What happens when your pregnant and get sick,conceptions 4hero,pregnancy doctor omaha ne 2014 - PDF Review

We do know that the first three months (the first trimester) is an important time in fetal development. Of course, these so-called toxins are really not toxic at all to healthy adult women, and the placenta does a superb job of filtering out waste and fighting infection. According to many women, a heightened sense of smell, called hyperosmia, is one of their earliest signs of pregnancy.
A few studies have examined scent detection thresholds (the smallest volume of air that still results in odor detection) in pregnant versus non-pregnant women. Given the inconsistency between subjective and objective reports on hyperosmia, research suggests that pregnant women don’t necessarily have a stronger sense of smell, but are perhaps better at identifying smells. A 2008 meta-analysis reported that, compared with women who weren’t pregnant, pregnant women perform worse on some measures of memory.
In a study published in 2014, researchers in the UK administered a spatial recognition memory task to non-pregnant women, as well as to women during each trimester of their pregnancy. Interestingly, a 2008 study reported a decrease in neurogenesis, or birth of new neurons, in the hippocampus of mice during pregnancy. Some have postulated that sleep deprivation or the new-found stress of dealing with a major life change could contribute to absentmindedness during pregnancy. Stay tuned for Pregnancy Brain: Part 2, which will cover clumsiness, cravings, and moodiness. Thrust into the limelight as a result of the Duchess of Cambridge’s hospitalizations, around 1% of pregnant women experience more severe, prolonged morning sickness called hyperemesis gravidarum, which can result in dehydration and weight loss, and may require medical attention.
The most popular theory is that morning sickness is the body’s reaction to the increase in the pregnancy hormone, human chorionic gonadotropic (hCG).


The central nervous system forms during this time, and this delicate process is easily disrupted by toxins circulating in the mother’s bloodstream. Importantly, the area postrema lacks a blood-brain barrier, which means it can detect toxins in the bloodstream and cerebrospinal fluid. Although anecdotes of hyperosmia have existed for a century, scientific literature on the topic is sparse.
But, in a study where six different scents were tested, there was no difference in detection threshold between the two groups. A recent study found that pregnant women were more likely to rate a variety of smells as significantly less pleasant than non-pregnant women. Like most changes that occur during pregnancy, hormonal fluctuations are an obvious possible culprit. In particular, pregnant women tend to perform worse on working (short-term) memory and free recall tasks. Compared with their first trimester, pregnant women scored, on average, 11.7% lower on the memory tasks with each subsequent trimester. The hippocampus is involved in consolidation of short-term to long-term memory, as well as spatial navigation, such as remembering where you parked your car.
Studies have shown a temporal relationship between hCG and morning sickness, meaning that levels of hCG in the bloodstream and frequency of vomiting appear to peak at the same time. A more recent theory suggests that vomiting during early pregnancy serves a beneficial function by ridding the body of food that may unsettle this important developmental stage. Research has shown that the area postrema has receptors for hCG, which may explain why it’s particularly sensitive during pregnancy.


Subjectively, around two-thirds of women rate their sense of smell as stronger than usual while pregnant. When the researchers compared memory test scores to levels of six different hormones measured from blood plasma, however, there was no association – in other words, hormones may not be playing a role in these memory deficits. Similarly, an earlier study showed no differences in brain sizes between pregnant and non-pregnant rats except for the hippocampus. A change in daily routine with a new pregnancy might disrupt some women’s memory abilities, too.
Another study reported that, compared with women who aren’t pregnant, pregnant women are particularly sensitive to odors such as cooking foods, cigarette smoke, spoiled food, perfumes, and spices. That may explain why things like cigarette smoke and spoiled food become particularly pungent.
This suggests that hormonal changes may be acting on higher-order cognitive processes related to our perception of odors. The hippocampus was smaller in pregnant rats, and also related to deficits in spatial memory. No studies have imaged the brains of pregnant woman to examine potential changes in the human hippocampus, though.



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