Pregnancy nutrition websites 2013,fertility treatment twins pregnancy,safe medicine in early pregnancy - Review

The main focus of nutrition during pregnancy is to get the nutrients you and your unborn baby need. In addition, there are some nutritional basics that can serve as guidelines as you eat nutritiously for two (or more!). Whether or not you’re pregnant, a healthy diet includes proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and plenty of water. Although protein should supply most of these extra calories, your diet needs to be well balanced and should include fresh fruits, grains, and vegetables.
Drink extra fluids throughout pregnancy to help your body keep up with the increases in your blood volume.
Following your cravings is fine, as long as you crave foods that contribute to a healthy diet. Dana Dobbie is a Sydney mother of two remarkably cute children, who shares Dettol’s mission of raising a happy, healthy family, with a zest for life and love. Letter from the EditorFebruary, with school just started, is a good time to work some new healthy habits into your weekly routine. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. This is a€?Pregnancy and Nutritiona€?, section 12.2 from the book An Introduction to Nutrition (v. This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book.
PDF copies of this book were generated using Prince, a great tool for making PDFs out of HTML and CSS. For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators. For medical purposes, pregnancy is measured from the first day of a womana€™s last menstrual period until childbirth, and typically lasts about forty weeks.
The weight an expectant mother gains during pregnancy is almost all lean tissue, including the placenta and fetus.
During labor, new mothers lose some of the weight they gained during pregnancy with the delivery of their child. During the first trimester, a pregnant woman has the same energy requirements as normal and should consume the same number of calories as usuala€”about 1,800 calories for a woman living a sedentary lifestyle, about 2,000 calories for a woman who is moderately active, and about 2,200 for a woman who is active.
The recommended daily allowance, or RDA, of carbohydrates during pregnancy is about 175 to 265 grams per day to fuel fetal brain development.
During pregnancy, extra protein is needed for the synthesis of new maternal and fetal tissues. There are no specific recommendations for fats in pregnancy, apart from following normal dietary guidelines.
Fresh fruit and whole grains, such as a bowl of muesli, are excellent sources of fiber during a pregnancy. Pregnancy requires certain conditionally essential nutrientsNutrients that are supplied only under special conditions or circumstances, such as pregnancy, stress, illness, or aging., which are nutrients that are supplied only under special conditions, such as stress, illness, or aging. The micronutrients involved with building the skeletona€”vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesiuma€”are crucial during pregnancy to support fetal bone development. For most other minerals, recommended intakes are similar to those for nonpregnant women, although it is crucial for pregnant women to make sure to meet the RDAs to reduce the risk of birth defects. While pregnant women have an increased need for energy, vitamins, and minerals, energy increases are proportionally less than other macronutrient and micronutrient increases.
Eat iron-rich or iron-fortified foods, including meat or meat alternatives, breads, and cereals, to help satisfy increased need for iron and prevent anemia.
Include vitamin C-rich foods, such as orange juice, broccoli, or strawberries, to enhance iron absorption.
Eat a well-balanced diet, including fruits, vegetables, whole grains, calcium-rich foods, lean meats, and a variety of cooked seafood (excluding fish that are high in mercury, such as swordfish and shark).
Pregnant women should also limit caffeine intake, which is found not only in coffee, but also tea, colas, cocoa, chocolate, and some over-the-counter painkillers. For most pregnant women, physical activity is a must and is recommended in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.
However, pregnant women should avoid pastimes that could cause injury, such as soccer, football, and other contact sports, or activities that could lead to falls, such as horseback riding and downhill skiing. Heartburn can occur during the early months of pregnancy due to an increase in the hormone progesterone, and during the later months due to the expanding size of the fetus, which limits stomach contraction. Nausea and vomiting are gastrointestinal issues that strike many pregnant women, typically in the first trimester. Increased levels of the pregnancy hormone human chorionic gonadotropin may cause nausea and vomiting, although that is speculative.
It can be useful for pregnant women to keep a food diary to discover which foods trigger nausea, so they can avoid them in the future. Food aversions and cravings do not have a major impact unless food choices are extremely limited.
Gestational hypertensionA possible complication of pregnancy characterized by raised blood pressure levels. Hypertension can prevent the placenta from getting enough blood, which would result in the baby getting less oxygen and nutrients. This video focuses on the signs and risk factors of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. About 4 percent of pregnant women suffer from a condition known as gestational diabetesA possible complication of pregnancy characterized by elevated blood glucose levels., which is abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy. During pregnancy, it is imperative that a woman meet the nutritional needs both she and her unborn child require, which includes an increase in certain micronutrients, such as iron and folate. During the second and third trimesters, a womana€™s energy requirements increase by 340 calories per day for the second trimester and 450 calories per day for the third trimester. Common discomforts that can impact nutritional intake during pregnancy include nausea and vomiting, heartburn, and constipation. Gestational hypertension is a condition that impacts about 6 to 8 percent of pregnant women and results in a rise of blood pressure levels. Gestational diabetes is a condition that impacts about 4 percent of pregnant women and results in a rise of blood glucose levels. Sign up today and receive access to all of Healthy Belly‘s top quality products and helpful interactive tools. Consult with your healthcare professional (HCP) to develop the plan and approach that works best for your needs during pregnancy. The Australian Dietary Guidelines can help you determine how many servings of each kind of food to eat every day.
Generally, you need to consume about 300 calories more per day than you did before you became pregnant to meet the needs of your growing baby.
If you do, your unborn baby might not get the right amounts of protein, vitamins, and minerals.
However, if you already follow a vegetarian diet, you can continue to do so during your pregnancy. To ensure that you and your baby receive adequate nutrition, consider consulting a registered dietitian for help with planning meals.
See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed.
Good nutrition is vital for any pregnancy and not only helps an expectant mother remain healthy, but also impacts the development of the fetus and ensures that the baby thrives in infancy and beyond.
Major changes begin to occur in the earliest days, often weeks before a woman even knows that she is pregnant. Therefore, it is important for all women of childbearing age to get 400 micrograms of folate per day prior to pregnancy and 600 micrograms per day during pregnancy. Pregnant women with a prepregnancy BMI below twenty are at a higher risk of a preterm delivery and an underweight infant. In the following weeks, they continue to shed weight as they lose accumulated fluids and their blood volume returns to normal. Pregnant women must consume more calories and nutrients in the second and third trimesters than other adult women.
The best food sources for pregnant women include whole-grain breads and cereals, brown rice, root vegetables, legumes, and fruits. Protein builds muscle and other tissues, enzymes, antibodies, and hormones in both the mother and the unborn baby. Fats should make up 25 to 35 percent of daily calories, and those calories should come from healthy fats, such as avocados. According to the IOM, pregnant women should drink 2.3 liters (about 10 cups) of liquids per day to provide enough fluid for blood production.

Although the levels are the same as those for nonpregnant women, many women do not typically consume adequate amounts and should make an extra effort to meet those needs. Adequate vitamin B6 supports the metabolism of amino acids, while more vitamin B12 is needed for the synthesis of red blood cells and DNA.
So, nutrient-dense foods, which are higher in proportion of macronutrients and micronutrients relative to calories, are essential to a healthy diet. Some studies suggest that very high amounts of caffeine have been linked to babies born with low birth weights.
For example, the foodborne illness caused by the bacteria Listeria monocytogenes can cause spontaneous abortion and fetal or newborn meningitis.
Expectant mothers are able to eat cooked shellfish such as shrimp, farm-raised fish such as salmon, and a maximum of 6 ounces of albacore, or white, tuna. Regular exercise of moderate intensity, about thirty minutes per day most days of the week, keeps the heart and lungs healthy. It may be best for pregnant women not to participate in certain sports, such as tennis, that require you to jump or change direction quickly. Also, a pregnant woman is likely to experience constipation because increased hormone levels can slow digestion and relax muscles in the bowels. Avoiding chocolate, mint, and greasy foods, and remaining upright for an hour after meals can help pregnant women avoid heartburn. Another major suspect is estrogen because levels of this hormone also rise and remain high during pregnancy.
It is marked by prolonged vomiting, which can result in dehydration and require hospitalization.
They include certain medical conditions that could greatly impact a pregnancy if left untreated, such as gestational hypertension and gestational diabetes, which have diet and nutrition implications.
This can result in low birth weight, although most women with gestational hypertension can still deliver a healthy baby if the condition is detected and treated early.
The body becomes resistant to the hormone insulin, which enables cells to transport glucose from the blood. Use what you know about each kind of micronutrient and its impact on the body to explain why the increase in RDA might be exponentially greater for one of these nutrients than for the other. As you and your baby grow a little more in size, the thought of eating three or four regular sized meals throughout may sound unappealing. The Healthy Belly is here to help make your pregnancy and child raising experience the best and safest one possible!
Overall, eating a variety of foods in the proportions indicated is a good step toward staying healthy. You may also download a PDF copy of this book (62 MB) or just this chapter (2 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline).
During this period, adequate nutrition supports cell division, tissue differentiation, and organ development. Folate, which is also known as folic acid, is crucial for the production of DNA and RNA and the synthesis of cells.
A pregnant woman also will find that her breasts enlarge and that she has a tendency to retain water.
Pregnant women with a prepregnancy BMI above thirty have an increased risk of the need for a cesarean section during delivery. Some of the new weight is due to the growth of the fetus, while some is due to changes in the mothera€™s body that support the pregnancy.
If she gains weight too quickly, especially in the third trimester, it may be the result of edema, or swelling due to excess fluid accumulation.
Some studies have hypothesized that breastfeeding also helps a new mother lose some of the extra weight, although research is ongoing.Stuebe, A. However, the average recommended daily caloric intake can vary depending on activity level and the mothera€™s normal weight. According to the IOM, she should consume an additional 340 calories per day during the second trimester, and an additional 450 calories per day during the third trimester.
These and other unrefined carbohydrates provide nutrients, phytochemicals, antioxidants, and fiber. Additional protein also supports increased blood volume and the production of amniotic fluid.
Insoluble fiberFiber that is metabolically inert, which means it does not break down as it passes through the digestive system. It is also important to drink liquids during physical activity or when it is hot and humid outside, to replace fluids lost to perspiration. Taking megadose supplements can lead to excessive amounts of certain micronutrients, such as vitamin A and zinc, which may produce toxic effects that can also result in birth defects.
Examples of nutrient-dense foods include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, peas, beans, reduced-fat dairy, and lean meats. Some are so detrimental that a woman should avoid them even if she suspects that she might be pregnant.
The American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology released a report, which found that women who consume 200 milligrams or more of caffeine a day (which is the amount in 10 ounces of coffee or 25 ounces of tea) increase the risk of miscarriage.Weng X, Odouli R, and Li D-K.
According to the CDC, pregnant women are twenty times more likely to become infected with this disease, which is known as listeriosis, than nonpregnant, healthy adults.
Heavy metal contaminants, particularly mercury, lead, and cadmium, pose risks to pregnant mothers.
However, they should avoid fish with high methyl mercury levels, such as shark, swordfish, tilefish, and king mackerel. Scuba diving should also be avoided because it might result in the fetus developing decompression sickness. Constipation and pressure from growth of the uterus can result in hemorrhoids, which are another common discomfort.US Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Womena€™s Health. These conditions are often referred to as a€?morning sickness,a€? although thata€™s something of a misnomer because nausea and vomiting can occur all day long, although it is often the worst in the first part of the day. Given that a common side effect of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives is nausea this hormone likely has a role. For most women, it is not harmful to indulge in the occasional craving, such as the desire for pickles and ice cream. Also referred to as pregnancy-induced hypertension, this condition affects about 6 to 8 percent of all pregnant women. Some risk factors can be controlled, such as diet, while others cannot, such as family history. Gestational diabetes is usually diagnosed around twenty-four to twenty-six weeks, although it is possible for the condition to develop later into a pregnancy. One thing you can do, is try to eat five or six smaller nutritious meals, which you can spread-out easy enough throughout your day. Here at Mission for Health we are celebrating all the little things you do for your family’s health. If these nutritional needs are not met, infants could suffer from low birth weight (a birth weight less than 5.5 pounds, which is 2,500 grams), among other developmental problems. A deficiency can cause megaloblastic anemia, or the development of abnormal red blood cells, in pregnant women.
Poor weight gain, especially in the third trimester, could result not only in low birth weight, but also infant mortality and intellectual disabilities. Weight gain often breaks down in the following manner: 6 to 8 pounds of fetus, 1 to 2 pounds for the placenta (which supplies nutrients to the fetus and removes waste products), 2 to 3 pounds for the amniotic sac (which contains fluids that surround and cushion the fetus), 1 to 2 pounds in the breasts, 1 to 2 pounds in the uterus, 3 to 4 pounds of maternal blood, 3 to 4 pounds maternal fluids, and 8 to 10 pounds of extra maternal fat stores that will be needed for breastfeeding and delivery.
Rapid weight gain may also result from increased calorie consumption or a lack of exercise. Also, pregnant women should choose a high-quality, diverse diet, consume fresh foods, and prepare nutrient-rich meals. This is partly due to an increase in metabolism, which rises during pregnancy and contributes to increased energy needs. These foods also help to build the placenta and supply energy for the growth of the unborn baby.
The RDA of protein during pregnancy is 71 grams per day, which is 25 grams above the normal recommendation. Also, it is not recommended for pregnant women to be on a very low-fat diet, since it would be hard to meet the needs of essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins. Insoluble fiber absorbs water and adds bulk to stool, expediting the passage of food and waste.
The combination of a high-fiber diet and lots of liquids also helps to eliminate waste.US Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Womena€™s Health. The need for vitamin A also increases, and extra iron intake is important because of the increase in blood supply during pregnancy and to support the fetus and placenta. Pregnant women should be able to meet almost all of their increased needs via a healthy diet. For example, consumption of alcoholic beverages results in a range of abnormalities that fall under the umbrella of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

As a result, vegetables should be washed thoroughly or have their skins removed to avoid heavy metals. In addition, women who exercise during pregnancy report fewer discomforts and may have an easier time losing excess weight after childbirth. This potentially fatal condition results from a rapid decrease in pressure when a diver ascends too quickly.National Institutes of Health, and Friends of the National Library of Medicine. Nausea usually subsides after sixteen weeks, possibly because the body becomes adjusted to higher estrogen levels.
However, a medical disorder known as pica is willingly consuming foods with little or no nutritive value, such as dirt, clay, and laundry starch. First-time mothers are at a greater risk, along with women who have mothers or sisters who had gestational hypertension, women carrying multiple fetuses, women with a prior history of high blood pressure or kidney disease, and women who are overweight or obese when they become pregnant.
If left untreated, gestational hypertension can lead to a serious complication called preeclampsiaA possible complication of pregnancy marked by elevated blood pressure and high levels of protein in the urine., which is sometimes referred to as toxemia. You baby will need to get protein and calcium from you, as their muscles and bones are starting to develop more rapidly.
Therefore, women who are trying to conceive should make proper dietary choices to ensure the delivery of a healthy baby. Therefore, it is vital for a pregnant woman to maintain a healthy weight, and her weight prior to pregnancy has a major affect. Women who are pregnant with more than one fetus are advised to gain even more weight to ensure the health of their unborn babies. Refined carbohydrates, such as white bread, cookies and other baked desserts, pretzels, and chips are nutritionally deficient and should be kept to a minimum.
However, in most instances, there is no need for a pregnant woman to make an effort to increase protein intake as long as she has a normal appetite, because even nonpregnant women in North America typically eat that much protein. Fatty acids are important during pregnancy because they support the babya€™s brain and eye development. The following table compares the normal levels of required vitamins and minerals to the levels needed during pregnancy.
Iron is the one micronutrient that is almost impossible to obtain in adequate amounts from food sources only. However, expectant mothers should take a prenatal supplement to ensure an adequate intake of iron and folate. Consuming large quantities of caffeine affects the pregnant mother as well, leading to irritability, anxiety, and insomnia.
If the infection spreads to the nervous system, it can result in a stiff neck, convulsions, or a feeling of disorientation.American Pregnancy Association.
The Environmental Defense Fund eco-rates fish to provide guidelines to consumers about the safest and most environmentally friendly choices. Brisk walking, swimming, or an aerobics class geared toward expectant mothers are all great ways to get exercise during a pregnancy. All of these can impact a pregnant womana€™s nutritional intake and it is important to protect against adverse effects. This disorder is marked by elevated blood pressure and protein in the urine and is associated with swelling. If blood sugar levels are not properly monitored and treated, the baby might gain too much weight and require a cesarean delivery. Typically, folate intake has the greatest impact during the first eight weeks of pregnancy, when the neural tube closes. Vitamins are destroyed by overcooking, whereas uncooked vegetables and fruits have the highest vitamin content. For example, an additional 340 calories could include a medium-sized banana (about 100 calories), a cup of nonfat yogurt with fruit on the bottom (about 140 calories), and a slice of whole-wheat toast (about 75 calories). Protein should be derived from healthy sources, such as lean red meat, white-meat poultry, legumes, nuts, seeds, eggs, and fish. In particular, the brain depends on omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, such as the kind found in salmon and sunflower or safflower oil, for function, structure, and growth. Sources of insoluble fiber include whole grains, fruits, vegetables, dried peas, and beans. Therefore, even if a pregnant woman consumes a healthy diet, there still is a need to take an iron supplement, in the form of ferrous salts.
Here are some additional dietary guidelines for pregnant women:US Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Womena€™s Health. Alcohol enters the unborn baby via the umbilical cord and can slow fetal growth, damage the brain, or even result in miscarriage.
Healthy women who already participate in vigorous activities, such as running, can continue doing so during pregnancy provided they discuss an exercise plan with their physicians. Getting mild to moderate exercise and drinking enough fluids can help prevent both conditions.
However, it can be harmful if these substances take the place of nutritious foods or contain toxins. To prevent preeclampsia, the WHO recommends increasing calcium intake for women consuming diets low in that micronutrient, administering a low dosage of aspirin (75 milligrams), and increasing prenatal checkups.World Health Organization.
A sedentary lifestyle and a diet low in fresh fruits and vegetables may affect male fertility.
The neural tube develops into the fetusa€™s brain, and adequate folate reduces the risk of brain abnormalities or neural tube defects, which occur in one in a thousand pregnancies in North America each year. Pregnant women of normal weight should gain between 25 and 35 pounds in total through the entire pregnancy.
It is also standard for pregnant women to take prenatal supplements to ensure adequate intake of the needed micronutrients.
Low-fat milk and other dairy products also provide protein, along with calcium and other nutrients. Fats can also help the placenta grow and may help to prevent premature birth and low birth weight.
Also remember that folate needs increase during pregnancy to 600 micrograms per day to prevent neural tube defects. The effects of alcohol are most severe in the first trimester, when the organs are developing. Most patients who suffer from gestational diabetes also require daily insulin injections to boost the absorption of glucose from the bloodsteam and promote the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen in liver and muscle cells. Men who drink too much alcohol may also damage the quantity and quality of their sperm.Mayo Clinic. The precise amount that a mother should gain usually depends on her beginning body mass index (BMI). Soluble fiber is readily fermented in the colon by bacteria into gases and waste byproducts. This micronutrient is crucial for fetal development because it helps produce the extra blood a womana€™s body requires during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes usually resolves after childbirth, although some women who suffer from this condition develop Type 2 diabetes later in life, particularly if they are overweight. Inadequate folic acid can result in birth defects, such as spina bifida, which is the failure of the spinal column to close.
See Table 12.1 "Body Mass Index and Pregnancy" for The Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations. Although pregnant women in the past may have participated in behavior that was not known to be risky at the time, such as drinking alcohol or smoking cigarettes, today we know that it is best to avoid those substances completely to protect the health of the unborn baby. So keep on drinking those 10 cups of beverages a day and keep on moving around as much as possible. The name a€?folatea€? is derived from the Latin word folium for leaf, and leafy green vegetables such as spinach and kale are excellent sources of it. New mothers who gain a healthy amount of weight and participate in regular physical activity during their pregnancies also have an easier time shedding weight postpregnancy.
Sources of soluble fiber include fruits, vegetables, and beans, along with oats, barley, and other fiber-filled whole grains. However, women who gain more weight than needed for a pregnancy typically retain that excess weight as body fat. For both men and women, adopting healthy habits also boosts general well-being and makes it possible to meet the demands of parenting. Additionally, since 1998, food manufacturers have been required to add folate to cereals and other grain products.MedlinePlus, a service of the National Institutes of Health. If those few pounds increase a new mothera€™s BMI by a unit or more, that could lead to complications such as hypertension or Type 2 diabetes in future pregnancies or later in life.

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