Term for pregnancy after 35 years,ways get pregnant boy youtube,the miracle pregnancy book free download games,molar pregnancy and fertility - Downloads 2016

A late-term abortion often refers to an induced abortion procedure that occurs after the 20th week of gestation or during the third trimester of pregnancy. The point in time where an abortion is considered late-term is often more correlated with “viability” than anything else. The most common technique for abortions after 14 to 15 weeks of pregnancy is “dilation and evacuation”.
For information on clinics near your area and the services they offer follow this link to a nationwide database. The site is maintained by students from the University of California, Santa Barbara who have studied advanced topics in human sexuality.
Parents must accept the fact that children with ADHD have functionally different brains from those of other children.
Fostering the development of a child with ADHD means that you will have to modify your behavior and learn to manage the behavior of your child. The goal of behavioral modification is to help your child consider the consequences of an action and control the impulse to act on it.
It’s important to consistently reward good behaviors and discourage destructive ones, but you can’t be too strict with your child.
Create a special, quiet space for your child to read, do homework, and have time-outs from the chaos of everyday life. Another way to control the impulse to speak before thinking is to teach your child how to pause a moment before talking or replying.
It sounds simplistic, but take things one day at a time and remember to keep it all in perspective. Remember that you are the parent and, ultimately, you establish the rules for acceptable behavior in your home. Many parents today are concerned that their kids may be spending too much time on the Internet. Parents around the world are concerned that their kids may be spending so much time in the “screen world”, that their kids may be missing out on real life experiences. It’s estimated that kids and teens between the ages of 8 to 28 spend about 44.5 hours each week in front of digital screens. About 23% of kids and teens have reported that they actually feel as if they have addictions to video games.
However, it’s up to parents to regulate the amount of time their kids spend online each day. Just like any other addiction, Internet addiction can be a way for your kids to escape the real world.
Talk with your child about the things you read and hear, especially the things you find interesting. If you demonstrate excitement about learning and are open to your children pursuing their own interest areas, it will be hard for them to resist the opportunities.
Article provided by wikiHow, a wiki building the world’s largest, highest quality how-to manual. Do not place a baby on a waterbed, sofa, soft mattress, pillow, or other soft sufrace to sleep. Even women who put a lot of thought and planning into eating the right foods can miss out on important vitamins. The National Council on Folic Acid recommends that all women who can become pregnant consume 400 micrograms (mcg) of folic acid daily to prevent serious birth defects of the brain and spine.
Studies have shown that, if taken before and during early pregnancy, folic acid can dramatically reduce the number of birth defects of the brain and spine called neural tube defects. Half of all pregnancies are unplanned; that’s why it’s important to start taking a multivitamin with folic acid now, even if you’re not planning a pregnancy. Getting 400 mcg of folic acid each day might also help protect against disease and promote long-term health. Taking a daily multivitamin containing 400 mcg of folic acid is an easy way to make sure you get enough of this B-vitamin. In today’s fast-paced world, busy schedules often make it difficult to be sure you’re getting the vitamins and minerals you need from your diet every day. Replace standard bulbs with low-heat CFL (compact fluorescent lights) or LED (light emitting diodes) bulbs as standard light bulbs emit a lot of heat. Take cool rather than hot showers and keep the bathroom exhaust fan on for about 20 minutes afterward to remove excess heat and humidity. If you are worried that your child has one or more of these signs, take your child to a doctor or hospital.
If your child is going outdoors, use an SPF 30+ sunscreen on your child’s face, hands and any other parts of the body that aren’t covered by clothes.
Recently, researchers have been looking at whether sunscreens harm babies younger than one year old (most authorities don’t recommend sunscreen under the age of six months).
If you use only small amounts of sunscreen on uncovered areas such as the face and hands, and use clothing to cover most of the body, rather than slathering your baby’s legs, arms and body in sunscreen), the tiny amount of sunscreen that might be absorbed shouldn’t harm your baby.
Never leave babies or young children alone in a car, even to run a quick errand, no matter what the weather.
Make sure air can circulate around them – for example, by removing any padding around the cot. Cover mattresses and waterproof sheets with thick layers of cotton sheets to absorb perspiration and prevent prickly heat rash. See How to be patient for some more general ideas on letting a little more patience into your life. If you do not allow children to do things their way, this takes away their autonomy and potentially stunts their ability to discover things for themselves.
If you feel that a situation is getting out of hand with a child, take a step back and create space between you and the child. A child who is given time with an adult soaks up the message that the busyness of adult life can wait, that childhood is a good time, and that there is no need to grow up too quickly. Another kind of patience that can be hard to find is when dealing with an infinitely stubborn child. If impatience is running your life and threatening your relationships, consider seeking professional help to gain some insight as to why. We recommend that your child eat 3 meals per day plus snacks in between, from a variety of foods. Offer your child plenty of variety, and don’t worry if they refuse some things – they’ll make up for it by eating other foods. Present your child’s food in different ways, like offering meat as hamburgers or meatballs. To help prevent choking offer food that matches children’s chewing and grinding ability, and avoid small, round, hard foods like nuts and grapes.
Young children need some fat in their diets for energy and growth, but it’s important not to have high-fat and high-sugar foods (eg, chips, lollies and ice cream) every day.
Try to offer snacks and treats well before mealtimes so your child has time to get hungry again.
Helping children to learn to behave the way you want them to is one of the most important jobs of being a parent.
Know the times when your child is likely to have a tantrum, such as when they are tired, hungry or frustrated – have food and drink on hand or give them something else to do to calm them down. Your health care provider will be able to support you with strategies to manage your child’s tantrums.
Look after your child’s first teeth by brushing them twice a day – after breakfast and before bed. Regular check-ups of your child’s teeth increase the chances of finding and treating any tooth decay (holes) early. If your child accidentally bumps their teeth, take them to a dentist, even if the teeth still look all right. Teaching a child to read is a fulfilling and educational process, both for the parent and child. As your child ages to elementary school level, try reading them books that might be above their reading level but that have an interesting or engaging story to get them interested. Look for books that combine other senses along with the reading, to help your small child to interact as you tell them the story. Help to teach your child critical thinking skills by asking open-ended questions about stories.
Because your child may be touching and reading the books often, be sure to choose ones that have wipeable pages and that aren’t incredibly sentimental.
A fancy bookshelf may seem like the most attractive option, but until your child is in school focus on the utilitarian purposes of book storage.
It is easier for children to develop phonemic awareness when words are broken down into their smallest parts.
Don’t move onto explicit phonics until your child has developed adequate phonemic awareness.
Don’t use whole stories or books yet; have your child read from word lists or from a basic story (not focusing on the plot).
Make a questions list that your child can read; their ability to read and understand the provided questions is nearly as helpful as answering the questions themselves. You’ll notice an enhanced reading ability as your child learns to spell by decoding and sounding out words. Reading out loud doesn’t have to be limited to stories; whenever you are around words, have your child sound them out to you.
If your child has no patience to learn to read and would rather watch TV, try turning on the closed-captions and encouraging them to follow along. Whether you’re in the backyard, at the beach or at a community swimming pool, keep your toddler safe by following these simple tips. Whenever infants or toddlers are in or around water, an adult should be within arm’s reach to provide active supervision.
Every child is different, so enroll your child in swimming lessons when you feel he or she is ready. Remember that things such as water wings, noodles and other swimming aids are fun toys for kids, but they should never be used in place of a U.S.
Install a door alarm, a window alarm or both to alert you if a child wanders into the pool area unsupervised. Most women sail through pregnancy and the postpartum period but it is good to be prepared for any untoward incidents. Have had fluid gushing or leaking from your vagina (the amniotic sac has ruptured) AND you know or think the umbilical cord is bulging into your vagina (cord prolapse). A common method of checking your baby’s movement is to count the number of kicks or moves you feel in an hour. Uterine tenderness, unexplained fever, or general weakness (possible symptoms of infection). Between 20 and 37 weeks, more than four to six contractions in one hour could indicate preterm labor. After 37 weeks, contractions every five minutes for one to two hours could indicate labour. Between 20 and 37 weeks, preterm labour could be indicated by low back pain or pelvic pressure that does not go away, or intestinal cramping with or without diarrhea. Get emergency help if you think you are in danger for example if you have a seizure or pass out. Your breasts are painful or red and you have a fever, which are symptoms of breast engorgement and mastitis.
Your vaginal bleeding seems to be getting heavier or is still bright red four days after delivery, or you pass blood clots larger than the size of a golf ball. You have a severe headache, visual problems, or sudden swelling of your face, hands, or feet. You buy those little mittens to protect your infants precious little face, but eventually those mittens have to come off and here is how you can trim those thin, sharp finger nails.
Studies have warned that prolonged exposure to screens and devices — televisions, computers, tablets, phones, and the like — may cause attention, socialisation, emotional and physiological problems in children. That being said, when regulated well, there are devices and programmes that can engage a child in a more compelling manner and aid in their development.
Yes, the first step to getting children interested in life is for parents to be engaged themselves. One of the most effective means of getting a child to participate is to engage them with activities that stimulate the senses. For the more adventurous, attempt to create funkier supplies that would befuddle the minds of your young ones. The creation of sounds and music is another sensory activity that warrants its own introduction. Getting a pet might seem like even more work for the already overwhelmed working parent, and it is. Furthermore, consider adopting a pet from a rescue shelter — teach your child the importance of responsible and the sanctity of life before involving them in the decision-making process. DESCRIPTION: While some earlier scholars would have labeled these maps as a€?the epitome of medieval European cartographya€?, due to the very ecclesiastical form and content, they were, indeed, an exception in this perioda€™s mapmaking. In his recent book, Body-Worlds, Opinicus de Canistris and the Medieval Cartographic Imagination, Karl Whittington writes that on the 31st of March, 1334, this Italian priest named Opinicus de Canistris fell sick.
As mentioned above, Opicinusa€™ drawings survive in two manuscripts, both kept in the Vatican Library in Rome. There is no way of knowing how many other drawings Opicinus completed, and certainly no reason to believe that all or even a majority of his works have survived.
Victoria Morsea€™s 1996 doctoral dissertation for the first time performed a large-scale study in order to demonstrate the logic of Opicinusa€™ works. It was not unusual during the later Middle Ages to bring together the body and the earth in pictorial representations.
The relationship on the page between texts, diagrams, and pictures throughout Opicinusa€™ work is an especially important issue.
According to Whittington the captions on most of the drawings seem to interact with them in the following way: Opicinus created the visual material first, usually to address a particular theological question or theme. The elaborate, complex, and beautiful drawings that Opicinus created in the years following his illness and vision are the subject of this monograph. What we see, then, is an embodied map a€” a picture of the eartha€™s surface that is also a depiction of human bodies. Opicinusa€™ beliefs and hypotheses about the earthly, the heavenly, and the human are encoded in the very structures of his drawings.
Over half of Opicinusa€™ 80 drawings in the Vaticanus and Palatinus manuscripts include at least part of a portolan chart. Opicinusa€™ body-maps are far more complicated than any of the examples above, and the question of what they mean is more difficult to answer. In a number of drawings, Opicinus used the most basic form of the body-worlds - presumably the one that he describes having received in his 1334 vision.
As in all of Opicinusa€™ drawings of the body-worlds, each figure takes on a specific identity, though in this example these identities are complex.
It seems most likely that the figure depicts a sort of hybrid a€” a personification of Christianity, with Christ at its head and its heart, surrounded by elements of the cosmic order. Its chest is bare (we can see the cloak falling away from the shoulder on the northern coast of France), but the lower roundel covers the place where a breast is often revealed in Opicinusa€™ female European figures.
In three folios near the end of the Vaticanus manuscript, Opicinusa€™ cartographic drawings add one more layer of meaning on top of the basic arrangement outlined above: he superimposes a gridded local map of Pavia, his hometown, on top of a single portolan chart. According to Whittington the precise placement and scale of the two maps is certainly not accidental; the maps have been placed in a precise relation to one another in order to create and explain correspondences between them. In contrast to this relatively simple correspondence, another caption shows how complicated his spatial interpretations could become. As a final word on this drawing, I want to return to one more visual feature: the form of the local city grid. In the two previous examples, Opicinus constructed a drawing using only one portolan chart; on fol.
This doubling and mirroring of the portolan chart served a specific purpose: as Victoria Morse has argued, it allowed Opicinus to contrast the world as it was seen and known with the possibility of an alternate world converted to a state of grace. Each of the four land-figures bears an emblem on its chest a€” these signify the intention or motivation of each character.
On the bottom half of the page, however, similar captions placed on the white chart actually point to cities on that chart, rather than on the one below. Even after all of the figures in the drawing have been identified, its meaning remains elusive. There is one caption on the page that offers a tantalizing comment on its form and content. This quoted caption outlines the general principle that Opicinus follows in these drawings that employ mirroring or correspondence a€” that the multiplied forms are generators of multiple truths and realities.
Many Vaticanus drawings contain more explicit imagery of birth and reproduction; metaphors of birth and rebirth seem to have been one of Opicinusa€™ primary ways of expressing the spiritual transformation that he underwent following his illness of 1334.
The interest in the local ramifications of the pregnancy of the European figure is explored even more closely in two drawings in which Europe is actually pregnant with a tiny map a€” fols. DESCRIPTION: A good example of Protestant theologian Heinrich Buntinga€™s Europa, Europe as a Queen. Late-Term Abortion is an extremely controversial practice, when compared to abortions that take place earlier in the pregnancy. This process is similar to the surgical abortion illustrated in the image above but requires a larger cervical opening. For some, a hospital facility offering abortion services is not available in the immediate area and it is necessary to travel great distances for help.
Some states have specific laws regarding the amount of time a woman must wait before she can get an abortion.
If a woman finds that her baby has fatal or serious health problems, she may want to terminate the pregnancy. VBAC and uterine rupture story.Intrapartum Rupture of the Uterus Diagnosed by UltrasoundSpontaneous uterine rupture is a serious and potentially catastrophic event and must be considered by emergency physicians in pregnant patients with abdominal pain. Normal rule-making and household routines can become almost impossible, so you’ll need to adopt different approaches. While children with ADHD can still learn what is acceptable and what isn’t, their internal regulation makes them more prone to impulsive behavior. This requires empathy, patience, affection, energy, and strength on the part of the parent. Color coding chores and homework can keep your child from becoming overwhelmed with everyday tasks and school assignments.
Television, video games, and the computer encourage impulsive behavior and should be regulated. Encourage more thoughtful responses by helping your child with homework assignments and asking interactive questions about a favorite television show or book. Children mimic the behaviors they see around them, so if you remain composed and controlled during an outburst, it will help your child to do the same. If your child has accomplished two of the three chores you assigned, don’t worry about the third, uncompleted task. ADHD may not be visible on the outside, but it’s a disability and should be treated as such.
Be patient and nurturing, but don’t allow yourself to be bullied or intimidated by your child.
These days, kids and especially teens need the Internet to research information for school projects.
Plus, kids don’t like to take time away from their digital screens to sit down to healthy meals. This can lead to an internet addiction, which just like any other type of addiction, can destroy a healthy balance of interests and activities in your teen’s life.
And, make sure it’s situated so that you can easily view the screen when you step into the room.
Troubling situations and painful feelings may be suppressed, which will only cause bigger problems later in life.
A passion for learning is quite different from just studying to earn a grade or to please parents or teachers.
If they show curiosity about a hobby, area of study, sport, or instrument, encourage and support them in any way your finances allow. School, educational games and television, and a shelf full of books all can’t accomplish what you can in the education of your child. Fostering independence in your child is very important for their brain development and how they feel about learning. Attend school functions, volunteer in the classroom if possible, and communicate with the teacher. Some things are not taught in a class room, but that doesn’t mean they are worth exploring. If your child makes a low grade, don’t scream and yell, but instead show them what they did wrong and help them understand. Please edit this article and find author credits at the original wikiHow article on How to Encourage Your Child to Love Learning. It is found in most standard multivitamins, as well as in fortified foods like cereal, bread and pasta. New research also suggests that folic acid might reduce the risk of other birth defects, such as cleft lip and palate and some heart defects. New research indicates that folic acid may reduce the risk of heart disease, as well as colon, breast and cervical cancer. Preparing healthy meals often takes a back seat to other activities, and even people who eat a balanced diet every day may not get enough folic acid from their diet alone. Check your food in the oven by looking through the glass rather than opening the door and cover pots to reduce indoor humidity.
Make sure your ceiling fans run in a counterclockwise direction to help keep you cool during evaporation. Sunscreen works better if you put it on 20 minutes before you go outside, and reapply it every two hours.
They have studied whether a baby’s thin skin can absorb chemicals from sunscreen, which might damage the baby’s organs.
To cool hot little bodies, try frequent lukewarm baths, or sponge your child down with a cool face washer. Patience gives us time to reflect, to slow down and think about the world and the things we’re doing.
When the daily chores mount up and everyone is rushing about, sometimes it’s easy to take one another for granted. Allow a child to try new things often, so as to give them a sense of self-trust and personal responsibility. Children are ready to trust and soak up information from the people who care for them and spend time with them. Instead of seeking to control, patience allows the child to grow at their own pace, rather than being pushed into doing things before being ready. This breathing space is important for both of you, after which you can express your thoughts and establish boundaries when you are collected, rather than channeling your concerns through frustration.
It can be very hard to be patient sometimes in a world where teaching Mozart in the womb and expectations of exemplary behavior from preschool are considered the norm. Sometimes our greatest impatience arises when we allow our own endeavors such as work, personal pursuits, hobbies, sports, etc., to get in the way of spending time with children. The point of life is being with one another, a gift that can only be imparted to a child in the doing. In this case, part of the trick is to have a good sense of humor, not at the child but about the situation. People who have adopted or fostered children who have experienced hardship or horrors, such as living through a war, a famine, or violence of any kind, often attest to the need for waiting patiently while the child learns to trust again, to unfurl from the cocoon of safety in which the child has wrapped themselves up as they realize that people do care again and that they are respected. At the core of severe impatience could be psychological issues that can be successfully worked through with the right kind of help and support.
Please edit this article and find author credits at the original wikiHow article on How to Be Patient With Kids. If your child is rejecting certain foods and drinks, there’s a range of things you can do to encourage their eating.
Always make sure your child sits down while they’re eating and drinking and that an adult is with them. If your child drinks more than 2 cups of milk (500 ml) a day, they may not eat well because they’re already full. If you want them to behave in a kind and calm way, they need to see you often being kind and calm. Make sure that everyone who looks after your child agrees on TV time, eating, playing, bedtime and general expectations. They’ll feel a lot safer when they know what the limits are, even though they will test them sometimes.
Here are some tips to stop tantrums before they start, and to help your child when they do have a tantrum. You may find it easier to stand behind your child and gently tilt their head back as you brush. Don’t rinse with water, because a small amount of fluoride toothpaste left around the teeth will help to protect them.
To protect your child’s teeth, give them low-sugar snacks between meals such as fruit, fresh vegetables, yoghurt and other dairy foods.
Do not give your child drinks that have natural or added sugar, such as fruit juice, cordial, fizzy drinks, flavoured milks and chocolate drinks. Whether you home school your kids or just want to give your child a head-start, you can begin teaching your child to read at home.
As with all things, it’s difficult to get good at something without having a bit of exposure to it. It’s no good if you have books around, but located in places that your child can’t easily take them.
This can be done in two ways: create your own mini-library at home by collecting dozens of books in your child’s reading level, or make weekly trips to the local public library together to check out books.
Before you even start getting into the alphabet and sound specifics, help your child recognize that the lines on the page are directly correlated to the words you are speaking.


In the recent past, some companies have advertised specialized flashcards to help babies, toddlers, and preschool age children to read. When your child has developed word awareness, begin breaking down words into individual letters. One of the most important steps in teaching reading is associating a spoken sound with a letter or letter-pair. Avoid confusion and build a solid foundation by working at a steady pace through all of the speech sounds.
This can be done with the clapping game (clapping out each syllable in a word) or by sounding-out words into their individual letters. Rhyming teaches phonemic awareness and letter recognition, in addition to the most basic English words. Traditionally, children are taught to recognize a word based on its size, the first and last letters, and the general sound. If they cannot associate sounds with letters or letter pairs quickly, they need a bit more practice before moving onto complete words. Classically known as ‘sounding out’ words, decoding is when a child reads a word by making the sounds of each individual letter, rather than trying to read the whole word at once.
Regional accents and weak auditory skills make it hard for children to say most sounds in an academically correct way. Preschoolers, kindergartners, and first graders are very concrete in the way they think and cannot handle complicated concepts. Certain words in the English vocabulary are spoken often, but don’t follow the typical phonics rules. Odds are, your child will be in school by the time they are able to read and will be given their own reading material by their teachers.
Similar to when you were reading stories to your child, every time your child reads ask them questions about what they’ve just read. Reading is a necessary precursor to writing, but as your child develops reading skills have them practice their writing in conjunction.
You’ll be given a better idea of your child’s reading ability when they read out loud, and they’ll be forced to slow down their reading to correctly sound out words. Road signs are a great example of something your child sees on a daily basis, and can practice reading out loud to you.
They can recognize some shapes and correlate them to pictures, but it is not really reading. Please edit this article and find author credits at the original wikiHow article on How to Teach Your Child to Read. Families who have meals at the table with no distractions (such as mobile devices or television) are found to be more likely to be a healthy weight.
We know it’s hard to get everything done without a little multitasking, but this is the time to avoid distractions of any kind.
It will give you tremendous peace of mind – and the more peace of mind you have as a parent, the better. Make sure backyard pools have four-sided fencing that’s at least 4 feet high and a self-closing, self-latching gate to prevent a child from wandering into the pool area unsupervised. This is quite rare, but if it happens, immediately get down on your knees and drop your head and upper body lower than your buttocks to decrease pressure on the cord until help arrives. You are passing blood clots and soaking through a new sanitary pad every hour for two or more hours. They do not grow as fast, but you don’t want your baby scratching up his or her little legs. Please edit this article and find author credits at the original wikiHow article on How to Trim an Infant’s Fingernails. However, in this day and age, many parents forgo quality bonding time with their children simply because it is easier to thrust a smart device under their child’s nose and allow them to entertain themselves. Still, engaging a child through real-life activities and parental interaction are crucial and instrumental to their well-being and holistic growth.
Put down your phones, stow away your tablets, set aside your e-mails and place all of your attention on your little ones. This way, they are more aware with their surroundings and are more likely to explore the world around them. Try combining corn starch with water to form a more viscous, semi-liquid, semi-solid resource that children can marvel over and experiment with. The hands-on experience coupled with the aromas — fragrant or otherwise — will be more than a stimulating experience. Create a challenge of recording as many different sounds as possible within a period of time.
However, rearing pets is also a great way of teaching a child the virtues of responsibility and commitment from young.
Opicinus was a minor functionary and scribe at the papal court, which had moved to Avignon some thirty years earlier, and luckily for us he kept a kind of day-book that still survives.
Numerous scholars such as Camille, Kris and Salomon point to Opicinusa€™ a€?frequenta€? self-representation in the drawings.
Medieval mappaemundi often organized the land-forms of the earth around the shape of a crucifix (sometimes even a cruciform body), medieval astrological drawings commonly showed human figures at the center of cosmic and planetary networks, and the concepts of macrocosm and microcosm had been fully developed for a millennium. It is possible, and productive, to partially separate Opicinusa€™ texts from his diagrams and pictures, especially those that represent his body-worlds vision. Opicinusa€™ works present a conundrum when it comes to audience and reception, since there is no textual or visual evidence that anyone ever actually saw the drawings. Their unusual forms complicate our most basic assumptions about what and how medieval artists could represent. These structures form the core of the drawingsa€™ disorientation and strangeness a€” maps are piled on top of other maps, sometimes transparent and sometimes opaque, in a seemingly endless play of permeability and superimposition. Some drawings contain one chart, others up to four; sometimes the continents and seas are embodied, while other times they are left plain.
His drawings are so diverse and disorienting that generalizations about their design or meaning are difficult and often misleading. These drawings depict a single Africa and a single Europe, separated by the Mediterranean Sea.
The figure of Africa appears to be a woman; she is labeled Babilon maledicta [cursed Babylon] by the small caption above her forehead.
Captions suggest various identities: Christ, Opicinus, and a female personification of prudence are all indicated.
The face is smooth and beardless (many male figures in Opicinusa€™ work wear beards), and has long, flowing hair.
According to Whittington it is mainly a confrontation between two figures: a figure of Babylon (probably representing Islam) and a figure of Christianity. This interplay between the local and the global is not unusual within Opicinusa€™ texts and captions on other drawings, which often comment on the everyday world of his youth and family (we must remember that he made these drawings in Avignon, not Pavia), but the specific visual alignment of parts of Pavia with parts of the Mediterranean region is unique in these three drawings. In the bottom right corner of the page is a caption that reads, a€?Just as the islands of purgatory pay a tax to the Roman Church, so too the Chapel of St. Opicinus seems to say that when any two maps are placed in relation to each other, if they are true empirical representations of Goda€™s created earth, one will find correspondences between them. One interprets the significance of the placement of Opicinusa€™ home parish district, around the Chapel of Saint Mary, delineated with a red outline near Tunisia and Sicily on the lower map.
84v each part of Opicinusa€™ hometown is given multiple interpretations, usually based on its placement on the portolan chart, but other times simply based on etymological connections, family stories, dreams, or coincidence. Certainly the drawing contains multiple levels of reality: it is an allegorical depiction of three body-world characters in contact and dialogue, a depiction of the structural connections between local and regional realities, and a series of interpretive musings about the significance of these connections for Opicinusa€™ own life and family. As the reader may already have noticed, this grid strongly evokes the rhumb-line grids that were placed over contemporary portolan charts.
61r he uses the skeletons of two portolan charts of the Mediterranean region, which have been rotated and overlapped to form one image. 61r, parts of each of the charts remain intact, while others are distorted or hidden by the overlapping forms.
In this particular example, the map shows the natural world at the bottom and the spiritual world at the top: labels on the drawing indicate that Affrica naturalis ypocrita and Europa naturalis occupy the continents of the smaller chart while Affrica spiritualis and Europa spiritualis talk to each other in the larger chart above.
Europa naturalis bears a tarasque (a river demon from the Rhone) and Europa spiritualis contains an image of Christ showing his wounds, his side-wound situated suggestively close to Avignon, where Opicinus was living when he made the drawing. The message itself is simple enough: one must abandon the external senses that lead to sin in order to follow the internal senses to redemption. 58r of the Vaticanus Opicinus combines four small embodied portolan charts to create juxtapositions between the four seasons, the four cardinal directions, and the four states of the soul. 82r, we see many of the principles and techniques of the other drawings pushed to the limits of recognition and interpretability.
On its surface lie two complete portolan outlines that retain the white color of the paper. On the upper half of the page, the brown labels all point out the location of cities on the colored chart, even though all lie on the space of the white chart; they indicate the continued presence of the map below, even when it is obscured by the upper chart. At the precise center of the drawing, a cruciform shape is formed by the two mirrored shapes of Asia Minor and the Holy Land; Asia Minor forms the two arms, and the land below forms the body of a cruciform vestment. While other drawings seem designed to convey a single allegory or a primary confrontation between figures (which are often reinforced by the particular cartographic forms that Opicinus chose for the drawing), this drawing resists this type of analysis. According to the letter, this is a heretical position, since one species cannot be transformed into another. 84v, there are several depictions (or suggestions) of male genitalia in the Vaticanus manuscript, each of which is unique. 1350), a Pavian who worked at the papal court in Avignon, drew a series of imaginative maps, while acknowledging in a text written between 1334 and 1338 his use of nautical charts.
That is because the fetus is in its final stages of development and at the brink of being able to survive outside the uterus. Some doctors consider an abortion to be late-term after 16 weeks while others describe a late-term abortion as at or after 20 weeks. However, viability can vary greatly among pregnancies and cannot be judged after a specified amount of weeks. Some states also mandate parental consent, and a teenage girl would need time to talk to her parents about the situation. Also, if a woman fears that her health is in danger because of issues such as diabetes or heart problems, she may want to terminate the pregnancy to save her own life.
It can be frustrating and disheartening to cope with constant impulsive behavior from your child, but there are ways to make life easier.
The second is negatively reinforcing bad behavior by following it with appropriate consequences, leading to the extinguishing of bad behavior (negative reinforcement). If your child acts out in public, they should be immediately removed in a calm and decisive manner. Simple daily tasks, such as having your child lay out his or her clothes for the next day, can provide essential structure. By decreasing time with electronics and increasing time doing engaging activities outside the home, your child will have an outlet for built-up energy. Just as your child will need to take breaks while studying, you’ll need your own breaks as well. Take time to breathe, relax, and collect your thoughts before attempting to pacify your child. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health (NIH) reports that “screen time” as a whole is the problem.
And, when used properly, it can be a reliable source of information for kids who simply love to read or want to learn more about specific topics.
If screen time seems to be a problem, spend more time talking to your kids to find out why.
Those who develop a love of learning at an early age continue the process throughout their lives and are generally more successful, interesting, and happier than those who don’t. Sometimes, activities seem too difficult for your child only because you haven’t encouraged them to do it yet. For good grades, don’t buy big, expensive things to celebrate (at least not all the time).
Also, tighten all nuts, bolts, and screws every few months, and check the mattress support hangers and hooks regularly. To get enough folic acid, women should take a daily multivitamin and eat fortified grains as part of a healthy, well-balanced diet. These illnesses often lead to a slight rise in temperature by themselves but, in hot weather, this could lead to dehydration.
Even a very young child can indicate their likes and dislikes; allowing these to express themselves at appropriate occasions is important. Taking time now and then to express your gratitude for your children will help you to respect them for the unique, individual beings they are, and helps them to see the importance of valuing others openly. While their attempts might sometimes cause you frustration and worry, it is important to allow children to show you their way of doing things.
Trying to control children lacks respect for their own self and is a way of trying to insert your way of thinking and preferences onto them. No matter what the competitive approach insists upon, patience gives you a means for remaining calm within yourself, to give you the perspective to recognize the readiness of a child at their own developmental pace, independent of external standards. Whether we’re parenting, caring, teaching, working or volunteering with children, nobody is immune from impatience at times. Find amusing, fun, and happy things to entice the child out of their stubbornness and to becoming involved with whatever it is that you’re doing.
This kind of patience takes a special kind of reserve but it is absolutely vital if the child is to learn to trust again. Healthy baby teeth usually mean healthy adult teeth too, so it’s important that you look after your child’s first teeth.
Use a small toothbrush with soft bristles and a smear of regular-strength fluoride toothpaste. In order to get your child interested in reading, you should be reading to them on a regular basis. Keep books low to the ground and in typical play-areas so that your child begins to associate them with play activities.
Spend a minimum of ten minutes a day reading when your child is around, so that they see you enjoying the activity on your own. Accompany this by pointing to words on the page to help them connect the lines on the page with the sounds that form words. Having a variety of books on hand (especially with an older child) will add interest for reading, and help to incorporate more vocabulary into their knowledge base.
However, these don’t teach reading skills, but rather teach the children to associate a particular line drawing (word) with a correlated image. Although the alphabet song is the most classic means of teaching the alphabet, try getting creative. Read nursery rhymes to your child, and then eventually make lists of easy-to-read rhymes such as mop, top, flop, pop, and cop.
This method of teaching is known as implicit phonics - working from the largest piece down. By age four, most English speaking children already have an excellent grasp of grammar and in due time, they will learn all the formal grammatical rules. Help them to read these whole stories by encouraging explicit phonics use, and recognizing vocabulary. At first it will be difficult for them to think critically about meanings of words and the buildup of character development and plot (or the semblance of those things in the most basic of stories), but over time they will develop the necessary skills to answer questions.
They’ll develop a stronger phonemic awareness when they can see words as you read them, rather than struggling to do both at the same time themselves. Avoid stopping your child to correct them while reading though, as doing so can interrupt their train of thought and make comprehending what they’re reading more difficult.
Include your kids in simple chores like walking the dog or washing the car or organize a family bike ride. Try creating sandbags, water bags and flour bags, amongst other things, for your child to play with. Parents racing around with their children in order to make and experiment with different sounds and music can be one of the most entertaining things to do. It need not be a high maintenance pet; a small rabbit or hamster can help with the lesson too. In a passage that describes what sounds like a stroke, Opicinus details how his body slowly became paralyzed; he temporarily lost his ability to speak, and much of his memory. Opicinus almost always dated the Vaticanus drawings, which were composed between June and November of 1337.
The passage describes a visionary experience: through oculus meis interioribus, Opicinus is granted a new view of the earth, one in which the land and the sea take on human attributes. Most examples, however, lie in the realm of the theoretical, the academic, or the theological. A significant problem with many previous studies of Opicinusa€™ drawings is that they take a few lines of text, from folios of the Palatinus, or from distant pages of text in the Vaticanus, and use them to a€?explaina€? the content of Opicinusa€™ strangest imagery.
The captions (and some of the texts), then, are often the evidence of Opicinusa€™ self-analysis a€” he uses himself as a case study, personalizing the drawings through the text. Simply put, we do not know if they were ever viewed as more than a curiosity by those who encountered them.
Visual parallels to these drawings certainly exist: body-maps have been produced in numerous periods, including such famous examples as the Ebstorf Map (#224, Book II, a medieval world map that placed Christa€™s body in the corners of the earth), the Leo Belgicus (a map of the Netherlands and Belgium formed into the shape of a lion, the earliest example of which dates from 1583), or the Europa Regina, a depiction of Europe as a royal female (see below). In these drawings, Opicinus was not trying to express a single concept or doctrine, but rather to visualize the possibilities raised by an entire new way of looking at the world, based on what he had seen during his visionary experience of 1334. The varied formats of these diagrams cannot be taken for granted a€” their arrangements form a crucial and underexplored aspect of their meaning.
But looking at them as a group, perhaps the first thing one notices is that the map itself is incredibly accurate.
The drawings in this first a€?categorya€? are not all alike, and there is no evidence that Opicinus thought of them as a group, but finding language to describe and categorize their forms is a critical first step in their interpretation. This folio includes a cartographic picture in the upper two-thirds of the page, and text at the bottom.
She is a rare example of a figure with a distinct racial identity: Opicinus darkened her skin with a grey-brown wash, in a clear reference to an African or Middle-Eastern skin tone. One could even identify Europe in this drawing as a kind of conglomerate figure of Christianity. The strongest indicator that the figure is female is the small child lying over Lombardy a€” the area always associated with the womb of the European figure. The simplicity of this contrast stands out despite the extensive texts and interpretations written around it. Binary themes in similar drawings include a contrast between the mouth of hell and the temple of the Lord (fol. Opicinus played with this arrangement differently in each of the three drawings, changing the scales and position of the two maps, presumably seeking different correspondences. On the page we see the body-worlds with which we are now familiar: here, a female Europe confronts a female Africa, and the Mediterranean devil lies between them, his head to the east. 84r, in which the scale of the portolan chart is completely different (much smaller in comparison to the grid of Pavia); here, Opicinus identifies different correspondences and comes to different conclusions as a result of the change in scale.
Yet the drawing is all about experimentation, layering, and play; to claim that creating or interpreting a drawing like this is a burden or struggle may be a modern misperception. But Opicinus piles on meanings, multiplies forms, and plays with realities seemingly as a form of experimentation.
The grid may offer a clue to Opicinusa€™ working process, or the way he was inspired to create these drawings. Each of the two charts is rendered in a different scale, with a larger one oriented toward the top of the page and a smaller one pointed toward the bottom. On each map, the western Mediterranean retains its integrity a€” France, Spain, and the northwestern coast of Africa are clearly visible both at the top and the bottom of the page. In the Italian peninsula of the upper map, for example, which is overlapped by the eastern Mediterranean of the lower map, we see the word Roma written over the sea (on the sea-mana€™s forehead), signaling where the city would have been on the map below. Both figures of the a€?natural worlda€? are male (a bearded, older figure in Europe and a tonsured monk in Africa), while both of the a€?spirituala€? figures are female (Africa is a robed nun and Europe is a younger woman with long, flowing hair). The question, just as in the previous examples, is how its meaning is changed, activated, complicated, or simplified by its construction within the doubled and overlapped forms of the portolan charts. Within the drawing, small lines suggest points of correspondence between elements in each of the four quadrants.
The three previous drawings were characteristic of a particular type; in contrast, this drawing is unique in Opicinusa€™ oeuvre.
At the top of the page are two labels for Europe and Africa: Europe is the aduena rector novus, the strange new priest, and Africa is the parrochia aliena, the parish of another. This is labeled in a caption on the right side of the page, which reads a€?behold the vestment of the Church soaked in blood.a€? Opicinus accentuated the form of the vestment by adding a small cutout for the neck. The longer captions on this folio do not always contain a single focus, and many make no comment at all on the drawing. But spiritually there is truth in this mirror [i.e., in this drawing], since no heresy, fiction or allegory can be found that in this mirror does not give birth, at least in part, to a certain truth? Here, Opicinus seems to say that men do not transition literally into angels of light or darkness a€” the figures of the priest and parish at the top of the page do not actually become the figures at the bottom of the page. Even as Opicinusa€™ drawings make use of the natural world and empirical science, the arrangement of their forms expresses the detachment from reality that characterizes a dream. At first, we would not identify these as genitalia a€” they are simply two small, robed bodies that stand within the genital region of the European body. Four of these drawings depict the body-worlds, and the reproduction always takes place within the body of the European figure. In each of these drawings, Opicinus drew a small copy of the body-worlds over the area of Lombardy, even extending it slightly into the sea near Genoa.
No pregnancy is viable before the 21st week and almost all pregnancies are considered viable after the 27th week.
An abortion can cost around $350 and some women do not have the means to attain that money quickly. A teenager might also be in denial about her pregnancy or simply feel scared, and wish to delay getting the abortion for as long as possible. By following these guidelines, you can limit destructive behavior and help your child overcome self-doubt. You teach your child to understand that actions have consequences by establishing rules and clear outcomes for following or disobeying these rules. For example, allow the child to accrue points for good behavior that can be redeemed for spending money, time in front of the TV, or a new video game.
Odd behaviors that aren’t detrimental to your child or anyone else should be accepted as part of your child’s individual personality. Exercise also improves concentration, decreases depression and anxiety, and stimulates the brain. It’s important to understand your child’s thought process in order to help him or her curb impulsive behaviors. So, how much time is considered to be too much for kids to be on the Internet and in front of screens in general? Here are a few simple things you can do to engage your child: count the number of houses, black cars, bicycles, etc. For example, things like peeling their own banana, picking out which shirt to wear, and feeding the family cat, are all things that a young toddler can do.
Learning to let go despite the messes, frustration, and mistakes that will inevitably arise is a vital skill when caring for or being with children. It’s about respecting the wants and requests of the child within the appropriateness of the situation. Despite the worries of others, his mother took this in her stride, believing he’d speak more than enough when he was ready. Rushing can cause you to lose sight of your guiding role, and of the precious essence of the child. If you’re able, this should start when they are an infant and continue through their school years.
Even if you’re not an avid reader, find something to read - a magazine, the newspaper, or a cookbook all count. In general, flashcards are not the most useful or effective technique for teaching reading skills. Explain each of the letters with their name, but don’t worry about trying to incorporate the sounds the letters make yet. There are 44 speech sounds created by the 26 letters in our alphabet, and each sound must be taught paired with its letter(s) counterpart. Your child will begin to see the patterns of sounds that are made when certain letters are combined - in this case, the sound ‘o-p’ makes. However, studies have shown that readable vocabulary dramatically increases (from 900 words to 30,000 words by the third grade) when taught in the opposite fashion: breaking each word into the smallest parts, and building them up into a full word - explicit phonics.
Recognize that learning sounds is only an intermediate step to learning to read, it is not the goal.
At this point, you need to concentrate only on the mechanical skill of reading, that is learning to decode new words and incorporating them in memory to build fluency. As their word recognition increases, they’ll be able to more fully understand story plots and meanings. An easy and fun way to help encourage this is to use puppets who represent characters in the story, so your child can describe it to you through them. The motor memory of the letters, listening to their sounds and seeing them in writing will reinforce new learning. Younger children can learn math skills and older ones will enjoy being able to choose and prepare foods they like. The best way to foster a child’s natural curiosity about the world around them is to bring an animal into the equation.
He returned to these folios frequently in the years that followed a€” many include changes, graphic additions, or new captions, which he dated individually (we find dates from the years 1338-1341, especially). Morsea€™s other crucial innovation, in addition to asserting the rational and intentional basis of Opicinusa€™ thought, was to place the Vaticanus manuscript at the heart of her research. Salomon and others characterize the themes of the Vaticanus manuscript as just an extension of those in the Palatinus. The shapes of Europe, Africa, and the Mediterranean Sea each contain (or form) a human figure; these are the forms that Whittington calls a€?body-worlds,a€? and they constitute Opicinusa€™ most original and perplexing contribution to 14th century visual culture.


One of the things that makes Opicinusa€™ drawings so unusual is that they also incorporate a visual tradition that was practical, empirical, and scientific a€” medieval sea charts, usually called portolan charts. He often kept adding to the drawings over many years, including new details or textual explanations, and dating them to a specific day.
As mentioned above, it seems possible that the Vaticanus was never meant to be viewed by others; much of it is arranged chronologically (like a diary), rather than thematically, and the subject matter of the texts and images suggests a private function. The meaning of such imagery obviously depends on context, but these diverse examples demonstrate how a land, country, or region has often been embodied within a human figure, to show the potential power of that space, or even the dominion of a figure over it. The images of Africa and Europe as human figures were the core of this experience, but the interpretation of the vision was left up to him. According to Whittington the formats of Opicinusa€™ body-world drawings can be grouped into four categories: (1) single portolan charts, (2) portolan charts overlapping with local maps, (3) multiple portolan charts overlapping with each other, and (4) multiple, mirrored portolan charts. The coastlines of the Mediterranean and the relative scale and position of the landforms are almost exactly the same as we know them to be today. The figure appears to be bare-chested, although no breasts are visible (perhaps they are covered by her long hair). But the label above the head of the figure seems to identify it as Opicinus assuming the identity of a€?the house of God.a€? Another caption in the Mediterranean Sea off the southern coast of France labels the figure as an Ymago Prudentie. The fact that the face is labeled as Christa€™s would indicate on the surface that the figure is male.
Yet beyond the basic characters and the captions, the drawinga€™s meaning is clearly activated or shifted by the placement of the two personifications within the geographical forms of the portolan chart; after all, it is not difficult to imagine a much simpler way to express this confrontation, using only pictures and no maps. The scene is full of interesting and surprisingly graphic details, many of them interpreted in the marginal texts.
Such interpretations are, I think, meant as models; as Morse demonstrated, Opicinus hoped that the drawings could be used by others to probe their own consciences and personal histories. Many parts of it must have been intentionally humorous, such as the basket for collecting the sea-mana€™s excrement, the graphic sexual organs, the interpretation of the Europe womana€™s pearl earrings, or the depiction of the Africa womana€™s cloak as a green river. Even when texts in the Vaticanus indicated the stressors in Opicinusa€™ life a€”spiritual, moral, legal a€” the drawings remain exploratory and even lighthearted. Without any words from him on the subject it is impossible to know where such an idea comes from, but perhaps the grids on the portolan chart(s) from which Opicinus was working reminded him of a gridded map of Pavia that he had seen, or perhaps even made. The mapsa€™ superimposition encourages the viewer to seek correlations between them, and Opicinus reinforces these correspondences by drawing actual lines and lines of text to connect various parts. He grafts a spiritual system of correspondences and coordinations onto this new representation of the physical world, but specifically includes details that undermine both systems, seeking instead a negotiation between the two. The rota on the breast of Affrica naturalis shows the mental processes that lead to sin: thinking, imagining, deciding, and delighting in (cogitatio, ymaginatio, electio, delectatio) lead the sinner to consent to sin (consensus peccati). These can either connect the same geographical location between two separate maps (as in the line drawn between the two Carthages on the upper left map and the lower left map), or establish a point of contact between the same physiological parts of two body-worlds on the same map (as in the line drawn between the reproductive areas of the Europe-woman and the Africa-woman in the upper-right map).
It contains four complete portolan charts, all the exact same size, placed in careful relation to one another through overlapping and mirroring.
This is different from the numerous drawings in the previous category, in which the two charts overlapped one another; here, the two white charts on the surface of the page are both complete diagrams of the region, reflecting one another along an invisible horizontal line in the Holy Land and Asia Minor.
The figures seem to present the encounter between a new priest and his new parish (a situation that Opicinus underwent several times in his early career). The role of this form in the drawing is ambiguous a€” its cruciform shape and its a€?soaking in blooda€? certainly evoke Christa€™s sacrifice, and its position at the heart of the drawing, precisely where the two white maps are mirrored, suggests that it may be significant in the transition between the two.
One caption on the left side of the page is a short rant about the mosquitoes that were bothering Opicinus while he made the drawing, while another, longer text at the lower left is an extended metaphorical description of the penis, describing how, like a heretic disobeying the Church, the penis disobeys the orders of the body.
It is the caption that tells us something different; over their heads are written the words a€?matrixa€? and a€?virgaa€? a€” womb and penis.
Representing pregnancy and birth inside of Europe was a way for Opicinus to convey how both good and evil tendencies enter the world. Some researchers have convincingly explained this positioning of the tiny body-world figures as indicating a Caesarian birth; as Opicinus explains, the two figures are born through Genoa, the a€?forced porta€? in the stomach of the European figure, rather than through Venice, the a€?natural porta€? of the figurea€™s vaginal canal (Opicinus makes the pun about Venetian a€?canalsa€? several times). The earliest depiction of Europe as a woman is believed to be by the 14th century Pavian cleric Opicinus de Canistris for the papal court, then at Avignon. It’s ultimately harmful to discourage a child’s quirky behaviors just because you think they are unusual. Try to ignore mildly disruptive behaviors as a way for your child to release his or her pent up energy. Letting your child do things like this makes them feel more in control of their world, which in turn inspires them toward bigger and better exploits. Giving too many rewards also encourages bad habits and manners, such as bragging, and can lead to complexes (such as fear of failure). Whether you’re raising children, or working or volunteering with them, a little patience goes a long way. Patience also enables others to accept us into their lives through our faithful, continued presence and enduring respect for them. Help the child to learn the difference between making a request and making a demand and what the consequences are. Read books at levels that they would be able to read, should they know how; at a young age this may lead you to read 3-4 small books a day.
Soon they’ll become interested in reading on their own, simply as a result of seeing you doing it too. Try to avoid them, and substitute out flashcards for another study and skill-development techniques described. This includes the long and short sound produced by each individual letter, as well as the specialized sounds some combined letters make (like ‘ch’ and ‘sh’). Help your child to begin reading by having them sound-out each individual letter without looking at the overall word first.
The dating of the Palatinus is more complicated a€” the large autobiographical calendar on fol. The Vaticanus was often mentioned by earlier authors, but had never been the object of extensive study, perhaps because its visual material is smaller and less elaborate than the large Palatinus folios. These and other claims are refuted by Whittington with a basic statistical analysis of the manuscriptsa€™ subject matter.
Their enigmatic forms, expressions, and arrangements have the power to arrest the attention of modern viewers, reversing expectations about what sorts of imagery were possible in the early 14th century. The a€?world,a€? in Opicinusa€™ drawings, is always represented using these charts; they form the drawingsa€™ structural basis and frame their meanings. Still, crucially, this does not make the drawings, in their inception, a€?abouta€? Opicinus. The large size of the Palatinus folios suggests a more public function, given their physical similarity to large medieval wall maps and portolan charts. Here one sees before a map of the Mediterranean world a€” Europe, North Africa, Anatolia and part of the Near East are left the white color of the paper, and the seas around them are tinted with a reddish-brown wash. The incredibly diverse drawings that he created in the years that followed were his way of exploring the meaning of this vision and experimenting with different strategies for representing its shape and scope, searching for the arrangements and combinations that would lead him to the deepest meaning. Opicinusa€™ maps were based on the most modern and technically accomplished cartography of his day a€” marinersa€™ sea-charts, which we call portolan charts. Several folios depict only the western portion of the standard Mediterranean portolan chart, limiting their view to the area between Gibraltar and the boot of Italy. The geographic range of the depicted portolan outline is narrow - we see Gibraltar, Tunisia, France, Spain, and Italy, but none of the eastern Mediterranean, which is cut off by the drawinga€™s lower edge.
Little is visible of her lower body, but she wears some kind of cloth wrapped around her waist. However, the most prominent indicator of the figurea€™s identity is the large rota around the face in the Iberian peninsula, which seems to label the figure as Christ.
The drawing thus suggests a combination of male and female elements: a pregnant female personification of Christendom, with Christ at the head and heart.
In this first example, where the contrast between the two figures is simple and direct, we can more easily explore two ways that the form of the drawing a€” its geographical frame a€”may change the meaning of these figures. For example, the Mediterranean figure appears to have two sexual organs a€” one massive penis that seems to be ejaculating onto the southern coast of Spain, and another that he clutches in his fist (presumably in an act of masturbation) near Venice. 84v, numerous captions explore the moral, theological, quotidian, and incidental correspondences created by the overlay of the city grid on the portolan chart.
In addition, the monastery with which they were both associated fell near Rome on the portolan chart.
The revelation and the experiment were meant to be used by anyone a€” Opicinus is using himself as a test case, taking examples from his own life, family history, and childhood, and using them to interpret the correspondence between the two charts. These are all examples of Akbaria€™s horizontal allegory, or of allegory as a primarily interpretive act; Opicinus creates the structure (which may or may not have an intrinsic meaning a€” in this case, it seems not to), but the primary work is put into interpretation, play, and the creative exploration of his visual construction.
Opicinus created, an over-determined world because of its opportunities and flexibility, not to build a burdensome system that would collapse on top of him.
This basic format is repeated on at least eight other pages in the Vaticanus; again, there are variations in the size and placement of the two maps, but all of these examples include two portolan charts that are laid on top of one another. In the smaller, lower image, the negative space of the chart a€” the sea a€” is tinted with a light brown wash, delineating the body of the so-called a€?Mediterranean Man,a€? often labeled a€?Lucifera€? His head and beard occupy the eastern Mediterranean (his ear tucked against the Nile delta and curving beard shaping the coast of the Anatolian peninsula), his arms gesture near Italy (one fist plunging violently east of Italy, forming the Adriatic), and his feet poke out near Gibraltar, between the faces of Europe and Africa. On this page he connects the two representations of the Adriatic with a diagonal line that slices through the center of the image, running from Venice on one chart to Venice on the other. Morse also points out that different renderings of the sea in the two charts likely correspond to their content; the embodied a€?devil seaa€? lies between the natural worlds, while the a€?spiritual seaa€? is left empty, perhaps to indicate its purity. Small lines connect the first four concepts to the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth of the Africa-figure, indicating the complicity of the exterior senses in this pathway to sin. 74v how Opicinus, by framing his allegories within the portolan charts, solidified their meaning into measured form, aligning the worlda€™s shapes with the truths and figures they revealed. The meaning of such lines remains ambiguous, but they do suggest points of contact and interconnection between elements that are otherwise set in opposition to one another. All four of these portolan charts are embodied, creating eight distinct characters: four male figures of Europe, and four figures of Africa (two angels and two male figures).
Rather than containing the figure of the diabolical sea, the spaces of the Mediterranean and Black Seas on these two charts are left as windows through which the viewer can see the other maps in the drawing. The colored worlds below are not labeled, but the figures seem to be a precise mirror of those on top, in both gender and physical appearance. Opicinusa€™ statement about the generation of meaning seems to apply both to this drawing and to many others that depict multiple levels of reality (usually through multiple iterations of the body-worlds). 82r becomes overwhelming, Opicinus provides the viewer with visual cues to make sense of the drawinga€™s disorienting forms.
This drawing contrasts two complete sets of body-worlds, one overlapping and partially obscuring the other, and two very different depictions of genitalia are found in the area around Venice on both depictions of Europe. In a passage early in the Vaticanus, Opicinus describes how the a€?diabolical seaa€? inseminates an already-pregnant Europe, splitting the child unnaturally into two figures a€” Europe and Africa. Victoria Morse shows the way that Opicinus read meaning even into the precise position of these two tiny body-worlds over Lombardy below, determining which local cities fell under Africa and Europe. In this procedure, a needle is passed through the abdomen and into the uterus to deliver contraction-inducing medication.
Some behaviors should always be unacceptable, like physical outbursts, refusal to get up in the morning, or unwillingness to turn off the television when told to do so. However, destructive, abusive, or intentionally disruptive behavior should always be punished. Experts believe that athletics can help a child with ADHD find a constructive way to focus their passion, attention, and energy. When we accept the importance of patience in our lives, it becomes easier to be patient with others too.
It is also important to help them understand the importance of delayed gratification, teaching them that when you do say no, sometimes this is about waiting, rather than never having or doing what they’ve asked for. In watching and learning from your child or from other children, you will learn their character better, and see both their strengths and their weaknesses, giving you an opportunity to help them nurture the best talents and to learn to manage their weaknesses. It is a time during which you can learn a great deal about seeing the world through fresh eyes.
The first 48 contain little visual material besides a few marginalia, while the second half of the book includes some text-only pages, some full-page drawings, and some smaller drawings with extensive text on or around them.
11r, which provides the most complete information about his life, ends with June 1336, suggesting that this drawing was finished by that date.
In contrast, Morse demonstrated that the Vaticanus holds the key to understanding Opicinusa€™ thought: its drawings are more intimate and revealing, and it contains over a hundred pages of text.
Portolan charts were modern, cutting-edge diagrammatic maps of the Mediterranean region, and Opicinusa€™ use of them transforms what would otherwise have been old-fashioned, theoretical, and primarily textual drawings into a completely new type of representation.
Interpreting the vision with relation to his own body and life was only one of the tactics that he used.
The drawings in both manuscripts could have been preparatory studies for some larger-scale project or commission that was never carried out.
According to Whittington, to explain what the body-worlds a€?mean,a€? one must explore how and why Opicinus harnessed these maritime maps to a completely different purpose from that for which they were created. Others include the entire range of the chart, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Black Sea and the Holy Land. Small captions and rotae are positioned at various points on the map; some of these are placed to comment specifically on a geographical feature, while others remark more generally on the drawing and its characters. A worm or snake emerges from an otherwise empty circle on her stomach, twisting along the North African coast, its mouth gnawing on the figurea€™s thumb near Carthage.
Large red capital letters spell out C-R-I-S-T-U-S, with each letter also being the first letter of one of the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit. Opicinus uses the portolan chart to construct a binary system in which values can be opposed, and also to place these allegories or personifications within a space that is, in the broadest sense, real. On the southern coast of France, a basket-woven pattern is explained in a caption as a basket to catch the excrement of the sea-figure. For example, in a short passage in the upper left corner of the page, Opicinus mentions that the body of the sea-devil extends beyond the inner city wall of the Pavian map, which he interprets as a sign that malice and mischief are spread out in the city; beyond the old city walls. An over-determined world allowed him to make visible to himself and his potential readers the primary concerns, impulses, histories, and spaces of his world and his body in a way that led to potentially productive connections and revelations. In contrast, the sea of the larger top map is not embodied, and retains the color of the paper. This line could help the viewer perceive the imagea€™s orientation, by providing a reference point for the location of the same city on each map at this crucial juncture at the center. The sea-figure takes control of the pagea€™s center, superimposing his twisting body over the eastern half of the upper, spiritual chart a€” his a€?negativea€? space dominates the positive space of the other chart. In contrast, a caption on the rota for Affrica spiritualis points to the interior senses (sensus interiores) that indicate spiritual progress: meditation, contemplation, discernment, and rumination (meditatio, contemplatio, discretio, degustatio). They also establish that the body-worldsa€™ identities as both bodies and maps remain significant on their own; because connections rely on their status as both maps and bodies, one is not emphasized over the other. This window or outline a€” the negative space of the upper drawing a€” provides a view onto a world of color.
The mirror of any of his creations, which he acknowledges are fabrications (in the sense that they are imaginary and exploratory), will always contain some new level of meaning. The two red lines indicate the precise point where worlds are mirrored, and the differentiation in color a€” white, brown, and red a€” brings the forms of the body-worlds into a near-sculptural relief. In the overlapped body-worlds, which are tinted with red and brown wash, we see a small penis depicted inside the figure of Europe, just past the fist of the Mediterranean figure. It must be acknowledged that both figures are shaped like small penises, but it is also true that in medieval anatomical texts the female genitalia are often described as an interiorized mirror image of a male penis, so perhaps we should not be surprised that the two are a€?personified,a€? if we want to use that term, in similar ways. According to Victoria Morse, Europea€™s pregnancy was also related to local political situations, visualizing the (sexual) corruption of Lombardy within an otherwise holy European body. She then contrasts this a€?violenta€? delivery of the figures with the small baby depicted on fol. In 1537 the Tirolese cartographer Johann Putsch celebrated the Hapsburg rule over Europe by presenting a placid a€?Europa Reginaa€? wearing Charles Va€™s Spain as a crown and Ferdinanda€™s Austria as a medal at her waist, representing the triumph of the Hapsburgs. Through respecting the rhythm of ourselves and others, being patient presents an opportunity to give of ourselves rather than expecting others to conform to our wants.
Helping them to understand this time perspective is far kinder than simply saying no and not explaining any further. It can also be a time when you realize that you can make a big difference in the life of a child by teaching or showing them something new, and by helping them to love and respect themselves all the more.
The representation and interpretation of this divine image of the earth would occupy much of the rest of his life. Other dates in the manuscript are scarce; most scholars agree that the bulk of the drawings were completed between February 1335 and June 1336, with later additions stretching all the way to 1350.
Opicinus was working during a crucial moment in the history of cartography, when numerous artists and mapmakers sought to combine old and new forms. Most of the drawings suggest other interpretive avenues, through personifications, allegorical confrontations, or superimposition; one does not have to turn to Opicinusa€™ biography to explain them. It is also possible that these works were intended, like several of Opicinusa€™ earlier treatises, for the Pope. In this example, Europe is embodied as a man a€” his head occupies the Iberian Peninsula, his chest and stomach lie in France (where some kind of beast in the ocean tries to bite at his shoulder), his arm arches up through the lowlands and Germany, and his legs occupy the Italian peninsula and the Dalmatian coast. He used this technical, practical, scientific cartography to probe deeper into the nature of God and the created world. But all of the drawings in this category share a single feature: they include only one map, one level of cartographic reality on the page. The two figures that constitute, lie within, or coexist with Africa and Europe are classic examples of Opicinusa€™ body-worlds (the third figure that often appears in the Mediterranean is not included, in this particular drawing). In two outer concentric rings Opicinus places the names of the seven planets and the days of the week. Yet their placement within a map, particularly an empirical one which was actually used for travelling, emphasizes the tenuousness of such binary oppositions.
Despite these and other details on the figures, the actual bodies seem less important to Opicinus in these three drawings; the commentary focuses more on the physical interplay and connections between the two overlapping maps. It is not that he thinks that this image of the two maps placed in this particular arrangement is necessarily a€?correcta€? or a€?truea€? a€” on fol.
84v offers further evidence that Opicinus viewed the portolan charts as empirical representations. At the centre of the page the embodied eastern Mediterranean of the lower map (including the Black Sea) overlaps both the land and the sea of the upper map, so that its eastern half (part of Italy and all of Greece, Egypt, and Turkey) is obscured.
Or, given the opposing genders of the two Europes in the maps, and the fact that the area at the top of the Adriatic was understood as the erogenous zone of the European body, the line could suggest a sexual point of contact a€” even intercourse a€” between the two figures. It is necessary first to describe and explain the drawinga€™s complex structure, before discussing its content in relation to several captions that surround it. In the space below, the continents are shaded a brick red, while the seas are painted a soft brown-grey. The interpretive paradigm for this drawing must be one of experimentation; it is the only image in the manuscript with this particular arrangement of forms, and through it Opicinus only seems to have arrived at fragments of meaning. The small caption nearby simply reads Venetie [Venice] and without further explanation it is unclear whether the penis belongs to the European body, depicted lying back against his stomach, or whether he is somehow being penetrated by a small penis belonging to the sea-figure. Here, reproductive sexuality is a sign of corruption; elsewhere, as we will see, it is a marker of generative spirituality. 74v, which is positioned for a normal delivery through Venice, with its head down and its arms folded peacefully in prayer.
The queena€™s crown (Spain), orb (Sicily), and heart (Bohemia) from a triangle that directs the viewera€™s eye away from Eastern Europe toward the West. In over eighty surviving drawings, now kept in the Vatican Library and referred to by scholars as the Vaticanus and Palatinus manuscripts, he experimented with how he could uncover the meaning that he was sure God had planted in the vision he saw, in the hope that his drawings would help to renew the faith of all Christians.
Far more drawings in the Vaticanus portray body-worlds (23), while few in the Palatinus do so (6). This encounter between the scientific and the spiritual is best explored by looking at the structures that Opicinus used to create the drawings.
Another rota lies inside France, near the location that Opicinus usually associates with the a€?hearta€? of the Europe figure a€” Avignon.
On a map you can literally sail by sea from one a€?placea€? or a€?bodya€? to the other a€” each place is accessible to the other.
Here, the grid structures the space of the local map, but also shapes the way we view the portolan below. It looks like a kind of symbolic twin to the spatio-indexical rhumb lines of the original portolan charts.
61r demonstrates that Opicinus was also aware of the dangers of aligning appearance with truth; appearances could just as easily deceive as reveal. The arrangement of these colored maps beneath the surface of the white ones is the most complicated aspect of the drawing. The angels are labeled angelus lucis and angelus tenebrarum a€” an angel of light and an angel of darkness.
Given the penises in this region that we discussed above, this latter proposition is not without basis, but it seems more likely that it belongs to the European figure, since it is tinted the same color. Nearly all of the drawings in the Palatinus feature what Whittington calls an a€?overarching containing structurea€? a€” a geometrical framework that contains all of the drawinga€™s content. Her face is to the west, shown in profile as she seems to whisper into the ear of the European figure across the Straits of Gibraltar. She seems to speak directly into the ear of the European figure, depicted partly in profile and partly from the front. At the center of the roundel is a seated figure of Christ showing his wounds; around this are the names of seven episcopal seats, and the seven planets and their positions.
In these simplest drawings, though, such a possibility is only hinted at; a much fuller manipulation of the metaphor of travel and movement between binaries, and indeed a subversion of the very concept of binary opposition, is found in Opicinusa€™ more complicated images, discussed below. This grid, eight squares by ten, is oriented in the same way as the map below, with east at the top of the page (the street grid of Pavia was, and still is, slightly off-axis from the cardinal points because of its alignment with the river, which is reflected in its positioning at a slight angle on the page). Opicinus just seems to be testing each possible arrangement on either side of the folio, turning it back and forth to see which parts of it align with things he believes to be true. Any resident or visitor familiar with the city would recognize that the local map of Pavia was a measured, accurate representation, and the fundamental hypothesis of this image and its interpretation is that correspondences can be deduced through the alignment of one measured map with another. One complete map lies below the upper white map, and one complete map lies below the lower white map, but each is placed in a different relation to its chart above. The angel of light in the surface map whispers into the ear of the upper male Europe, labeled homo spiritualis, while the angel of darkness whispers to homo carnalis. 61v, where two tiny figures with the same labels hold between them a baby, its head positioned downward, pointing toward the area near Venice through which we presume it would be born. The danger of any study of Opicinus is that in seeking out the contexts in which one may understand Opicinusa€™ work as logical and coherent, one risks losing sight of what makes them so exceptional. But he also used this idea in order to create images unrivalled in their complexity and interpretive difficulty, multiplying maps and figures across the page in kaleidoscopic networks. The local grid is filled in with detail; the numerous small labels in brown indicate churches, city gates, bridges, and monasteries in Pavia, while the few red captions refer to cities or regions on the portolan below (here, like elsewhere, Opicinus uses color to clarify his content for the reader). Once again, a grid serves two functions, measuring the space of one reality and indicating the measurability of another. On the top half of the page, the tinted map below is a precise mirror image of the upper map, reflected from it along a red horizontal line that bisects the upper, white body-worlds. The arrangement recalls nothing so much as the angel and devil of the human conscience that perch on the shoulders of cartoon figures in modern movies and comics, offering advice and urging the character towards good or bad decisions; in the drawing, the heads of the angels seem to rest directly on the shoulders of the figures below them.
Here, the two a€?personificationsa€? of the penis and the womb have produced a tiny child and are preparing it for birth. Later editions of Europe as a queen were issued by Sebastian Munster, Heinrich Bunting and Matthias Quad. This a€?manuscripta€? is a collection of 27 huge unbound parchment sheets, averaging about two by three feet, although some are significantly larger.
This observation prompts the next a€” that the Palatinus drawings almost always include calendars (usually as part of the overarching containing structure), while few of the Vaticanus drawings do. Looking at the drawings as a whole, there can be no doubt that there are distinct threads running through them a€” themes, problems, and possibilities that Opicinus set out to explore.
And just as the drawingsa€™ forms combine simplicity and complexity, their content also veers from the straightforward to the impenetrable. The relationship between these human figures and the landforms is, as is always the case in Opicinusa€™ drawings, very difficult to describe.
The huge green swath at the right of the page indicates the Ticino River, which is coextensive with the long veil or cloak worn by the Africa woman.
The white body-worlds in the top layer always overlap the lower, colored ones, which are only visible in the negative space of the sea. These personificationsa€™ sexuality is normative and non-transgressive a€” male and female members come together inside of the female body. Depending on the individual viewera€™s perception, the figures can seem to be lying on top of the land, growing out of it, or somehow placed under it a€” as if the landforms are windows through which we are looking.
The green lines at the top and bottom of the page show the path of several Pavian canals, and the three concentric red boundaries drawn around the page indicate the city walls.
The same system is repeated in the lower half of the drawing, except that the lower tinted map is reflected along a vertical line, also colored red.
From these observations, Whittington generalizes some of the basic differences between the two manuscripts.
Most of all, however, these enigmatic forms seem to depict the earth and the bodies as coextensive, and of the same material a€” bodies made out of the earth. The two maps on the bottom half of the page are also mirror images of one another, but along a different axis. The Vaticanus seems to be more of a personal manuscript, perhaps never intended for a wider audience.
The more one looks at these body-worlds, the more one sees the human figures as figures a€” the stranger parts of their bodies, where the landforms do not align so easily with a normative human shape, become less and less noticeable. The two red axes are thus crucial to understanding the drawing: they must have been used to construct it and also intended to aid in its decoding. Its drawings are less structured and presentational, contain more sexual imagery, and include more personal themes, all of which we might associate with a private, rather than public function (although such distinctions were perhaps more fluid in 14th century Italy than they are today). Secondly, the drawings in the Vaticanus and Palatinus have very different structures; the Vaticanus uses the form of the portolan [nautical] chart to structure meaning and representations of bodies, while the Palatinus drawings use larger geometric, ecclesiastical, and temporal frames, which in turn often contain representations of the earth.
Finally, the Palatinus drawings contain a temporal, cyclical element (numerous calendars and representations of the zodiac) that the Vaticanus drawings usually lack.



Cute sayings for having a baby girl
Facts about pregnancy prevention loop
Male fertility age 40


Comments to «Term for pregnancy after 35 years»

  1. KaRiDnOy_BaKiNeC writes:
    It, pregnant girls should embrace and not reaching any suppose it can be caused.
  2. Anar_sixaliyev writes:
    May help in confirming the months, however there.
  3. apocalypse writes:
    Your exercise or sports activities participation in case you solely with an internal conscience, but also.
  4. axilles writes:
    Likely to feel hotter resulting from.
  5. NaRkAmAn_789 writes:
    It's extremely hit and with a pregnant girl. pCOS (I made.