Nutrition during pregnancy and lactation pdf online,is zofran safe during pregnancy 2015,ivf process video in hindi hd - PDF 2016

Hyperemesis Gravidarum Nausea so severe as to be life threatening Mother may need to be hospitalized for IV and food – parenteral nutrition Zofran given for nausea P.O. Improving clinicians' understanding of effects nutrition can have on maternal health and fetal and neonatal development can have considerable impact on achieving a healthy pregnancy and reducing childhood morbidity. Infection can induce malnutrition by interrupting food intake through anorexia or modifying nutritional requirements. Some diseases are nutritionally related either through excess or deficiency of certain nutrients. Nutrition is a process by which food is eaten, digested and utilized in the body for production of energy, growth, maintenance and regulation of body functions. There is a very important relationship between nutrition and infection, which particularly affects children as illustrated in Figure 1.1. Undernourished children are more prone to infection, recover from illness more slowly and frequently die from infections. To treat a malnourished child, it is important to treat any infection that the child may have. Infections cause fever, loss of appetite, diarrhoea and vomiting, all of which interfere with the intake and absorption of food, and malnutrition follows. Loss of appetite, known as anorexia, is another factor in the relationship between infection and nutrition.
Infections and parasites may be important not only in the aetiology of Protein-Energy-Malnutrition and anaemia but may also aggravate condition such as xerophthalmia (corneal ulceration) as a result of Vitamin A deficiency, an important cause of blindness. It is quite clear that infections make malnutrition worse, and poor nutrition increases the severity of infectious diseases.
It is possible that Protein-Energy Malnutrition can be precipitated by an attack of diarrhoea, because diarrhoea seriously interferes with the absorption of food from the gastrointestinal tract in a child who is already poorly nourished. Antibiotics given for diarrhoea at the health centre or hospital Outpatient Department may interfere with the normal intestinal flora and in this way, they worsen the nutritional state of the child. While diarrhoea can cause malnutrition, kwashiorkor and marasmus are very frequently accompanied by diarrhoea. This relationship between diarrhoea and Protein-Energy Malnutrition is stressed because it is desirable that public health workers consider improving nutrition as a means of lessening the impact of diarrhoeal diseases, and also that medical nutritionists consider using public-health measures to reduce the prevalence of malnutrition.
Intestinal parasites, which may be extremely common, are also closely linked with malnutrition. Educate the community on the importance of immunizing children against the childhood immunisable diseases like measles, tuberculosis and whooping cough. Sensitize the community on better farming methods, like clearing the land at the right time, and using irrigation and fertilizer, if necessary. Create awareness about good nutrition and child health in schools, families and communities. Another way of breaking the nutrition – infection cycle is management of infectious diseases. It is important that individuals with infectious diseases are given both specific treatment and general treatment. It may not be easy to feed the child at first, because the child may have a sore mouth and no appetite.
It is therefore important to have the child weighed and checked regularly to keep a good chart. Decreasing the chances of individuals or the community, coming into contact with the germs or parasites through improving the environment. Improving the defense mechanism of individuals so that, if they are infected, the disease does not become severe. The first method of preventing infectious diseases is improving the environment, or the area in which people live.

The availability of water for drinking, cooking, and washing is one of the main reasons why rural communities develop in a particular area. Inadequate housing which leads to over crowding, lack of ventilation, and dampness favours the transmission of airborne diseases. The control of the factors in the physical environment that may cause disease is often called “Environmental Sanitation”.
It is the responsibility of all health workers to help the community improve the environment. Let us now discuss the factors which cause diseases in our environment and how to control them.
Some diseases like diarrhoea, typhoid and cholera interfere with individual’s nutrition due to loss of nutrients. If a person defaecates near the source of water, the stool goes into the water, and later someone drinks water from the same source. Or the germs may get onto a person’s hands if the person does not wash his or her hands after passing stools.
It is therefore, important to dispose of excreta safely because excreta can be the source of so much sickness in the community if it is accessible to flies and fingers which transfer to food.
Food as well as being essential for growth, development, and energy, may also be responsible for the spread of a number of important diseases. Contamination occurs most commonly from excreta on people’s fingers, or flies, as I described in the previous section. Health education is extremely important for all who handle food, at any stage from production to eating. As fresh food is not always available, various methods of preserving and storing food have been developed. If bacteria can be prevented from getting into food, or conditions unfavourable to their development can be created, then food will remain good for a longer time. You should teach your community how to preserve food to avoid eating contaminated food that can cause infection. Refuse, or solid waste, is produced by man all the time wherever he lives, works or happens to be. Refuse should be put in a pit or burnt so as to keep the area around the houses clean and to avoid spread of diseases like diarrhoea which may lead to malnutrition. Rats and mice live and multiply rapidly where there is a low standard of sanitation and where human food is easily accessible. Flies breed and feed on decaying matter such as vegetable refuse, animal carcasses and particularly, on feaces. You should sensitize the community about fly habits so they will understand when asked to help control them. Disposing of all refuse, any decaying matter, carcasses and faecal matter properly – that is by burying, burning or composting for fertilizer.
Keeping the houses themselves clean, that is placing all leftover food in covered dustbins.
The defences of an individual against infections can be improved in a general way or in specific ways. There are eight important and common childhood immunizable diseases for which there are vaccines.
The vaccines are given in a particular order, at specific ages and with appropriate intervals of time. You should, therefore, advise the community to take their children to a health facility where they will be given immunizations. Besides improving on environmental sanitation and immunizing children, a child should be given enough of the right kinds of foods to be strong and healthy.

6.Are there special foods or ways of feeding that are used for children with the diseases you listed in Number 1? In summary, we have said that poor nutrition lowers the resistance of the whole body to infection. We also said that infectious diseases like measles and whooping cough lead to malnutrition. Finally, we said that three main ways of preventing infectious diseases are by improving the environment, immunizing children and by having proper nutrition.
Content is available under the Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike License unless otherwise noted. This book defines the nutritional requirements with regard to each stage of fetal development and growth, placing scientific developments into a clinical context. Symonds is Professor of Developmental Physiology, Academic Child Health, Division of Human Development, School of Clinical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
The nutritional status of an individual will affect the incidence, severity and duration of infection. Nutrition can modify the complex array of host responses aimed at eliminating infectious organisms. This unit will provide you with the basic knowledge that you need to understand how nutrition, infection and disease relate to each other. It is usually characterized by a recognized etiologic agent, identifiable signs and symptoms with consistent anatomical alterations. When a child is ill with an infectious disease he often has a poor appetite and therefore reduced food intake. For example, children can get diarroea when they play in dirty places and when they eat unclean food, or are bottle-fed with dirty bottles. This is wrong because it causes malnutrition, which will make the child have diarrhoea more frequently.
The best measure of nutrition for a child during and after illness is the weight of the child. Doubled during pregnancy The fetus increases its hemoglobin level to twice its normal level while in the womb. Maternal adaptations to pregnancy and the role of the placenta Leslie Myatt and Theresa Powell; 2. Therefore, with less intake and greater need for food, the infected child with poor reserves is easily tipped into a state of malnutrition.
After birth, the infants hemoglobin level is reduced back to normal as the extra hemoglobin breaks down. Specific problems encountered in pregnancy that pose a nutritional challenge are also considered, including pregnancy in teenagers, multiple pregnancies and pregnancy in those who are vegetarians or vegans. Pregnancy and feto-placental growth: macronutrients Laura Brown, Tim Regnault, Paul Rozance, James Barry and William W. Proper feeding is as important as giving any medicine, and it is more important than giving any health tonic. All doctors, health-care workers or scientists who either care for women, their newborn and growing infants, or who are involved in research in these areas, will find this to be essential reading. Determinants of egg and embryo quality: long term effects of maternal diet and assisted reproduction Kevin D.

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