1 – ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ??? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????. 2 – ????? ??? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?????????????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ?????.
3 – ????? ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ????????. 5 – ???? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? ????? ???????? ???. 6 – ????? ?????? ????????? ??? 20 ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ????????? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ??????.
7 – ???? ????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????? 15 ??? 20 ??? ??? ???? ???????? ????? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ??????. One of the greatest obstacles to the realization of our fullest potential in any field is the idea of convention.
The human body is a very specific machine, one that is individually adapted to the very stresses that it encounters throughout the course of everyday life. Repetitive activity associated with aerobic exercise has been shown to reduce the ability to generate force in the high velocity, low frequency region of the force velocity curve- in other words it makes our muscles less powerful.[1,5] Power and strength are closely related but not exactly the same thing. While a heavy bench press requires great strength the movement does not require as much explosive power as a sprinter leaving the start line.
A study published in the European Journal of Applied Physiology took an in-depth look at how power is affected when individuals do strength training concurrently with endurance training as opposed to strength training on its own. Other studies have demonstrate that sustained aerobic type exercise not only affects rate of force development, but also decreases peak power development through changes in the way muscles are recruited. Another area for concern is the impact of concurrent aerobic training with strength training on your hormone levels.
Our muscles get stronger, bigger and more powerful as a direct response to the stress of exercise. The human body has a limited set of resources available to it to help recover from the stress of exercise. Inadequate recovery can also lead to a lasting fatigue that diminishes the ability to develop tension during power and strength movements. Perhaps the most common reason for employing aerobic exercise with strength training is for purposes of reducing body fat. While some studies have found seemingly contradictory findings regarding concurrent strength and aerobics training, these differences appear mainly to be due to differences in protocols, exercises used, length of the studies and the age and fitness levels of the participants selected. Please note that all material is copyrighted and DMCA Protected and can be reprinted only with the expressed authorization of the author. Celebrity personal trainer Kevin Richardson is an award wining health and fitness writer and the creator of Naturally Intense High Intensity Training and one of the most sought after trainers in New York City. According to the American Diabetes Association and the American College of Sports Medicine, 58% of American adults are physically active, whereas only 39% of adults with type 2 diabetes are physically active.[1] However, there is no shortage of evidence indicating that diet and exercise are crucial for the management of type 2 diabetes. In addition to weight loss,[1][22][49] improved insulin sensitivity,[1][18][19][20][59] disease management,[19] and overall improved health, there are many reasons from a cellular biology perspective for individuals with type 2 diabetes to incorporate exercise into their daily routine. Multiple reports have clearly demonstrated the importance of exercise in the prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes. A systematic review of prospective cohort studies by Jeon et al[10] reports that individuals who regularly participated in moderate intensity physical activity reduced risk of type 2 diabetes by 30% in comparison to sedentary individuals.
Research has found that a temporary physiological increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be essential for a training-induced increase in insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes.[17] ROS are beneficial when the increase in ROS is temporary. 13 obese type 2 diabetic subjects and 14 obese control subjects participated in 10 weeks of aerobic training, which consisted of cycling on a stationary bicycle 4-5 times per week, for 20-35 minutes per session, at an average exercise intensity of 65% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 peak).[18] Subjects were instructed not to make any dietary changes throughout the 10 weeks of training.
Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is widely considered one of the best biological markers for glucose control.[76],[77] Due to this, many studies reporting the effects of exercise interventions on type 2 diabetes often use HbA1c as either a primary or secondary outcome measure. Multiple animal studies have also supported the notion that exercise can reduce HbA1c levels.
These studies coincide insofar as exercise in acute and chronic exposures promotes increased Glut4 expression in skeletal muscle in diabetic patients.
Research shows increased AMPK muscle activity, caused by exercise, leads to increased PGC-1? activity in healthy subjects.
Research has demonstrated that AMPK activation is decreased in healthy female subjects compared to healthy males. A study was done to examine the LKB1-AMPK signaling in muscle from obese insulin-resistant Zucker rats and the effects of exercise on signaling.
The obese Zucker rats lost 7% of their body weight during the training program and there was a 120% increase in the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in the obese insulin-resistant rats. PGC-1? is a transcription co-activator involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, oxidative phosphoralation, increasing Glut4, increasing angiogenesis and muscular fiber type transformation. A study comparing the expression of PGC-1? in 6 males who randomly performed on control resting session and a cycle ergometer exercise session at 80% lactate threshold (LT) and 120% LT. A study investigating the effects of high intensity low volume interval training found that two weeks of interval training of 60 seconds of cycle ergometry at their peak power with rest periods of 75 seconds at 30 watts. In a study investigating the effect of acute exercise on AMPK signaling in subjects with type 2 diabetes also examined the change in PGC-1? with low (50% VO2max) and moderated (70% VO2 max) single exercise bouts lasting 40 minutes. In a study investigating the effects of exercise on young type 2 diabetic average age 23 subjects compared to control subjects without type 2 diabetes with similar age, weight, and gender ratio. Type2 diabetic doing exercise of any form and amount will get amazing improvement in their blood-glucose level, physical and mental well being. Physical activity is defining as any bodily movements produced by skeletal muscles resulting in energy expenditure. Aerobic exercise is an endurance activity or cardio activity in which the larger muscles move in a rhythmic manner for a sustained period. Bone-strengthening exercises put force on the bones promoting bone strength such as weight-bearing or weight-loading activity. When you are exercising, your body uses two sources of fuel, glucose and free fatty acids (from fat) to generate energy. During the first 15 minutes of exercise, most of the glucose for energy comes from either the blood stream or the muscle glycogen. After 30 minutes of exercise, the body begins to get more of its energy from the free fatty acids.
At rest and postprandial, its uptake by muscle is insulin dependent and serves primarily to replenish muscle glycogen stores.
During exercise, muscle-contractions increase BG uptake even when insulin-mediated uptake is impaired in type2 diabetes. Muscular BG uptake remains elevated post exercise by both contraction-mediated pathway and insulin-mediated uptake. Convert your exercise therapy into a social time, look for community group or get your family or friends to joining the exercise activity. Regular exercise and increased physical activity are the most important things you can do to improve health. Insulin sensitivity - physical training mobilizes visceral-adipose tissue, which increase insulin sensitivity by about 46%, improve your body's ability to use insulin. Prevent cardiovascular diseases - by reducing hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, LDL (bad) cholesterol and raise HDL (good) cholesterol.
Avoid diabetes complications - It can protect against the CHD, stroke, hypertension, obesity, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, colon cancer, and depression. Physical exercise helps blood-glucose management, reverse insulin resistance (improve insulin sensitivity), stop diabetes progression (slows down pancreas beta cell death) and prevents diabetes complications. Peripheral neuropathy without acute ulceration individuals can do moderate weight-bearing exercise. Retinopathy individuals with uncontrolled proliferated-retinopathy should avoid activities increases intraocular pressure and hemorrhage risk. Vascular disease such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not an absolute contraindication to exercise. Osteoarthritis is a common among older adults; strong scienti¬fic evidence shows both aerobic and muscle-strengthening exercise provides therapeutic bene¬fits. Aerobic exercise involves activity of moderate intensity paced out over a relatively longer duration. Exercises are performed with lower intensity and thus reduces the injury to bones and muscles.
Aerobic dance integrates exercise and dance movements into routines that are practiced with the music.
Such exercises are particularly useful for improving and maintaining cardio-respiratory endurance, which is the most important aspect of fitness. Aerobic exercises are also the most effective exercises for reduction of obesity and are relatively safe if done judiciously. These exercises are particularly useful for significantly improving muscular strength, muscular endurance, muscular power and anaerobic capacity. Such exercises have only limited value for improving cardio-respiratory endurance or aerobic fitness, which is the most important fitness attribute for the non-competitive majority.
These exercises are particularly useful for improving muscular tone, muscular endurance and the flexibility of joints. Contrary to popular belief, callisthenic exercises when done alone and in the usual manner, usually do not expend sufficient energy (i.e. The main values of such controlled movement and breathing exercises are the beneficial relaxation effects on both mind and body.


If done judiciously, such exercises are relatively safe and useful for improving muscular tone, flexibility of joints and muscles, and to a certain extent, the cardio-respiratory system. Relaxation exercises are useful as supplementary and complementary forms of exercise to other vigorous activities. Convention can heartily sustain the life force of myths and concepts poorly understood by the public at large, even when confronted by volumes of well researched science that contradicts them.
The process of increasing strength and muscle mass is in fact a stress response adaptation to a very specific form of overload. During the three week study, two groups of male participants were made to train twice a week doing the same program of resistance exercise with one group doing an additional two days of continuous aerobic exercise on a rowing machine with sessions lasting anywhere from 30 to 60 minutes in duration. These muscle fibers are not recruited to a significant extent during low intensity exercises such as endurance training.(13) Type II fibers have various sub divisions and use glycogen (and creatine phosphate) as their main fuel source and can use either anaerobic or aerobic oxidative metabolism to generate ATP. A decade long Canadian study found that subjects who regularly engaged in high intensity aerobic training verified the idea that our bodies do indeed adapt to the specific stresses it has to regularly undergo. However, it must be noted that these changes can only occur if the volume and or intensity of training is not so much that our bodies are unable to adapt to it.
Reduction in power generation from overly high training volume then reduces your ability to learn and master power related skills [21,22,23] while also increasing your risk for injury. However, prolonged aerobic exercise isn’t the only way to increase endurance and cardiovascular capacity nor is it the most efficient.
Conventional thinking has long been that aerobics burn significant amounts of calories- enough to create a negative energy deficit that would bring about a reduction in body fat. Studies using high intensity strength training as a control however seem to confirm the effects of overtraining as a result of performing both training modalities concurrently as well as a decrease in power generation and strength friendly muscle fiber development. Effect of concurrent strength and endurance training on skeletal muscle properties and hormone concentrations in humans. Dawson B, Fitzsimons M, Green S, et al, Changes in performance, muscle metabolites, enzymes and fiber types after short sprint training. Tabata I, Nishimura K, Kouzaki,  M, Hirai Y, Ogita F, Miyachi M, Yamamoto K Effects of moderate-intensity endurance and high-intensity intermittent training on anaerobic capacity and VO2max.
This page will explore general exercise recommendations, response to exercise in individuals with type 2 diabetes, and the effects of exercise from a cellular biology perspective in order to help identify appropriate exercise recommendations for individuals with type 2 diabetes. Managing type 2 diabetes requires a combination of diet, exercise, and medication (when prescribed).
Additionally, a review of large diabetes prevention trials by Sanz et al[7] reported that interventions focused on increasing exercise along with diet can cut the incidence of type 2 diabetes in half for adults with impaired glucose tolerance. In Finland, a large diabetes prevention trial found that people who greatly increased leisure-time physical activity (i.e. Moderate physical activity increases both nitric oxide (NO) and ROS and decreases oxidative stress. It is important to recognize that in humans, HbA1c levels reflect an average of plasma glucose concentrations from the previous 3-4 months.[78] Therefore, changes in HbA1c levels occur over long periods of time, and are not likely to be affected by single bouts of exercise. 75%-85% VO2max) produce greater reductions in HbA1c, as opposed to lower intensity activities.
This has been found across multiple trials using both different animal models of type 2 diabetes, as well as different exercise interventions. However, the degree of this expression can be disputed, as some studies show far greater changes than others (369% versus 36%). TNF?, a proinflammatory cytokine involved with inflammation, was studied to investigate the effects of moderate exercise and changes to inflammatory markers in diabetic mice who performed 3 weeks of 30 minutes of running 6 days a week at approximately 60% VO2 max.
The exercise session at 120%LT lasted 60 minutes and the exercise session at 80% lasted the amount of time necessary to have equal energy expenditure compared to the 120%LT test. Over the two week training period, the subjects increased the amount of intervals from 8 to 12 per session. The study had 12 obese subjects with type 2 diabetes (average age 53), 8 obese subjects without diabetes, and 8 non obese subjects without type 2 diabetes. Research has found that high intensity training leads to increased levels of PGC-1?, which results in an increase in the following:type 1 muscle fibers, mitochondrial biogenesis, fat oxidative capacity, GLUT4, and glycogen.
This force is generally producing by influencing the ground, such as jumping jacks, running, brisk walking, and weight-lifting exercises. The body will replace these glycogen stores; it takes 4-24 hours with more intense activity.
Thus, even if the insulin-stimulated BG uptake is impaired in type2 diabetes, exercise induced muscular-contraction stimulates BG uptake is not impaired by insulin resistance, which help lower glucose level.
A change in visceral abdominal fat was associated with the improvement in insulin sensitivity. Thus, regular exercising (both aerobic and muscle strengthening) is necessary therapy for diabetes control.
If you are not using insulin or insulin secretagogues, then your chance of hypoglycemia due to physical activity is rare.
Quality of life improves in case of individuals with kidney disease undergoing dialysis sessions. Those with angina classified as moderate or high risk should likely begin the exercise in a supervised cardiac rehabilitation program. Study shows, safe exercising reduces pain, make physically functional, better quality of life, and improve mental health in patients with osteoarthritis. Before choosing the right kind of aerobics, factors that need to be taken into account are age, health and the level of comfort. If you are fond of dance, then Aerobic dance helps in maintaining the all-round fitness and also turns out to be a delightful experience. It provides extra boost by incorporating the action of stepping on to the platform to intensify the workout. Maybe the work out can seem like one splashing surrounding the pool waters, yet those who are seriously into water aerobic exercise claim it's an excellent method to burn out unwanted flab from the body and build inner strength. Furthermore, such exercises, particularly isometric exercises, place unnecessary strain on the cardio-respiratory and musculo-skeletal systems.
This is particularly so for the initial stages of the warm-up period and the final stages of the cool-down period. Nowhere is the hold of convention more pronounced than in the related fields of diet and exercise, where training protocols are often prescribed or implemented based on what is popular or what everyone has traditionally done.
When lifting weights, for example, at a level of intensity or with a load sufficient enough to trigger a need for our body to adapt, a number of hormonal, neuromuscular and chemical events occur. At the end of the study there were similar increases in maximum one repetition lifts and isometric strength tests, but only the strength training group saw an increase in rate of force development (ROFD) and the associated rapid neural activation. Type IIx and type IIb fibers are used primarily for explosive movement or any short term anaerobic activity. The first group performed whole body high intensity strength training for four days a week focused on increasing muscle size and strength.
When we are unable to recover from exercise induced stress, we are said to be overtrained- and overtraining can bring about a long term decrease in performance and muscle related improvements.
That being said, given the large volume of exercise that accompanies conventional endurance based aerobic training, the amount of repetitive stress placed on joints during such forms of continuous exercise and the large amount of energy substrates consumed, it is not surprising that the stage is set for overtraining when it is combined with the rigors of high intensity anaerobic training.[1] The increase in oxidative stress during continued aerobic type training may also have a negative impact on net protein turnover.
The common scenario for people starting an exercise program that includes both weight training and aerobics is that they tend to quit several weeks into the program after an enthusiastic start. High intensity training and high intensity interval training has been shown to produce metabolic endurance adaptations similar to and in some cases superior to aerobic exercise.[24, 25, 26] (Read my article here on high intensity training and endurance) Other studies found that similar increases in maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) and improvements in 1 mile run times can occur not just as a result of high volume continuous endurance training but also from high intensity interval training as well. For this reason, most employ aerobics into their training regime as a way to keep their body weight under control. By no means should this article be construed as a negative hit against such forms of exercise. Also of importance is the increased cortisol production observed in those studies of concurrent aerobic and strength training protocols. Power Athletes and Distance Training- Physiological and Biomechanical Rationale for Change.
Higher mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation following intermittent verseus continuous endurance exercise training. Compatibility of high intensity training and endurance training on hormonal and skeletal muscle adaptations. Intended rather than actual movement velocity determines velocity specific training response. Neuromuscular adaptations during concurrent strength and endurance training versus strength training. Metabolic response of type I and II muscle fibers during repeated bouts of maximal exercise in humans.
A decade of aerobic endurance training: histological evidence for fiber type transformation.
Effect of strength training and concurrent strength and endurance training on strength, testosterone, and cortisol. Effects of different intensities of fatigue in performing a sport skill requiring explosive muscular effort: a test of the specificity of practice principle. Male and female differences and the specificity of fatigue on skill acquisition and transfer performance.
Similar metabolic adaptations during exercise after low volume sprint interval and traditional endurance training in humans. A randomized controlled trial of high versus low intensity weight training versus general practitioner care for clinical depression in older adults.


This review also showed that the reduction in incidence from such interventions carried over for years after cessation of supervised activity.[7] Furthermore, a systematic review and meta-analysis by Gillies et al[8] reported that lifestyle interventions focusing on achieving weight loss as well as increasing physical activity are just as effective as pharmacotherapy for reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance. However, strenuous exercise increases NO, markedly increases ROS, and increases oxidative stress. Overall, it appears that chronic adherence to the recommendations set forth by ACSM and the ADA (i.e. Further research is needed to examine the various interactions between fitness and Glut4 expression and the effects of the various exercise interventions available.
At the end of 3 weeks the diabetic mice that exercised had a 6% improvement in TNF-?, 34% increase in inflammatory markers involved with insulin signaling Interleukin (IL) -1?, 86% increase in IL-g.
Results of the study found that exercise at 80%LT showed an insignificant change in PGC-1? gene expression, where as the 120% LT exercise session had a significant increase in PGC-1? gene expression. The chronic group exercise for 70 minutes (5 minute warm up, 60 minutes exercise, 5 min cool down) 4 times a week at 70% VO2 max for 12 weeks. A combination of aerobic and resistance training may be more effective for BG management than either type of exercise alone. Type2 diabetes using insulin and insulin secretagogues are required supplementing with carbohydrate as needed to prevent hypoglycemia during and after exercise.
In case of type1 diabetes with blood sugars of 300 or more, test within 5 to 10 minutes after start exercising.
Physical activity can help stop the progression of peripheral neuropathy; in some cases, it even reversed it. There are various types of aerobics such as fitness, swimming, step aerobics, cycling, walking, kick boxing etc.
A person could start performing the exercises on a slower rate and gradually increase its intensity. Aerobic kickboxing is used for toning your body and tightening your muscles and makes you look younger. This kind of workout intends to develop the abdominal area, calf, and also the cardiovascular system.
To further reduce the risks of orthopaedic problems, it is preferable that flexibility exercises (e.g.
Callisthenic exercises are, however, particularly useful as warm-up and cool-down exercises for those engaged in more vigorous activities (e.g.
Not much thought is given to whether the programs are necessarily the best practices for the goals sought.
Events that lead to an adaptive anabolic environment that can promote increases in muscle size and or increased ability to generate force.
Its development is paramount for athletic performance since most movements in any sporting discipline are executed as forcefully and as quickly as possible.[1] Even in sports that one might consider primarily aerobic in nature such as basketball or soccer due their extended duration of play actually consist of repeated bouts of explosive movements that make up a very small proportion of playing time. No changes whatsoever were observed in the group doing both strength training and aerobic exercise.[12] Rate of force development refers to the speed at which force can be produced and a faster ROFD means you are able to do quicker and more explosive movements- qualities essential for strength increases as well as athletic performance.
Such fibers are highly resistant to fatigue, have a dense network amount of capillaries transporting oxygen rich blood to them and use triglycerides (fats) as their primary fuel source. Generally, these muscle fibers are found in high distributions on more muscular athletes like bodybuilders, powerlifters and sprinters as an adaptation to the short high intensity training protocols that they regularly engage in. Endurance training appeared to promote a transition from Type II to Type I fibers at the expense of the more powerful Type II fibers. The second group did upper body strength training only and the third group performed aerobic type endurance training only.
Recovery from overtraining can take several days to several weeks [19] and we know now that sustained aerobic exercise combined with strength training may result in less than optimal hormonal profiles and other factors associated with overtraining.
Considering the amount of stress inflicted on the body by combining both modes of training it is no surprise that an otherwise untrained individual would experience fatigue and a psychological aversion to training over time. Considering that aerobic exercise does indeed use fats as an energy source it is easy to see some logic to that approach. For many aerobics exercise offers not only numerous health and performance benefits but psychological ones as well. In two decades of experience as a trainer, I have consistently seen significant increases in muscle mass, strength and power generation in endurance athletes I have worked with when they cease endurance training altogether in the offseason or as a result of injury.
However, more high-quality research is required to further clarify the specific exercise parameters (i.e.
The acute exercise group performed the same exercise for 7 consecutive days.[73] Both groups had muscle biopsies performed at pre-test and after their final exercise session.
The universal recommendation that aerobic exercise needs to be a part of everyone’s strength training regime is a case in point, as volumes of research highlight the negative impact of aerobic exercise on strength training, power development and muscle development. These fibers also produce more power than all the other fibers and rely on an anaerobic (without oxygen) metabolism to create ATP. Interestingly enough, Type IIa fibers in the endurance trained group members actually had a reduced aerobic capacity as a result of the years of training.[14] This decrease in percentage of fast twitch fibers significantly compromises strength and speed capabilities as high intensity conditioning requires an increase in the functional properties of fast twitch Type II fibers relative to slow twitch Type I fibers.
A program consisting of two days of continuous aerobic exercise at 80-85% VO2max for 40 minutes and two days of interval training at 95-100% VO2max. It wouldn’t be because of a lack of willpower or consistency but simply because they are overtrained.
It has the added benefits of improving anaerobic capacity and power output whereas conventional endurance training only positively affects the aerobic energy system.
However, when compared to high intensity anaerobic training modalities, the idea of aerobics as the best way to lose body fat comes into question. However, these increases occurred without any subsequent loss of aerobic fitness capacity when they eventually resumed distance based training.
Results for the chronic exercising group found the young type 2 diabetic group had no change in VO2, insulin sensitivity, insignificant drop in plasma free fatty acid for the chronic group where as the non diabetic group had a 20% increase in VO2, and a significant drop in plasma free fatty acids.[73] The acute exercise study also found a 4x increase in PGC-1? in the control group compared to no increase in PGC-1? in the young type 2 diabetic group. Not that there is anything wrong with aerobic and distance training, as it does indeed serve several purposes.
The physique of a sprinter is far different from that of a marathon runner as the two activities create different physical adaptations thus it should come as no surprise that many studies confirm that continued aerobic exercise can bring about decreases in muscle power. Both movements require the ability to generate larger forces at high speeds, but the sprinter’s acceleration would be almost twice as powerful as the powerlifter.
Their development is an important part of any program where strength and power production is a primary goal, and is an important part of any regiment geared towards building lean muscle mass as other muscle fibers do not develop to the extent of these fibers. Although in a large part individual proportions of muscle fiber types are genetically predetermined, what we do can make a large difference in how our body adapts. The fourth group did a combination of both strength training and aerobic training protocols. Studies confirm that high intensity training methods create greater post exercise energy expenditure and fat utilization [27,28,29,30] and favor negative energy and lipid balance to a greater extent than low to moderate intensity aerobic type exercise.[1] That being said you don’t need aerobics to burn fat if the intensity of your anaerobic training is sufficient and if you maintain a sensible diet.
Many people run or do aerobics not so much for a physical effect but for the high that comes with exercise.
In the end, it is up to you to determine what your goals are and ensure that the program you use helps you attain those goals as opposed to being locked into the idea that aerobic exercise is a universal requirement for everyone. Contrast that with the amount of high speed force required by a baseball player to swing a bat from maximal backswing to contact with the ball where the baseball player generates just under ten times more force than the powerlifter bench pressing 440lbs. Type IIa fibers are a bit of a cross between Type II and Type I fibers as they have a fairly high resistance to fatigue and use both anaerobic and aerobic metabolism to operate. Researchers found a significant increase in exercise induced and total cortisol response after in members of the strength & aerobics training group. High intensity training has been shown to elicit similar psychological advantages as well in elevating mood and combating depression [27] but it would be unrealistic to expect everyone to gravitate towards that form of training. However, most employ aerobic exercise as a way of reducing body fat, building endurance or improving recovery time.
The baseball player would not likely be able to lift as much as the powerlifter, but he or she might be more powerful. They act as a sort of a bridge between long term and short term activity and allow us to perform movements of moderate intensity for periods up to about 30 minutes. Whereas those in the strength training only group saw a decrease in cortisol levels and an increase in testosterone levels. Thus, if your goals revolve around maximizing strength and power for athletic performance, the science of the matter would suggest that adding aerobics to a program of weight training could be counterproductive.
All these benefits can be better achieved through other more anaerobic based and time efficient forms of conditioning such as high intensity training [1,2,3,4] and attention to dietary intake. That being said, you can be strong and not powerful but you can’t be powerful without a certain base of strength as the two are very directly related.
Changes that promote an anabolic environment favorable to increased muscle growth and strength increase. Those seeking the toned and taut look that comes from building quality lean muscle mass while minimizing body fat levels should also note that aerobics isn’t the only way to shed body fat and that they might be better served avoiding it altogether and instead focus on high intensity training protocols and proper diet to reduce body fat and increase aerobic fitness levels. More importantly numerous studies have shown that concurrent aerobic exercise can in many cases negatively impact strength and power gains as well as increase the likelihood of overtraining and bring about negative hormonal responses to exercise even when used in relatively small amounts. On the other hand, runners and endurance athletes as a whole would benefit greatly by adding strength training to their exercise programs as it may help maintain normal levels of testosterone. A group that includes not only athletes whose disciplines require maximum strength and power output but also those seeking the toned, tight and sculpted body and those wishing to increase strength and skeletal muscle as a means of decreasing the motor related decline that comes with aging.




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