, and nurses’ satisfaction with the medication administration process. In 1999, The Institute of Medicine (IOM) reported that nearly a million patients each year are injured in hospitals in the United States due to error. One reason for the variations is the fact that implementation of BCMA systems has an impact on the current work processes of nurses, who give the majority of medications in healthcare facilities. Bar-coded medication administration systems are implemented to reduce medication administration errors, but it is unclear if the bedside nurses view the systems as effective in error prevention. A BCMA system utilizes bar-coded medication doses, patient identification bracelets, and nurse staff badges to facilitate the five rights (right patient, right medication, right dose, right time and right route) of medication administration. Research has been conducted on the satisfaction of nurses with BCMA technology, but the results have been inconclusive. The  Medication Administration System-Nurses Assessment of Satisfaction (MAS-NAS) Scale, developed by Hurley, et al. A positive correlation between nursing job satisfaction and job performance motivates nurse managers to investigate causes of low satisfaction among nurses.
Although BCMA systems provide robust technology designed to reduce medication administration errors, there is concern that the benefits of these systems are not fully realized due to a failure to adequately integrate the systems into the current nursing work processes. Measuring satisfaction with BCMA technology requires an understanding of how technology is introduced into the healthcare work process. This study investigated nurse satisfaction with the use of a BCMA system as compared to a previous non-barcoded medication administration system. A case-control pilot study was designed to test the nursing satisfaction with a medication administration process prior to and after implementation of a BCMA system.
The nurses on the 28-bed medical unit piloted the BCMA system and were recruited as the experimental group. The BCMA system implemented on the experimental unit was the AdminRX® system (McKesson Automation, Inc. After thorough testing of the BCMA-hospital information system interface by staff nurses from the experimental unit, pharmacists, vendor support, and the nurses on the BCMA unit were educated on the use of the BCMA systems using a train-the-trainer approach. The first seven questions used a Likert-type scale from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree) with a choice of 3 (Don’t Know) at the center of the scale.
The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) (Version 16.0 for Windows, SPSS, Chicago, IL) was used to conduct statistical data analysis. Completion of the questionnaires was voluntary and the return rate of the questionnaires was approximately 42%. There were significant differences in the age and years of experience between the experimental and control groups (Table 1).
A comparison of satisfaction between the control and experimental units before BCMA implementation demonstrates differences in two areas.
Following the implementation, the experimental group had decreases in satisfaction with the medication administration process in three areas (Table 2).
A comparison of the control group surveys, pre- and post-implementation of the BCMA system on the experimental unit did not yield any statistically significant differences for any of the satisfaction indices. This pilot study indicated that the nurses on the experimental unit perceived that there was a decreased ability to visually see the medications due, as well as medications previously given, on the handheld device following implementation of the BCMA system. The use of BCMA systems is viewed as a promising technology to reduce medication errors in hospital settings, but  implementation of these systems may be less than optimal if they have unintended outcomes on the medication administration process. This study also demonstrated an overall reduction in nurses’ satisfaction with the medication administration process when the BCMA system was implemented.
The implementation of new technologies into healthcare systems can be a complicated endeavor.
Theories of diffusion of innovation set forth by Rogers (2003) indicate that technology is accepted and integrated into work processes in stages and there would therefore be differences in satisfaction depending upon when measurement took place.
Bar-coding medication administration may be a technology that will significantly reduce medication errors in hospitals and therefore greatly improve patient safety. Valerie Gooder, PhD RN began her nursing career in Adult Critical Care Nursing after earning a BSN at the University of Wyoming. The Initiative, funded in partnership with The Ford Family Foundation, aims to help close the achievement gap among students in Oregon by supporting expansion and improvement of out-of-school time programs for middle school students. Through our evaluation of the Initiative, we are collecting information about program design and improvement, students and their participation, and student and parent perspectives.
Rad Resources: There are a number of places where you can learn more about SEL and its measurement.
In selecting a survey tool, we wanted to ensure the information collected would be useful both for our evaluation and for our grantees. We first mined grantee logic models for their outcomes of interest, reviewed survey tools already in use by grantees, and talked with grantees about what they wanted and needed to learn.
We ultimately selected and adapted The Youth Skills and Beliefs Survey developed by the Youth Development Executives of King County (YDEKC) with support from American Institutes for Research. Rad Resource: YDEKC has made available lots of information about their survey, the constructs it measures, and how they developed the tool. Rad Resource: There are several other well-established tools worth exploring, such as the DESSA (or DESSA-mini) and DAP and related surveys, especially if cost is not a critical factor. Rad Resource: AEA’s Youth Focused TIG is a great resource for youth focused and participatory methods. We are Caitlin Ruffenach, Researcher, and Kim Leonard, Senior Evaluation Officer, from The Oregon Community Foundation (OCF).
This past summer, in collaboration with the Oregon Arts Commission, we conducted a survey of arts organizations in Oregon in an effort to learn about the arts education programming they provide, often in concert with what is available more directly through the school system. The purpose of this survey was to help the Foundation understand how the grantees of its Studio to School Initiative fit into the broader arts education landscape in Oregon.
We started with existing data; by gathering information about organizations who had received funding in arts education in Oregon in the past we were able to target our efforts to recruit respondents. Hot Tip: A collaborative, inclusive survey design process can result in better survey tools.
Hot Tip: Vetting preliminary findings with stakeholders is fun and helps support evaluation use. For many, the most important part of a survey or questionnaire is the demographics section. Allow respondents the option of opting out of the demographics section in its entirety, or, at the very least, make sure to add a “prefer not to answer” option to all demographic questions. Collecting the right demographic data in the right way can help you uncover meaningful and actionable insights.
Hi, I’m Wendy DuBow, a senior research scientist and director of evaluation at the National Center for Women & Information Technology (NCWIT). Cool Trick: We currently use SurveyMonkey for online surveys, and also have access to Qualtrix, so if you use either of these tools, we can share our SCCT survey directly with your pro account, already formatted though you can customize as you see fit!
Lessons Learned: Be sure that all of the SCCT survey constructs match the intended outcomes of the program, and tailor the wording of the parenthetical explanations of each item to the program being evaluated. The American Evaluation Association is celebrating STEM Education and Training TIG Week with our colleagues in the STEM Education and Training Topical Interest Group. Lesson Learned: Google Consumer Surveys’ accuracy and reliability is comparable to other surveying methods. Hot Tip: You can use Google Consumer Surveys to help answer evaluation questions around the relevance and effectiveness of population level programs and policies. The first found that only about 29% of Canadians remember reading a Material Data Safety Sheet outside of a training session.
The second found that 70% of recipients of Canada’s Universal Child Care Benefit (UCCB) felt that their child would continue to receive no or the same child care if they did not receive the benefit. You can view the overall results and break them down by demographics by clicking on the links above.
I’m Ann Martin, an evaluator working with a team of science educators and outreach professionals in Hampton, VA. Figure 1 – Customization options range from a header image, page and form background, and fonts. Rad Resource: The Google Drive blog shares updates to Forms functionality so that you can always be aware of new features. Step 1: I created a unique field in my survey data that would allow me to identify each person. After my query ran, I selected “Close and Load.” Excel created a new table comprised of unique values only. Any data you load into Power Query can be refreshed, and the query will automatically be re-executed.
Hi, we are Anne Gleason and Miranda Yates from the Program Evaluation and Planning Department at Good Shepherd Services in New York City and we would like to share some tools we put together for a youth research camp. The project provided an enriching learning experience for everyone involved.  Youth gained a unique first-hand experience conducting research by playing a lead role in the design and implementation of the study and the data analysis. If you’re limited with time or resources, you don’t have to give up the idea of drawing on participatory techniques. Rad Resources: Our camp curriculum included activities, role playing and group discussions. The American Evaluation Association is celebrating Youth Focused Evaluation (YFE) TIG Week with our colleagues in the YFE AEA Topical Interest Group. Ensuring that participants receive the survey in the first place can be half of the battle. Participants are often leery of participating in a survey administered by a stranger, especially if the content is sensitive. Incentives such as monetary compensation or prizes can motivate participants to spend their time on the survey.
While at Evaluation 2014, you will notice that Denver’s outdoor culture thrives everywhere from mountains peaks to downtown. We’re thinking forward to October and the Evaluation 2014 annual conference all this week with our colleagues in the Local Arrangements Working Group (LAWG). The response categories in the Fun Scale are: I Didn’t Do This, No Fun, A Little Fun, Some Fun, and A Lot of Fun.
In my other qualitative research with youth in camp settings, the idea of “fun” really varied by child.
For this survey, it was less important to understand what made each activity fun, and more important to provide campers with a quick opportunity to self-report fun.
Campers aged 7-18 completed this on their second-to-last-day at camp, and reliability for the scale was very good, even for the younger campers.
Follow-up observational tools and interviews with staff revealed some key aspects of the most fun activities, such as freedom to make choices, skill-building, and doing an activity at camp that they couldn’t do at home. Include an option for “I didn’t do this.” In reviewing the data from the first camp session, we found that some campers said an activity was A Lot of Fun, even though their group didn’t actually go to that activity! The author developed a questionnaire based on Rogers’ diffusion of innovation theory and established content validity. Medication errors occur more often than other categories of preventable errors (19%), and most medication errors occurred during medication administration (34%) where they were more likely to directly impact the patient and cause harm (Bates, et al., 1995). Success of the BCMA system used in Veteran’s Administration hospitals in the 1990s prompted a Federal Drug Administration (FDA) mandate to barcode all prescription and most over-the-counter medications by mid 2006 (Traynor, 2004). Using the BCMA system requires more time than other traditional methods of medication administration documentation such as a paper or computer-based medication administration record (Lawton & Shields, 2005).
Evidence of this is the development of system workarounds that bypass the intentional blocks to medication administration presented by the BCMA system. Despite this benefit, nurse dissatisfaction with the BCMA systems may impact overall compliance with the systems and decrease the overall effectiveness of the systems. The BCMA system includes a server and a wireless handheld device (or a tethered device) coupled with software that interfaces with a hospital’s information system. One preliminary investigation regarding satisfaction of nurses who use BCMA systems have shown that nurses who previously documented medications using a paper-based system were satisfied with BCMA systems (Rough, Ludwig, & Wilson, 2003).
In a longitudinal, descriptive study, Fowler, Sohler, and Zarillo (2009) used the MAS-NAS Scale to evaluate nursing satisfaction with a BCMA system and Category C medication error rates. Workarounds occur as a result of problems with technology, task, organization, patient issues, and the environment (Koppel, et al., 2008). The development of workarounds may be an indication that nurses feel that the system is not adequately supporting the medication administration process (Halbesleben, Wakefield, & Wakefield, 2008).

Nurses working on a 28-bed cardio-vascular step-down unit were recruited as a control group. Sample policy and procedure documents provided by the vendor were reviewed and modified by a small focus group including the nurse manager, a small group of staff nurses, and the nurse informatician. The first five questions measured the nurses’ perception of how easy the medication administration process was. The eighth question on the survey asked the subjects to rate satisfaction with the current overall medication administration process on their unit on a Likert-type scale from 1 (Poor) to 5 (Excellent). Independent t-tests were used to analyze differences in the individual items on the questionnaire between the experimental and control groups before and after implementation of the BCMA system. A total of 33 staff members returned surveys on the BCMA and 26 returned the surveys on the control unit (Table 1). First, nurses’ satisfaction with their ability to determine which medication was due decreased with use of the BCMA.
Nurses indicated a decrease in the overall satisfaction with the medication process following implementation of the BCMA system. To date, this is the first case control study evaluating the satisfaction of nurses following implementation of a new BCMA system. The control group had no significant changes in responses following the study, lending confidence that the decrease in the satisfaction with the experimental group was due to the implementation of the BCMA system rather than other factors. Due to the significant investment of money required to purchase and implement these systems, discussion of negative outcomes is often not desired or encouraged.
Due to the nature of the BCMA pilot program, the number of subjects available for study was limited.
There was no follow up for nursing staff that did not complete their survey, and the sample size was too small to determine statistical reliability of the instrument.
Waiting 6 months or longer to measure satisfaction post BCMA may have yielded different results.
However, this study demonstrates that BCMA systems may have a negative impact on nurses’ attitudes toward the medication administration process and may make the work processes more difficult.
Today’s post shares some of what we’re learning through our efforts to measure social-emotional learning (SEL) in youth in the context of our K-12 Student Success Initiative.
One of our key data sources is a survey of students about their social-emotional learning (SEL).
We then talked with grantees about the frameworks and tools we were exploring in order to get their feedback. Consider more qualitative and participatory approaches to understanding student social-emotional learning.
We are also working with our grantees to engage students in photo voice projects that explore concepts of identity and belonging – elements that are more challenging to measure well with a survey. Among other things, we are working on an evaluation of the Studio to School Initiative at OCF, which focuses on the development of sustainable arts education programs through partnerships between arts organizations and schools.
We hope the survey results will also serve as a resource for grantees, funders, and other stakeholders to understand and identify programs delivering arts education throughout the state. We used a small, informal advisory group throughout the process that included members who had conducted similar surveys and representatives of our target respondent group. We took advantage of an existing gathering of arts stakeholders in Oregon to share and workshop our initial findings. I am a doctoral student at the University of Pennsylvania’s School of Social Policy & Practice. Using those sources, you can locate links to specific tools or survey instruments that use demographic questions that you would like to incorporate into your our work. We were in the process of revamping our annual surveys, and a steering committee member suggested that we put all of our demographic questions on one page. Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice.
Most of the evaluations I see don’t take advantage of theory or past empirical evidence to ground their assessments. I run an independent evaluation consultancy, Social Impact Squared.  As an independent consultant, I don’t have a call centre to conduct population based surveys. You can view their paper on how Google Consumer Surveys compare to other internet surveys here, and you can view how well their predictions on the 2012 U.S. That metric could be used as a possible performance measure for Canada’s Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System.
While there may have been some issues with the survey’s response options, the results could inform an evaluation of the UCCB’s performance.
With tremendous interest in the blog lately, we’ve had many authors eager to share their evaluation wisdom, so for one special week, readers will be treated to two blog posts per day! If you found that Forms didn’t meet your needs in the past, you might not be aware of great new features that represent significant improvements. In September 2014 new Forms functionality allowed survey designers to add background and header images and to customize fonts and other display options. The latest Add-ons includenifty widgets like Form Notifications, which will send automatic emails to your survey respondents, and Form Publisher, which will use survey responses to fill in a new document from a template. Power Query is a handy add-in for Microsoft Excel that allowed me to generate my list quickly and easily. Two summers ago, we partnered with youth in one of our afterschool programs to conduct research on what youth think it means to be successful, a topic that the students selected, which ultimately culminated in a student-produced documentary. In turn, their insider perspective helped us to better understand how to form more meaningful questions and interpret results.
Ideally, we would have liked a few extra days to delve deeper into research techniques and data analysis. We have also found ways to incorporate youth voice into our evaluation activities that are less time intensive, but inspired by a participatory approach.
Here are two handouts that might be useful to those considering a camp of their own: Survey Development 101 and Survey Administration 101. My name is Amber Hill and I am a research specialist at McREL International’s Denver, Colorado office. No matter your level of information technology (IT) expertise, it is helpful to coordinate efforts between the IT pros who work for your survey software provider, your own organization, and the organization for which you are administering the survey. Working with a partner organization that is familiar to participants helps increase understanding about the purpose, value, and trustworthiness of the survey and evaluator. The Colorado Convention Center bumps up against the Cherry Creek Trail, which if taken north leads to Confluence Park and south leads to Sunken Gardens Park and beyond. For example, a common answer to the interview question “What did you like about camp?” was “It was fun!” Probing questions would typically reveal why it was fun – doing new or challenging activities, being with friends, feeling a part of a group, etc. Only a few campers entered comments, but counselors reported that those campers enjoyed making jokes or indicating their favorite activity. In our case, looking at the key components of the most fun activities helped guide discussions with program staff in a program improvement process. The participants (BCMA n= 33; control n= 26) were given the questionnaire 1 month prior and 5 months following the implementation of a pilot unit.
The IOM recommended systemic changes to hospital processes including medication administration (Kohn, Corrigan, & Donaldson, 1999). Due to supportive efforts by the FDA and the Joint Commission (JC), an increase in the number of hospitals purchasing BCMA systems is expected. Years after implementation of the first BCMA systems there is still widespread variation in how the systems are used (Carayon, et al., 2007).
Implementation of the BCMA prevents workarounds (shortcuts) and other personalized methods used by nurses to administer medications (Englebright & Franklin, 2005). Evaluation of nurse satisfaction with the BCMA system and the nurses’ perception of these systems to reduce medication errors may be important in the future design and implementation of these systems. The system is often integrated with a patient unit-based automatic dispensing machine (ADM) and a pharmacy packaging and dispensing robot.
In the case of a new medication order, the nurse is prompted to confirm the new medication with the physician’s written order. The researchers measured satisfaction four months prior to implementation of the BCMA and six months after and reported a 42% improvement in nurse satisfaction with medication administration and documentation after implementation of the BCMA system. Category C errors are medication errors that occur and reach the patient, but do not cause harm. The image profile of the model included three aspects: system functionality, systems usability, and systems impact on nursing practice.
The successful implementation of BCMA systems that maintain or improve nursing satisfaction require healthcare leaders to address issues that limit workarounds. For this study the researcher evaluated the success of BCMA implementation based on the nurses’ views of the relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, and observability. Implied informed consent was assumed when subjects completed a questionnaire developed by the researcher.
Prior to implementation of the BCMA, medications were ordered on a paper-based physician order sheet and scheduled on an electronic medication administration record (MAR) by pharmacists.
The control unit did not implement the BCMA system and served to demonstrate any impact of extraneous variables on nurse satisfaction with the existing medication process in the facility.
Workflow process changes were introduced to the nursing staff during the software training activities. The survey questions were developed by the researcher, and content validity was tested by colleagues in informatics. Paired t-tests were used to analyze differences the values for individual items on the questionnaire between the experimental group before and after implementation of BCMA and the differences in values for the control group before and after implementation. Twenty-five surveys were collected prior to the implementation on the experimental unit and 22 were collected on the control unit. There were no differences in either group related to perceived medication errors or near misses. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the inability of nurses to view medications due and medications given previously was due to design of the software rather than the screen size on the handheld devices. Randomization of subjects may be difficult, but the continued use of carefully chosen control groups will provide higher levels of evidence for research in this area. Implementation of new technologies requires an honest evaluation of the impact these new systems have on current practice in order to maximize the benefits these systems provide to quality and cost-effective healthcare.
Methods used to provide education and change processes can be enhanced to improve the overall satisfaction with these new technologies.
Although surveys were given to all nurses on the units using their unit mailboxes, completion of the questionnaires was voluntary and the return rate of the questionnaires was low.
Measurement of satisfaction and attitudes for this study could not be delayed since the pilot project was ended 5 months after implementation. Therefore, introducing BCMA systems into patient care areas may have unintended consequences, such as workarounds, that may reduce the effectiveness of the system.  So before any decisions are made regarding the overall effectiveness of BCMA, hospitals first need to determine whether the benefits are negated by nurses’ resistance to the change and how that resistance can be minimized. She has worked in the Clinical Informatics Systems department of a 300 bed tertiary care center and served as Clinical Information Systems Manager for four years at the same facility. And check out the Innovation Network’s slide deck on Data Placemats for more information about that particular tool.
In this post, I will share with you some lessons learned about incorporating demographic variables into surveys or questionnaires. Placing all of your demographic questions on one page will not only make your survey “feel” shorter and flow better, but it will also push you to think about which demographic questions are most relevant to your work. We focus on sharing theory- and evidence-based practices with stakeholders in education and industry to support them as they recruit, retain, and promote girls and women in tech.
However, a colleague (Brian Cugleman of Alterspark) introduced me to Google Consumer Surveys.
For instance, if you have a long list of options to include in a question, you can now copy-and-paste in a list from a word processor or spreadsheet table and automatically populate. It can easily import data from a variety of sources (including websites), un-pivot data, and split columns (such as First and Last name). Drawing on techniques we learned at the Critical Participatory Action Research (CPAR) Summer Institute offered by CUNY’s Public Science Project, we facilitated a series of research camp days with a group of twenty 10-14 year olds. For example, one survey question presented a list of resources and asked respondents to rate their importance to achieving life goals. For example, we routinely conduct focus groups throughout our programs to gather feedback on surveys and other evaluation tools and develop action plans.

My work focuses on education research and my responsibilities include managing online surveys administered to state departments of education, districts, school staff, parents, and students in the United States, Pacific region, and Australia.
Those three groups can help you with white listing, test emails, firewalls, and broken links.
Partner organizations may send an e-mail to participants with the evaluator’s name and contact information in advance of the recruitment e-mail.
Incentives may go to participants or survey administrators, depending on how the survey is distributed. A quick exploration west will hook up with the South Platte River Trail and to Sloan’s Lake Park.  Longer treks east of downtown will reward visitors with mountain views at Cheesman Park (go to the Pavilion) and animal life at the Denver Zoo and City Park. The Hole in the Wall Gang Camp was founded by Paul Newman in 1988 and serves children and families in our region who are living with serious and life-threatening illnesses through summer camp, family weekends, hospital outreach, alumni, and other innovative programs. Bar-coded medication administration will probably be utilized in the majority of hospitals by 2024 (Roark, 2004). Problems with the BCMA technology may create additional frustration for the already busy bedside nurses. Once the nurse verifies the medication, the nurse scans the medication that is due to be administered. Observations by Coyle and Heinen (2005) indicated nursing satisfaction with a BCMA system, but did not include specific timing of the observations or any attempts to quantify satisfaction.
They found no difference in satisfaction for the period prior to implementation compared to 6 and 9 months following implementation of BMCA.
These problems occur because the process has not been reengineered properly (Vogelsmeier, et al., 2008). The questionnaire was administered to one unit that was implementing the BCMA system (experimental unit) and one unit that was not (control unit), before and 5 months after the implementation. Nurses were required to verify the scheduled medications against the paper-based physician orders at the beginning of each shift.
During the implementation, vendor and hospital informatics personnel were available 24 hours per day, 7 days per week.
Reliability and validity statistics were not computed on the survey due to the low sample size (Feldt & Ankenmann, 1998). Following the implementation of BCMA, 33 surveys were collected on the experimental unit and 14 on the control unit. There were significant amounts of missing data, particularly in the results of the control group surveys.
This research provided information that may assist in the future development and implementation of systems that will maximize the benefits rather than introduce new error into an already problematic medication administration system. Unless implementation staff and software developers acknowledge the impact these systems have on nurses and make adjustments to improve satisfaction, the intended improvements in care of our patients as a result of these new technological innovations may never be realized.
There were no limitations on communications between the experimental or control groups, so cross contamination of the groups may have occurred.
The MAS-NAS Scale developed by Hurley and colleagues (2006) demonstrates reliability and validity but was unfamiliar to the researcher at the time of this study.
Ultimately, the healthcare system studied in this research opted to develop a medication bar-coding system rather than to purchase. Some unintended consequences of information technology in health care: The nature of patient care information system-related errors.
Statement of the American Academy of Nursing and the American Organization of Nurse Executives for the Food and Drug Administration regarding bar code labeling for human drug products. Preventing medication errors in hospitals through a systems approach and technological innovation: A prescription for 2010. Using a bar-coded medication administration system to prevent medication errors in a community hospital network.
Severity of medication administration errors detected by a bar-code medication administration system.
We then engaged the attendees in discussions about how the findings did or didn’t resonate with their experiences. In my position, I see a lot of K-20 interventions aimed at increasing women in tech, and alongside, a wide variety of measurement instruments. The social cognitive career theory (SCCT) model has been widely used to explain people’s educational and career interests in STEM. I would like to share with you my research and trials into how Google Consumer Surveys could be used for evaluations.
The survey had been offered multiple times, and I wanted to track the responses of participants who had completed the survey each time it was offered.
The days were organized as follows: What Is Research, Survey Design Parts I and II, Data Entry, and Data Analysis.
Encouraging online survey participation can be tricky, which is why I use a variety of methods.
Follow-up and reminder e-mails from the evaluator that includes references to the partner organization shows participants the coordination between the organizations.
When funding is limited, a drawing for a prize among participants who elect to provide their contact information may be effective. In my role, I frequently create surveys for children to find out about their levels of satisfaction with the program activities. There was a decrease in the overall satisfaction with the medication process following implementation of the BCMA system (p = .001).
The author of this paper hypothesized that an increasing level of frustration felt by the nurse may lead to a decrease in the level of satisfaction with the medication administration process overall.
For example, a patient’s armband is removed from the patient’s wrist and taped to the bed or doorjamb. The researchers found that Category C errors increased following BCMA implementation, but hypothesized that this was due to increased reporting and surveillance.
The questionnaire was sent by e-mail to members of the CARING e-mail list, an informatics-focused listserve. A case study conducted by Bargren and Lu (2009) described system gaps in the BCMA that created a perceived need for nurses to use workarounds.
Understanding the impact of BCMA system implementation on nursing satisfaction with the medication administration process will assist with improving the development and implementation of these systems. The time of administration of the questionnaire after the implementation was determined by the date of the end of the pilot study on the BMCA unit. The handheld device displayed the electronic medication administration record and allowed for verification of new orders entered by the pharmacists, double signatures on certain medications, documentation of medication administration, and alerting. Chi-square tests were conducted on gender and licensure variables to determine differences between the experimental and control groups. There were 19 paired surveys on the experimental unit and 10 paired surveys on the control unit. This limits the ability to draw inferences about the demographic similarities or differences in the two groups. In this study, nurses were part of the implementation team, but including the nurses at the implementation phase may not be adequate. Evaluation of nurse interaction with bar code medication administration technology in the work environment. Effect of bar-code-assisted medication administration on medication error rates in an adult medical intensive care unit.
Bar-code technology for medication administration: Medication errors and nurse satisfaction. Workarounds to barcode medication administration systems: Their occurrences, causes, and threats to patient safety. We wanted to specifically assess students in computer science-related programs, so we developed an instrument that uses SCCT to assess five constructs: interest, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, perceived social supports and barriers, and intent to persist in computing. A custom header image with a logo may make your users feel more comfortable responding, or can make your survey a seamless part of a website in which you embed it.
We initially were perplexed as to why older students would hold less value for supportive adults. Keeping surveys open for extended amounts of time also allows for more reminders and opportunities for participants to ask questions.
This study demonstrates that implementation of BCMA systems may have negative impact on nurses’ attitudes toward the medication administration process and may make the work processes more difficult. Instead of scanning an armband on the patient’s wrist, the nurse scans the armband that is taped to the bed (Koppel, Wetterneck, Telles, & Karsh, 2008). The results indicated a statistically significant improvement in satisfaction following deployment. They did not find a decrease in errors related to medications given to the wrong patient (Fowler, Sohler, & Zarillo, 2009).
Use of workarounds may encourage other unsafe practices (Halbesleben, Wakefield, & Wakefield, 2008).
The policy in the facility was to document the medication prior to administration in order to take advantage of the functions of the electronic MAR including alerting.
Codes were consistent throughout the study to provide paired data for statistical analysis.
Independent t-tests were used to compare age and years of experience between the experimental and control groups. Research investigating the impact of including nurses in the initial design and development of BCMA systems will provide important answers that may guide future development in ways that maximizes the potential of this new technology. Incidence of adverse drug events and potential adverse drug events: Implications for prevention.
Improving patient safety by identifying side effects from introducing bar coding in medication administration. Our survey has been used in a number of different educational settings, with middle and high school students, and with college and above.
You can also embed images and videos within the body of the survey itself, which is handy for quizzes or assessments. I would then be able to use this list to determine which participants had taken the survey each time it was offered. The youth participants posited that older youth may feel more independent and, thus, be more confident in their own ability to achieve success. This insight underscored the benefit of partnering with youth in research. Effective implementation of BCMA systems requires an understanding of the impact of the system on nursing work processes. This could result in a patient receiving the wrong medication, one that was intended for the previous occupant of the bed.
Of note, the results indicated that the nurses viewed the new system as time consuming, but safer. Their results indicated that when nurses valued the safety features of the system, they viewed the system as more useable (Marini, Hasman, Huijer, & Dimassi, 2010). The use of workarounds indicates a lack of confidence in the system and may be an indication of decreased satisfaction.
Compliance with intended use of bar code medication administration in acute and long-term care: An observational study. Of course, there are many other valid and reliable instruments available to evaluators of STEM education programs, but it can be hard to find them when you’re pressed for time in the proposal writing or instrument development stages. By using workarounds, nurses bypass safety features of the system and therefore negate the overall purpose of the BCMA.  A key to successful implementation and use of a BCMA system is to understand the level of satisfaction the nurses have with the system and how effective they view the system in preventing errors. Selected interviews of participants corroborated the results of the study (Hurley, et al., 2007).
For expediency and for the larger good of sharing data and measuring interventions systematically, I would very much like to see STEM education evaluators and researchers have a shared repository of instruments. Using bar-code technology and medication observation methodology for safer medication administration.

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