Preconception care powerpoint presentation,could i be pregnant with twins and not know it youtube,how long will it take to get positive pregnancy test,symptoms of pregnancy after periods in hindi - Good Point

The prenatal or perinatal period is a sensitive and critical time in which many health outcomes are determined for both the mother and developing baby. Even if a woman has not planned her pregnancy, she can still give her baby a healthy start by following the healthy guidelines for preconception or prenatal health. Congenital Anomalies are the leading cause of death and disabilities in infants and young children in Canada. Environmental toxins and toxicants, such as smoking, drinking alcohol, poor nutrition intake, herbicides, pesticides. Early detection and prevention strategies are very important to ensure the best results for the child.
It is important to ask your healthcare provider to explain the meaning of some medical terms you have heard or read on genetics. The field of study that investigates variations within the human genome (one set of chromosomes).
Threadlike strands (occur in pairs) that carry genes (DNA, RNA, and proteins) and transmit hereditary information. Requires only one copy of an allele in order for that characteristic to be outwardly present in an individual. Recessive genes: Requires two copies of an allele in order for that characteristic to be outwardly present in an individual.
Mutations: A gene is said to be faulty when changes within the gene stop it from working properly. An abnormality of structure, function, or body metabolism that is present at birth (even if not diagnosed until later in life) and results in physical or mental disability, or is fatal. Structural or functional abnormalities present at birth that cause physical or mental disability. Exposure to a condition or habit that may predispose or increase the chances of developing a disease or illness.
The field of study that investigates and evaluates the causes of structural or functional damage to the developing embryo or fetus. The result of the test would enable you and your family to plan the delivery of the baby, in consultation with the physician. This is done if the maternal history includes genetic disorder in the family, recurrent abortion, advanced age, consanguinity, viral infections, exposure to street drugs. Nuchal Translucency Ultrasound Test: This prenatal test is performed with or without early pregnancy testing of the mother’s blood. Maternal serum screen, also known as the “triple screen” or “quad screen”, is a simple blood test used between 15 to 20 weeks of pregnancy to detect neural tube defects and chromosomal disorders. Anomaly Ultrasound: During the second trimester ultrasound, the size of the baby is measured and the technician looks for birth defects and other problems that may be identifiable during this time. If a screening test is abnormal, the physician may order a diagnostic test in order to confirm if a birth defect or other possible problems are present. High Resolution Ultrasound: This ultrasound is typically done during the 18th and 22nd week of pregnancy. Chronic Villus Sampling (CVS): This test is completed by the physician who takes a small piece of the placenta (chronic villus) and tests it for genetic and chromosomal disorders. Amniocentesis: This test is completed by the physician who takes a small sample of the fluid that the baby is surrounded by (amniotic fluid) and tests it for genetic and chromosomal disorders.
Not all congenital anomalies can be prevented; however, most that are caused by environmental toxins or toxicants can be prevented by public health initiatives. If a woman suffers from an abusive partner she should seek help and guidance from a health professional, counsellor, social worker or close friend to discuss her options.
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is a form of diabetes or high blood sugar that starts or is first diagnosed during pregnancy.
GDM often does not have any symptoms for the woman and a glucose screening test is needed to measure blood sugar levels. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) can persist into the postpartum period of a woman’s life and may develop into Type 2 diabetes and abnormal glucose tolerance in the future. It is important that women, who have had these concerns in the past and may have subsequent pregnancies, screen more frequently to detect abnormal glucose metabolism before pregnancy and provides an opportunity to ensure preconception glucose control.
Primary healthcare providers can use the Postpartum DM Checklist as a reminder when seeing women, who have experienced GDM during pregnancy, to review their diabetes screening results between six weeks and six months postpartum. As the health and development of an unborn baby is closely connected to the mother’s health, it is important for the mother to pay attention to her food choices and physical activity levels in order to promote the health of her baby. During pregnancy, a woman will need more calories each day to support the growth of her unborn baby. More than two-thirds of women of childbearing age are overweight or obese, and these numbers have increased dramatically in the last few decades in Canada. The increasing prevalence of preconception overweight and obesity and excessive gestational weight gain is a significant risk factor for adverse maternal and infant outcomes. Weight management strategies are increasingly focusing on pregnancy as a potentially key time to target weight management to address the rapidly increasing prevalence of obesity in the population.
High blood pressure or hypertension in pregnancy can cause problems for both the woman and her baby. Mild to moderate hypertension usually does not have any negative effects on the woman or her baby. Labour prepares a woman’s body for the birth of her baby and indicates that the baby’s delivery is imminent. Labour can begin at any time throughout the pregnancy; however, it usually begins between weeks 37-42 of pregnancy and can last hours to days. Premature labour increases the risk of complications in labour and delivery for both the woman and the baby, as well as the possibility of complications in later life. Sometimes complications for either the mother or the baby may warrant the induction of labour. It is important for a woman to be educated on the signs of preterm labour and call her doctor or go to a hospital if she feels she is in preterm labour or if she experiences pre-labour rupture of membranes. If a woman is overdue, she should talk to her doctor about the options of fetal surveillance or labour induction. Induction of labour is a medical intervention to artificially start labour using an external method to cause the uterus to contract, the cervix to open and the baby to be born. At the prenatal visits, the doctor or health professional will monitor the infant’s development and the mother’s health. Amniocentesis is a test in which a small sample of amniotic fluid is collected from the bag of waters that surround your baby. Amniocentesis and maternal serum screening are testsavailable to all pregnant women in Saskatchewan as part of their prenatal care.

A biophysical profile checks how the baby is developing using two tests, the non-stress test and the ultrasound. Throughout pregnancy many different blood tests will be taken, some only once at the beginning of the pregnancy and others repeated.
A woman’s blood group and Rh (Rhesus) type must be obtained in case a blood transfusion is needed or in the event her Rh is negative and her baby’s is positive.
The blood test for Rubella (German Measles) is to check for antibodies in the mother’s blood. Gestational diabetes often has no symptoms for the woman, but can be harmful to the developing baby. Group B streptococcus, or GBS, is a common type of bacteria found in the vagina and rectum of many healthy women. A non-stress test is used to measure the baby’s heart rate and how it changes with the baby’s movements. An ultrasound is usually done between the 16th and 20th week of pregnancy and may be repeated later in pregnancy. Vaginitis is a common disease that is caused by overgrowth of bacteria that is found naturally in the vagina. A woman can play an important role in checking the health of her baby by counting her baby’s movements. Regular prenatal visits with a health professional are important in order to monitor the development of the baby and the health of the mother throughout the pregnancy.
Down syndrome is an example of chromomosmal abnormality while cystic fibrosis is an example of single-gene disorder.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is an example of a congenital anomaly caused by an environmental toxicant. This is seen when mothers with genetic predispositions are exposed to environmental toxicants or toxins. Preventative strategies include preconception counseling, genetic counseling, maternal serum screening, prenatal screening, public health education, daily use of folic acid, and avoidance of exposure to radiation and other environmental toxicants during pregnancy. Where there is generally no effect on a person’s health or development, then only a single faulty copy of a gene is present.
Some mutations will have no effect and others may have a positive effect and yet others may have a negative effect. These problems often lead to developmental disabilities and can include: nervous system or brain problems, sensory problems, metabolic disorders, and muscular degenerative disorders. These can be numeric which results from the addition of one chromosome to each of the existing pair, or structural which involves some degree of chromosome breakage. The physician would ask you to do these tests if there is a chance of your baby having certain congenital anomality, based on your family history, age , medical or social hsitory.
During the first trimester of pregnancy, specifically during the 11th and 13th week, a blood test along with an ultrasound is done to screen for Down syndrome. If these protein levels are abnormally high or low, then a chromosomal disorder may be suspected. It is called a triple screen if it measures three proteins and a quad screen if it measures four proteins. The picture that is created has more detail to look for birth defects or possible problems that were suggested by the initial screening tests.
This test is usually done during the 10th to 12th week of pregnancy on those women whose first trimester screen resulted in an abnormal test. These include the prevention of sexually transmitted infections, precautionary approach towards household and environmental chemicals, vaccination against rubella, and fortification of basic foods with micronutrients (iodine and folic acid). However, women with GDM have an increased risk of developing Type II Diabetes and developing gestational diabetes in future pregnancies.
Postpartum screening at 6-12 weeks has been recommended for women who had Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, impaired fasting glucose level, or impaired glucose tolerance during pregnancy. If they have changed primary care physicians, women may want to discuss past pregnancies and the need for early screening for GDM, impaired fasting glucose level, or impaired glucose tolerance with their doctor. She should also make healthy food choices, consuming fruits and vegetables, whole grains, low fat protein and low-fat milk product in accordance with Canada’s Food Guide. However, gaining too much weight during pregnancy may lead to health problems and gaining too little weight can increase the risk of low birth weight. If a woman is active before her pregnancy, she can continue to exercise as before making changes as necessary with the changes in her body. The document reports on findings from a review of the literature on maternal obesity, excessive gestational weight gain and pregnancy outcomes, conducted between December 1, 2009 and March 31, 2010.
Further, average weight gain in pregnancy has increased over the last four decades from 10 to 15 kg and a significant number of women are exceeding pregnancy weight gain recommendations. The risks may involve the pregnancy, birth, and later life for both the woman and her infant.
This review of various systematic review and meta-analysis studies examining the effectiveness of weight management interventions during pregnancy discusses potential strategies to enable more effective dialogue between pregnant women and care providers to ensure optimal health and wellness for mom and baby.
Severe cases of high blood pressure can damage blood vessel walls and affect the flow of blood between the mother and her baby. The first stage of labour lasts from the beginning of contractions until the cervix is fully dilated. Sometimes, labour and delivery will occur before the due date (preterm) or will not occur until after the due date (post-term).
Premature babies now have healthier outcomes because of increasing medical technology; however, there are still health risks involved.
They also may have respiratory, feeding or growth problems and they have an increased risk of infection and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS).
If a woman has possible symptoms of preterm labour, or if the symptoms worsen, she should get medical help immediately. However, sometimes, the sac will break before labour begins, leading to fluid leaking from the vagina. As well, some women will conceive earlier or later in their cycles and some babies just need a shorter or longer gestation period. Fetal surveillance involves careful monitoring of the baby and waiting for labour to begin.
Labour is usually induced when the risks of the pregnancy continuing (to either the woman or the baby) are greater than the risks of birth.
The frequency and complexity of the visits will vary depending on the special needs of the baby and mother. The results of the test indicate the chance of having a baby with spinal defects (open neural tube defects) and some chromosome abnormalities (Down syndrome, trisomy 18).

A shot of rhimmune globulin will be given at 28 weeks, again if there is bleeding during the pregnancy, and again after the birth to prevent the mother’s blood from developing antibodies against her baby’s different blood. It can often be treated with diet and exercise alone, but in some cases, insulin injections may be needed throughout pregnancy. This type of bacteria does not cause any problems for adults, but it can cause serious infections in newborns.
Vaginitis is commonly linked to three diseases; bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas, and vulvo-vaginal candidiasis. Keeping track of a baby’s movements allows a woman to get to know her baby and to notice when her baby is quiet and when it is active. A health professional can also provide accurate information to the mother and her partner in order for them to make informed decision regarding prenatal care and any treatment that may be necessary during and after the pregnancy.
They are abnormalities that are present right at birth, but may or may not be discovered until much later in life.
This can be either immediately life threatening, shorten life expectancy, or result in long-term disabilities.
Some maternal infectious diseases, such as syphilis and rubella, can also cause congenital anomalies. An example of a combination of genetic and environmental factors is the cleft lip and palate.
Women in this category include those with advanced maternal age (35 years of age and above), those who have had a previous pregnancy or child with a birth defect, women with chronic health problems, and those who use certain medications. Pregnant women should also take a multivitamin every day that contains at least 0.4 mg of folic acid and contains iron.
A woman’s weight and Body Mass Index (BMI) before pregnancy will help to determine how much weight she should gain during pregnancy.
If a woman is not active before her pregnancy, she should begin an exercise program slowly. However, in some women blood pressure will be increased leading to gestational hypertension. High blood pressure can also occur with proteinuria (protein in the urine), which can be a very serious problem increasing the risk of preterm birth, lowbirthweight, seizures and stroke. Labour later in pregnancy is associated with better outcomes for both the mother and child. If a woman is past her due date, the baby should be monitored closely and labour should be induced if any complications arise.
This is generally done only if the risk to the woman or baby is lowered through labour and delivery or if the woman is over 42 weeks gestation. Preterm labour occurs in approximately 8.2% of all pregnancies and premature babies account for 60 to 70% of all infant deaths and illnesses in Canada. Labour is often induced because there is increased risk to the baby if it stays within the uterus. Additional tests may be done if the mother is in a high risk group due to age, family history or specific health concerns.
This test is performed to see if the baby has certain conditions such as DownSyndrome or Cystic Fibrosis. The ultrasound looks for breathing movement, body movement, muscle tone and amniotic fluid. If a woman has anemia or low hemoglobin levels, she may feel tired and have low energy levels.
If a woman has high amounts of sugar in her blood during a glucose screening, the doctor will request a longer blood test to determine if she has gestational diabetes. This test, therefore, helps to ensure the healthiest outcome for both the woman and her baby. However, there is also risk of infection, pneumonia or meningitis after birth for the infant. Depending on the reason for running the test, it may be repeated regularly (at least once a week) until the baby is born. These diseases can negatively affect the fetus and are associated with preterm birth, therefore, it is important to be tested. The impact of congenital anomalies negatively affects individuals, families, societies, and healthcare systems. Currently, birth defects are the leading cause of death for infants during the first year of life. This is called a deletion and translocation, and results in abnormal chromosome configurations.
Discussing safe ways to engage in physical activity with a healthcare professional will help develop a routine that is best for mother and baby. Hypertension can often be prevented in low-risk women through physical activity before and during pregnancy and early and regular prenatal care.
Women and their partners should educate themselves on the signs of preterm labour and seek medical help if necessary. Labour induction involves taking medications that will start labour instead of waiting for it to begin on its own. Such tests give doctors valuable information that will allow them to provide the best prenatal care for both a woman and her baby.
This test is usually done in later pregnancy for women who may be having pregnancy problems such as a baby that is growing slowly, or is overdue. To raise hemoglobin levels, the woman would be encouraged to eat an iron-rich diet, or to take an iron supplement.
If this occurs, a woman should talk to her healthcare professional, who may conduct other tests to check the health of the baby. If a high level of this protein is detected in the amniotic fluid, then the baby may have a defect indicating an opening of tissue.
Caring for premature babies can also be different than that of full-term infants and new parents should talk with a health professional in order to provide the best care for their premature baby.
However, if this happens before the due date it is called Preterm Pre-labour Rupture of Membranes (pROM).
This test is usually completed during the 15th and 18th week of pregnancy to women who either had an abnormal screening test or have a high risk pregnancy. If there is a neural tube defect (an opening of the tissue of either the spinal cord or head), then this enzyme can pass from the baby into the amniotic fluid (the fluid that surrounds the baby).

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