Type 2 diabetes: What is it?Diabetes is a chronic condition that affects the body's ability to convert sugar into energy. To provide even greater transparency and choice, we are working on a number of other cookie-related enhancements. Glaucoma is considered to be the worlda€™s leading cause of irreversible blindness, yet so few sufferers are aware that they have the disease. This disease builds up over a period of time and the lack of warning signs at the onset makes detection difficult. The importance of regular eye exams cannot be emphasized enough, especially in the detection of the condition where symptoms are not present. This site is for information only and is not intended to replace the advice of a health professional who can examine you before making a diagnosis.
Fig:This 42 year old female LOST her BOTH EYES VISION due to several years of high blood sugars (uncontrolled). Glaucoma—increase in fluid pressure inside the eye that leads to optic nerve damage and loss of vision. GLAUCOMA - Treatment of this eye problem in diabetes can include special eye drops, laser procedures, medicine, or surgery. All people with diabetes should take precautions to help reduce their risk of developing eye problems.
Schedule regular appointments with your eye doctor so that any eye problem can be detected early and treated.Everyone with diabetes should get a comprehensive dilated eye exam at least once a year. SymptomsA dog with cataracts may bump into furniture in familiar surroundings, squint, or be reluctant to run or play because his eye sight is impaired. The material in this website is for information only and is not intended to replace professional recommendations or opinions. Join tens of thousands of doctors, health professionals and patients who receive our newsletters.
Edema is swelling caused by fluid retention - excess fluid is trapped in the body's tissues. You will also see introductions at the end of some sections to any recent developments that have been covered by MNT's news stories. The cause of edema may be diagnosed by chest X-ray, blood tests, urine tests, liver function tests or heart function tests. If the capillaries (tiny blood vessels) leak fluid into the surrounding tissue the area will start to swell. Leaking capillaries will cause the kidneys to accumulate higher than normal quantities of sodium (salt) and water in order to compensate for the capillary fluid loss. If a person stands or sits still for long periods of time, there is a much higher chance of swelling. When a woman is resting in a reclined position the enlarged uterus occasionally compresses the inferior vena cava, causing obstruction of both femoral veins, leading to edema.
A pregnant woman's blood is hypercoaguble (clots more easily), raising the risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT), a cause of edema. Around the period of the menopause, as well as after, hormone fluctuations can cause fluid retention. Such as vasodilators (drugs that open blood vessels), calcium channel blockers, NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), estrogens, several chemotherapy drugs, and some diabetes drugs, such as thiazolidinediones. Dietitians say low consumption of thiamine (vitamin B1), as well as insufficient vitamins B6 and B5, may contribute toward fluid retention.
Patients with kidney disease may not be able to eliminate enough fluid and sodium from the blood. Damage to the capillaries in the kidneys (glomeruli) that filter waste and excess fluids from the blood can result in nephrotic syndrome. Chronic lung disease includes many lung diseases, such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, COPD, emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis and sarcoidosis.
A patient with diabetes may have edema for several different reasons, including cardiovascular disease and its associated complications, acute renal failure, acute liver failure, protein-losing enteropathy (disease of the intestine causing protein loss) and some medications. People with arthritis most commonly have swelling in the ankles, feet, legs, and calves - peripheral edema.
A brain tumor will accumulate water around itself, especially as it builds new blood vessels.
A blow to the head may result in an accumulation of fluids in the brain or between the brain and the skull. If the damage is due to lymphedema it is called primary lymphedema, if it is caused by disease or medical condition, such as an infection or cancer, it is caused secondary lymphedema. Individuals with diabetes have a significantly higher risk of developing diabetic eye disease.
New research has found that in cases of lung edema, or fluid in the lungs, not only do the lungs fail to keep water out as previously believed, but they are also allowing water to pump in. On the next page we look at the symptoms of edema, how it is diagnosed and the treatment options for edema. Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:MLANordqvist, Christian. For any corrections of factual information, or to contact our editorial team, please see our contact page. Please note: Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a health care professional. Learn all about DVT (deep vein thrombosis), a blood clot that forms in a vein in the body (commonly the leg).
This allows sugar levels to build up in the blood, which can lead to heart disease, blindness and other serious complications. It is intended for general information purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. What makes this condition so difficult to detect is the lack of any early warning signs or symptoms.
The eye is equipped with a complex drainage system and when a malfunction or blockage occurs in this drainage system, it causes fluid buildup or intraocular pressure (IOP). Your eye care specialist can do a series of tests, all of them painless, to determine the presence of the disease. RAVIKUMAR MUPPIDI DM EndocrinologyAdvanced Endocrine Hospital & Research Centre KPHB Hyd. High blood pressure by itself can lead to eye disease, so if you have high blood pressure as well as diabetes, it is especially important that you take steps to control both conditions.
It can appear suddenly, but usually develops subtly - the patient may first gain weight, or wake up with puffy eyes.
This results in more blood circulating in the body, which in turn causes even more capillary leakage into the surrounding tissue, which produces additional swelling - a vicious cycle.


Acute mountain sickness can lead to high altitude pulmonary edema or high altitude cerebral edema.
During high temperatures, the body is less efficient at removing fluid from tissues, especially around the ankles.
Eclampsia, which results from pregnancy-induced hypertension (high blood pressure), can also cause edema. During the days before menstrual bleeding, there will be a reduction in the levels of the hormone, progesterone, which may cause fluid retention. Low levels of albumin may also play a part - low albumin levels can also be caused by kidney disease.
This results in more pressure on the blood vessels, which causes some of the liquid to leak out. Among the many symptoms of nephrotic syndrome is an insufficient level of blood albumin, which leads to edema. If one or both of the lower chambers of the heart lose the ability to pump blood effectively, the blood can accumulate in the limbs, causing edema. This affects liver function, which causes the secretion of hormones and fluid-regulating chemicals to change. Arthritis may cause swelling for many reasons, for example, sporadic ankle swelling in rheumatoid arthritis is common and occurs mainly, as a result, of active inflammatory synovitis (inflammation of the synovial membrane, the lining of the joint). This causes an increase in pressure in the vein, which may result in leakage of fluids into the surrounding tissue, causing edema. Varicose veins usually occur because valves become damaged; static pressure increases, resulting in the bulging veins.
If this system is damaged the lymph nodes and lymph vessels which continually drain an area may not work as they should, it could result in edema. But new research reveals that less than 50% of US adults with diabetic macular edema - retina swelling that can lead to blindness - are told by their doctor that diabetes is the cause of their condition, and less than 60% had a dilated eye exam in the last year. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. Once the first visible symptoms occur, there is already serious damage done to the eyes optic nerves. Tonometry: Your eye care specialist tests your eye to determine the intraocular pressure (IOP). When a woman is pregnant, her face will typically swell, as will her hands, lower limbs and feet.
People with cirrhosis of the liver also have increased pressure within the portal vein - the large vein that carries blood from the intestines, spleen and pancreas, into the liver. The static pressure also increases the risk of leakage of fluids into the surrounding tissue. The lump may press against a vein causing a build-up of pressure in that vein, which may result in fluids leaking into surrounding tissue. Diabetes UK estimates that over 600,000 people with type 2 diabetes don't know they have it. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the BootsWebMD Site. There are many ways in which this test can be done, the two most popular tests are done with either a tonometer that blows a puff of wind onto the eye that measures your IOP or your eye is numbed with eye drops and a tonometer is placed against the front of the eye to measure your IOP. If your dog does in fact have cataracts, delaying surgery, if the condition warrants it, can lead to greater vision and health issues such as glaucoma (a build up of pressure in eye, which is quite painful) or retinal detachment.
The CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) estimates that the number of cases of diabetic retinopathy will triple from 5.5 million in 2005 to 16 million in 2050.
Acute angle closure glaucoma, also known as closed angle or narrow angle, occurs when the iris (coloured part of eye) is suddenly pushed forward, causing a blockage.
Gonioscopy: Your eye care specialist will numb the eye with anesthetic drops and place an instrument with mirrors on the surface on your eyeball. A condition called nuclear sclerosis looks very much like a cataract, but does not affect eyesight.
Diabetes may not have symptomsIn most cases type 2 diabetes doesn't cause any symptoms, or the symptoms are mild, which is why many people have it for years without knowing it, and why it's important to get tested. It can be difficult for dog caregivers to distinguish between these, which is why it is essential to get the opinion of a veterinarian.Your veterinarian will use a special instrument to check the pressure inside your dog's eye and will also use his hand (or an object) to see if your dog follows movement with his eyes. Warning sign: ThirstOne of the first symptoms of type 2 diabetes may be an increase in thirst. Visual field testing: This test is performed to determine the loss of peripheral vision over a period of time.
It is possible that the "milkiness" you see is nuclear sclerosis, a natural aging of the eye that does not affect sight. The pupils will be dilated using a penlight and an ultrasound may be given if your vet suspects that retinal degeneration is occurring in addition to the cataracts. This is often accompanied by additional problems, including dry mouth, increased appetite, frequent urination – sometimes as often as every hour -- and unusual weight loss or gain. If your vet suspects cataracts, you may be referred to a veterinary ophthalmologist, who specializes in animal eye diseases.CausesCataracts can be inherited (the dog is born with it), genetically predisposed (its genes make it likely to develop the condition) or related to old age. Warning sign: Blurred visionAs blood sugar levels become more abnormal, additional symptoms may include headaches, blurred vision and fatigue.
The only solution to cataracts is surgical removal, similar to the procedure performed in humans. Canine cataracts can also be caused by injury to the eye, by a toxin, or by internal disease such as diabetes mellitus. Warning sign: InfectionsIn most cases, type 2 diabetes is not discovered until it takes a noticeable toll on health. There are no known prevention measures that one can take to prevent this disease from occurring. Medici often refers to this disease as the a€?silent sight thiefa€™, due to no signs or symptoms being present in most cases. Diabetes can cause damage to blood vessels and nerve endings in the genitals, leading to a loss of feeling and making orgasm difficult. However, regular eye exams could aid in early detection and effective treatment, limiting the damage and effect this disease has. Richard Pitcairn states the following with regard to canine cataracts: "This condition, however, is also a frequent accompaniment of chronic disease and immune disorders in dogs. Risk factors you can controlYour habits and lifestyle can affect your odds of developing type 2 diabetes. Many of the dogs with chronic skin allergies, hip dysplasia and ear problems will develop [cataracts] as they get older.
Cataracts are also more common in animals that have diabetes mellitus, even with insulin treatment.


Risk factors for womenHaving gestational diabetes when you're pregnant puts you seven times at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes later on.
Veterinarians sometimes remove the lens surgically, and this may help.Unless the underlying condition is satisfactorily addressed, however, the eye is never really healthy. Having a history of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can also cause insulin resistance that can lead to diabetes. On the other hand, you may also elect not to take the surgery route even if your dog does have sight loss. Type 2 diabetes in childrenAlthough older people have a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes, the condition is affecting more young people.
If your dog's cataracts are not causing inflammation, pain or glaucoma (pressure in the eye), you may not feel that surgery is necessary. Diabetes UK says around 35,000 children and young people in the UK have diabetes, with around 700 of these having type 2 diabetes. Blind dogs can enjoy a good quality of life, as long as their caregiver is sensitive to their needs. The leading risk factor for children is being overweight, often connected with an unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity. As your dog's best friend, you will need to weigh restoring your dog's sight against the expense and potential risks of surgery.Please keep in mind, the information on this web site is for educational purposes.
Once children are overweight, their chances of developing type 2 diabetes more than doubles. It is always essential to contact your veterinarian if your canine friend "is not himself." To find a canine eye specialist, contact the American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists. Often a urine test is carried out first, and if it contains glucose, or a person is at risk of diabetes, one or more blood tests to check levels of glucose in the blood are performed.
How does insulin work?In healthy people, after a meal, food is broken down into a sugar called glucose, which is carried by the blood to cells throughout the body. Cells use the hormone insulin, made in the pancreas, to help them process blood glucose into energy.
People develop type 2 diabetes because the cells in the muscles, liver and fat cannot use insulin properly, called insulin resistance.
Type 2 Diabetes: Metabolism mishapsIn type 2 diabetes, the cells cannot absorb glucose properly.
If you've developed a condition called insulin resistance, the body makes insulin, but the muscle, liver and fat cells cannot use insulin, or do not respond to the insulin, properly. With long-standing, uncontrolled type 2 diabetes, the pancreas will reduce the amount of insulin it produces. Managing diabetes: DietFortunately, people with type 2 diabetes can significantly reduce the risk of damage to their bodies, including damage to the heart, kidneys, eyes and feet. People with type 2 diabetes should carefully monitor carbohydrate consumption, as well as total fat and protein intake and reduce calories. Managing diabetes: ExerciseModerate exercise, such as strength training or walking, improves the body's use of insulin and can lower blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes.
Being active also helps reduce body fat, lower blood pressure and protect against heart disease. Try to do at least 150 minutes of exercise a week, with some exercise on most days of the week.
It can also increase glucose levels in your blood as part of your "fight or flight" response.
Instead of letting stress take its toll, try relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, meditation or just talking to a friend or relative.
Managing diabetes: MedicationWhen people with type 2 diabetes are unable to control blood sugar sufficiently with diet and exercise, medication can help. There are many types of diabetes medicines available and they are often used in combination. Some work by stimulating the pancreas to make more insulin, while others improve the effectiveness of insulin, or reduce the liver's production of glucose, or block the digestion of starches. Managing diabetes: InsulinMany people with type 2 diabetes eventually develop 'beta-cell failure'. This means the cells in the pancreas no longer produce insulin in response to high blood sugar levels. In this case, insulin therapy – injections or an insulin pump – must become part of the daily routine.
Whereas insulin pulls glucose into the cells, these medications cause the body to release insulin to control blood sugar levels.
Glucose testingTesting your blood glucose level will let you know how controlled your blood sugars are and if you need to take action to change your treatment plan.
How often and when you test will be based on how controlled your diabetes is, the type of therapy used to control your diabetes and whether you are experiencing symptoms of fluctuating sugars.
Your diabetes team will suggest how often you should use a glucose meter to check your blood sugar. Common testing times are first thing in the morning, before and after meals and exercise and before bedtime. Long-term damage: ArteriesOver time, untreated type 2 diabetes can damage many of the body's systems.
People with diabetes are likely to develop plaque in their arteries, which reduces blood flow and increases the risk of clots. People with diabetes are up to five times more likely to develop heart disease or have a stroke.
Long-term damage: KidneysThe longer you have untreated diabetes, the greater the risk of developing kidney disease or kidney failure. Long-term damage: EyesHigh blood sugar can damage the tiny blood vessels that bring oxygen and nutrients to the retina, a critical part of the eye.
This is known as diabetic retinopathy and it can cause progressive, irreversible vision loss. People with diabetes are up to 20 times more likely to go blind than those without diabetes. Long-Term Damage: Nerve PainOver time, uncontrolled diabetes and elevated blood sugars create a very real risk of nerve damage. Symptoms can include tingling, numbness, pain and a pins and needles sensation -- often in the fingers, hands, toes or feet. Preventing type 2 diabetesOne of the most astonishing things about type 2 diabetes is that such a life-altering condition is often preventable.



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