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Also known as "Endometriosis of the uterus," adenomyosis ( adeno= glands; myo = muscle) is a benign condition which occurs when the glandular cells of the uterine lining ( the endometrium) penetrate deep into the uterine muscle (myometrium) and invade into it. Download a PDF version of the Once Your Become Pregnant information sheet which includes the My Pregnancy Tool Checklist that tracks your pregnancies most important information. If a fetus has an increased nuchal translucency at the time of ultrasound an appointment will be made with either Dr. Download a PDF version of the Once You Become Pregnant information sheet which includes the My Pregnancy Tool Checklist that tracks your pregnancies most important information. No reproduction of the contents of this site is permitted without the written permission or consent of Southern Ontario Fertility Technologies Incorporated. The good news is that most cases of male infertility can be resolved either by treating the problem or using fertility treatments. About 10% to 15% of couples will not be able to achieve pregnancy after one year of unprotected intercourse. Of men diagnosed with male infertility, 10% to 15% will have azoospermia (a complete lack of sperm).
Most of the time, basic semen analysis is all that’s needed to diagnosis male infertility. If a couple doesn’t get pregnant after a year of unprotected intercourse, both the man and woman should be evaluated.
Unlike female infertility (where irregular periods may hint at a problem), obvious symptoms are not common with male infertility. In some cases, hormonal problems may be suspected if a man has abnormal hair growth, low libido, or other indications of sexual dysfunction. Risk factors for male infertility include obesity, age (over 40 — yes, men also have biological clocks), current or previous infection of an STD, smoking, or excessive drinking.
In cases where the above treatments are unsuccessful, or when the cause for male infertility is unknown or untreatable, IUI treatment or IVF treatment may be suggested. IUI treatment, where the sperm are transferred into the uterus via the cervix, is commonly used in cases of low sperm count or quality. In some cases, your doctor may recommend a procedure known as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). If sperm does not appear in the ejaculate, but they are being produced, the doctor may be able to take sperm directly from the testicles, or from the bladder (in cases of retrograde ejaculation), and use that sperm to fertilize an egg in the lab. However, if none of these options are available, or if they are unsuccessful, your doctor may talk to you about using a sperm donor, or considering adoption, to help build your family.
Polycystic ovarian syndrome, which is known as PCOS for short, is one of the primary causes of a woman’s infertility.
PCOS causes fluid-filled sacs, more commonly known as cysts, to develop on a woman’s ovaries, which prevents the ovaries from functioning as usual. Although the most common PCOS symptom are cysts, many women are diagnosed with PCOS even when cysts are not present on the ovaries.
Regrettably, polycystic ovarian syndrome is one of those reproductive syndromes that often go un-diagnosed. Due to the fact that high insulin levels are common in women who have been diagnosed with PCOS, insulin medications are typically prescribed as well. Women can become pregnant when diagnosed with PCOS; however, they are at a higher risk for a having a miscarriage. Some women may find it difficult to become pregnant if they have been diagnosed with PCOS, but many find it easier the second time.

If you need help tracking exactly when you are ovulating, a digital basal thermometer should be considered.
Adenomyosis used to be called "endometriosis interna," since it can look somewhat like endometriosis under the microscope . Vaginal progesterone is often stopped after 10 weeks gestation but some patients will stop taking their progesterone after their NTL ultrasound if they are still concerned as this is the usual time family and friends are informed of your pregnancy.
When this is not the case, a couple facing male infertility may turn to a sperm donor or adoption to help build their family. This relatively simple test involves the man providing a semen sample for a lab to evaluate. IVF treatment may be suggested if IUI is not successful or appropriate, or if female infertility is a contributing problem. Between 20 and 40 years of age, PCOS affects somewhere between five and 10 percent of women. The syndrome also causes abnormal reproductive functions, such as the menstrual cycle and fertility. Some experts claim that PCOS is hereditary; however, others speculate that PCOS and diabetes are somehow connected. The reason for this is due to the PCOS symptoms often being unrelated, so physicians attempt to treat each symptom, or problem, individually rather than evaluating and treating the symptoms together. Some physicians will diagnosis a woman with PCOS once three symptoms have been experienced while other physicians may use the omission of other symptoms in order to diagnosis PCOS. The regulation of insulin levels may be helpful in normalizing the period and promoting ovulation. The surgery is called ovarian drilling and is an outpatient procedure that utilizes a needle to puncture the ovarian cyst. In fact, women with PCOS are said to experience a miscarriage 45 percent of the time, although some experts believe the rate is higher.
Some physicians may prescribe Clomid, or another type of ovulation medication, to give ovulation a push. However, this occurs within the muscle wall of the uterus, not on pelvic surfaces as does endometriosis.Most commonly, the disease affects the back wall (posterior side) of the uterus. The lab uses this sample to measure the amount of semen and the number of sperm, and to evaluate sperm shape and movement.
A woman who has been diagnosed with PCOS has ovaries that are generally as much as three times larger than normal ovaries.
High insulin levels are common in women who have been diagnosed with PCOS, so the link between PCOS and diabetes does seem practical. Physicians are still uncertain whether it is epilepsy or valporate the affects the syndrome; however, it is generally recommended for those who have been diagnosed with the syndrome to switch seizure medications to be sure. Regardless, it is crucial that an accurate diagnosis be provided for proper treatment to be received. In many cases, a birth control pill is prescribed in order to decrease hormone levels, normalize the menstrual cycle and minimize acne appearances. Many women that prefer to ease their PCOS symptoms without medication often are recommended to consume a healthy diet and regular exercise.
As part of the procedure, an electric current is used to eradicate a part of the ovarian cyst. This might be something to discuss with your physician if you are hoping to conceive in the near future, as not all PCOS medications are safe for use during pregnancy or when you are trying to conceive.

When this occurs, the uterus is enlarged usually more than twice the normal size and very hard. However, 30 percent more women may develop PCOS symptoms, but will never be diagnosed with it. When PCOS is left untreated, it can result in a number of health issues, such as endometrial cancer, endometrial hyperplasia, high blood pressure, Type II diabetes, high cholesterol and even heart disease. A prescription of other medications may also be provided to assist with cholesterol levels, hormone levels, blood pressure and cosmetic problems. Glucose and insulin levels can often be maintained when a healthy weight is in order, and it is also helpful in promoting fertility. The success rate of the surgery, however, is less than 50 percent and long-term effects are unclear. Women with PCOS may experience fertility problems due to elevated glucose, insulin or hormone levels, as all of these are known to hinder implantation and embryo development. The disease may be localized with well-defined borders ; or diffuse, meaning it has no limits or borders. PCOS is known to worsen as the years go on, improving at menopause, and a healthy lifestyle is key to protecting yourself. There is also a chance of the formation of scar tissue or the possibility of additional ovary damage that creates an even larger barrier on fertility.
Abnormal levels of insulin may contribute to the poor quality of the egg, which makes it difficult to conceive. These adenomyomas can be located at different depths of the uterine muscle .The disease is often under-diagnosed because many doctors do not consider this possibility .
This disease can only be diagnosed with 100% certainty by doing a biopsy of the uterine muscle, a procedure which is done very rarely ! About 10% of women with adenomyosis have also had endometriosis in other sites such as the pelvic wall, ovaries, fallopian tubes etc. The highest incidence is seen in women in their forties, and though this disease may cause infertility, it usually occurs in women who have already had children.SymptomsAs with Endometriosis, patients with Adenomyosis may not show any symptoms (asymptomatic). However, women most commonly experience excessive, heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding and painful periods (dysmenorrhea). The amount of bleeding and cramps is usually associated with the degree of disease involvement and depth of penetration into the uterine walls.
Extensive involvement of the uterine muscle can also interfere with the normal contractility of the muscle which then leads to excessive bleeding.DiagnosisAn exact diagnosis is often difficult to establish pre-operatively because abnormal patterns of bleeding (dysfunctional bleeding) and fibroid tumors can result in similar symptom patterns. Sometimes during a D&C procedure to remove intra-uterine polyps or small fibroid tumors, uterine tissue is removed , enabling a pathologist to make the tissue diagnosis. Vaginal ultrasound shows the uterus is enlarged and bulky, but it's difficult to make an accurate diagnosis of adenomyosis with ultrasound, since the density of the invading endometrial tissue may not differ sufficiently from the surrounding uterine muscle wall. Occasionally the uterus may be described as slightly enlarged in a symmetrical fashion, with a fuzzy shadowy pattern seen in the muscle wall. MRI can also be used to distinguish adenomyomas from fibroid tumors.Since no medicine eradicates adenomyosis, medical treatments are frustrating for patients as well as physicians .

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