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Parents must accept the fact that children with ADHD have functionally different brains from those of other children.
Fostering the development of a child with ADHD means that you will have to modify your behavior and learn to manage the behavior of your child. The goal of behavioral modification is to help your child consider the consequences of an action and control the impulse to act on it. It’s important to consistently reward good behaviors and discourage destructive ones, but you can’t be too strict with your child.
Create a special, quiet space for your child to read, do homework, and have time-outs from the chaos of everyday life. Another way to control the impulse to speak before thinking is to teach your child how to pause a moment before talking or replying. It sounds simplistic, but take things one day at a time and remember to keep it all in perspective. Remember that you are the parent and, ultimately, you establish the rules for acceptable behavior in your home. Many parents today are concerned that their kids may be spending too much time on the Internet.
Parents around the world are concerned that their kids may be spending so much time in the “screen world”, that their kids may be missing out on real life experiences. It’s estimated that kids and teens between the ages of 8 to 28 spend about 44.5 hours each week in front of digital screens. About 23% of kids and teens have reported that they actually feel as if they have addictions to video games. However, it’s up to parents to regulate the amount of time their kids spend online each day. Just like any other addiction, Internet addiction can be a way for your kids to escape the real world.
Talk with your child about the things you read and hear, especially the things you find interesting. If you demonstrate excitement about learning and are open to your children pursuing their own interest areas, it will be hard for them to resist the opportunities.
Article provided by wikiHow, a wiki building the world’s largest, highest quality how-to manual. Do not place a baby on a waterbed, sofa, soft mattress, pillow, or other soft sufrace to sleep. Even women who put a lot of thought and planning into eating the right foods can miss out on important vitamins.
The National Council on Folic Acid recommends that all women who can become pregnant consume 400 micrograms (mcg) of folic acid daily to prevent serious birth defects of the brain and spine. Studies have shown that, if taken before and during early pregnancy, folic acid can dramatically reduce the number of birth defects of the brain and spine called neural tube defects.
Half of all pregnancies are unplanned; that’s why it’s important to start taking a multivitamin with folic acid now, even if you’re not planning a pregnancy. Getting 400 mcg of folic acid each day might also help protect against disease and promote long-term health.
Taking a daily multivitamin containing 400 mcg of folic acid is an easy way to make sure you get enough of this B-vitamin.
In today’s fast-paced world, busy schedules often make it difficult to be sure you’re getting the vitamins and minerals you need from your diet every day. Replace standard bulbs with low-heat CFL (compact fluorescent lights) or LED (light emitting diodes) bulbs as standard light bulbs emit a lot of heat. Take cool rather than hot showers and keep the bathroom exhaust fan on for about 20 minutes afterward to remove excess heat and humidity. If you are worried that your child has one or more of these signs, take your child to a doctor or hospital.
If your child is going outdoors, use an SPF 30+ sunscreen on your child’s face, hands and any other parts of the body that aren’t covered by clothes. Recently, researchers have been looking at whether sunscreens harm babies younger than one year old (most authorities don’t recommend sunscreen under the age of six months).
If you use only small amounts of sunscreen on uncovered areas such as the face and hands, and use clothing to cover most of the body, rather than slathering your baby’s legs, arms and body in sunscreen), the tiny amount of sunscreen that might be absorbed shouldn’t harm your baby. Never leave babies or young children alone in a car, even to run a quick errand, no matter what the weather. Make sure air can circulate around them – for example, by removing any padding around the cot. Cover mattresses and waterproof sheets with thick layers of cotton sheets to absorb perspiration and prevent prickly heat rash. See How to be patient for some more general ideas on letting a little more patience into your life.
If you do not allow children to do things their way, this takes away their autonomy and potentially stunts their ability to discover things for themselves. If you feel that a situation is getting out of hand with a child, take a step back and create space between you and the child. A child who is given time with an adult soaks up the message that the busyness of adult life can wait, that childhood is a good time, and that there is no need to grow up too quickly.
Another kind of patience that can be hard to find is when dealing with an infinitely stubborn child. If impatience is running your life and threatening your relationships, consider seeking professional help to gain some insight as to why.
We recommend that your child eat 3 meals per day plus snacks in between, from a variety of foods. Offer your child plenty of variety, and don’t worry if they refuse some things – they’ll make up for it by eating other foods.
Present your child’s food in different ways, like offering meat as hamburgers or meatballs.
To help prevent choking offer food that matches children’s chewing and grinding ability, and avoid small, round, hard foods like nuts and grapes. Young children need some fat in their diets for energy and growth, but it’s important not to have high-fat and high-sugar foods (eg, chips, lollies and ice cream) every day. Try to offer snacks and treats well before mealtimes so your child has time to get hungry again.
Helping children to learn to behave the way you want them to is one of the most important jobs of being a parent. Know the times when your child is likely to have a tantrum, such as when they are tired, hungry or frustrated – have food and drink on hand or give them something else to do to calm them down.
Your health care provider will be able to support you with strategies to manage your child’s tantrums. Look after your child’s first teeth by brushing them twice a day – after breakfast and before bed. Regular check-ups of your child’s teeth increase the chances of finding and treating any tooth decay (holes) early. If your child accidentally bumps their teeth, take them to a dentist, even if the teeth still look all right.
Teaching a child to read is a fulfilling and educational process, both for the parent and child. As your child ages to elementary school level, try reading them books that might be above their reading level but that have an interesting or engaging story to get them interested. Look for books that combine other senses along with the reading, to help your small child to interact as you tell them the story. Help to teach your child critical thinking skills by asking open-ended questions about stories.
Because your child may be touching and reading the books often, be sure to choose ones that have wipeable pages and that aren’t incredibly sentimental. A fancy bookshelf may seem like the most attractive option, but until your child is in school focus on the utilitarian purposes of book storage. It is easier for children to develop phonemic awareness when words are broken down into their smallest parts. Don’t move onto explicit phonics until your child has developed adequate phonemic awareness.
Don’t use whole stories or books yet; have your child read from word lists or from a basic story (not focusing on the plot). Make a questions list that your child can read; their ability to read and understand the provided questions is nearly as helpful as answering the questions themselves.
You’ll notice an enhanced reading ability as your child learns to spell by decoding and sounding out words. Reading out loud doesn’t have to be limited to stories; whenever you are around words, have your child sound them out to you. If your child has no patience to learn to read and would rather watch TV, try turning on the closed-captions and encouraging them to follow along. Whether you’re in the backyard, at the beach or at a community swimming pool, keep your toddler safe by following these simple tips.
Whenever infants or toddlers are in or around water, an adult should be within arm’s reach to provide active supervision. Every child is different, so enroll your child in swimming lessons when you feel he or she is ready. Remember that things such as water wings, noodles and other swimming aids are fun toys for kids, but they should never be used in place of a U.S. Install a door alarm, a window alarm or both to alert you if a child wanders into the pool area unsupervised. Most women sail through pregnancy and the postpartum period but it is good to be prepared for any untoward incidents. Have had fluid gushing or leaking from your vagina (the amniotic sac has ruptured) AND you know or think the umbilical cord is bulging into your vagina (cord prolapse).
A common method of checking your baby’s movement is to count the number of kicks or moves you feel in an hour.
Uterine tenderness, unexplained fever, or general weakness (possible symptoms of infection).
Between 20 and 37 weeks, more than four to six contractions in one hour could indicate preterm labor. After 37 weeks, contractions every five minutes for one to two hours could indicate labour. Between 20 and 37 weeks, preterm labour could be indicated by low back pain or pelvic pressure that does not go away, or intestinal cramping with or without diarrhea. Get emergency help if you think you are in danger for example if you have a seizure or pass out. Your breasts are painful or red and you have a fever, which are symptoms of breast engorgement and mastitis.
Your vaginal bleeding seems to be getting heavier or is still bright red four days after delivery, or you pass blood clots larger than the size of a golf ball.
You have a severe headache, visual problems, or sudden swelling of your face, hands, or feet.
You buy those little mittens to protect your infants precious little face, but eventually those mittens have to come off and here is how you can trim those thin, sharp finger nails. Studies have warned that prolonged exposure to screens and devices — televisions, computers, tablets, phones, and the like — may cause attention, socialisation, emotional and physiological problems in children. That being said, when regulated well, there are devices and programmes that can engage a child in a more compelling manner and aid in their development. Yes, the first step to getting children interested in life is for parents to be engaged themselves. One of the most effective means of getting a child to participate is to engage them with activities that stimulate the senses.
For the more adventurous, attempt to create funkier supplies that would befuddle the minds of your young ones.
The creation of sounds and music is another sensory activity that warrants its own introduction. Getting a pet might seem like even more work for the already overwhelmed working parent, and it is. Furthermore, consider adopting a pet from a rescue shelter — teach your child the importance of responsible and the sanctity of life before involving them in the decision-making process. And reduction from migraines could motherhood Maternity which has an ideal selection in styles. Martin, MD, MPH, ABIM Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA. Normal rule-making and household routines can become almost impossible, so you’ll need to adopt different approaches.
While children with ADHD can still learn what is acceptable and what isn’t, their internal regulation makes them more prone to impulsive behavior. This requires empathy, patience, affection, energy, and strength on the part of the parent. Color coding chores and homework can keep your child from becoming overwhelmed with everyday tasks and school assignments. Television, video games, and the computer encourage impulsive behavior and should be regulated.
Encourage more thoughtful responses by helping your child with homework assignments and asking interactive questions about a favorite television show or book.
Children mimic the behaviors they see around them, so if you remain composed and controlled during an outburst, it will help your child to do the same.
If your child has accomplished two of the three chores you assigned, don’t worry about the third, uncompleted task.
ADHD may not be visible on the outside, but it’s a disability and should be treated as such. Be patient and nurturing, but don’t allow yourself to be bullied or intimidated by your child. These days, kids and especially teens need the Internet to research information for school projects.
Plus, kids don’t like to take time away from their digital screens to sit down to healthy meals.
This can lead to an internet addiction, which just like any other type of addiction, can destroy a healthy balance of interests and activities in your teen’s life.
And, make sure it’s situated so that you can easily view the screen when you step into the room. Troubling situations and painful feelings may be suppressed, which will only cause bigger problems later in life.
A passion for learning is quite different from just studying to earn a grade or to please parents or teachers.
If they show curiosity about a hobby, area of study, sport, or instrument, encourage and support them in any way your finances allow.
School, educational games and television, and a shelf full of books all can’t accomplish what you can in the education of your child.
Fostering independence in your child is very important for their brain development and how they feel about learning.
Attend school functions, volunteer in the classroom if possible, and communicate with the teacher.
Some things are not taught in a class room, but that doesn’t mean they are worth exploring. If your child makes a low grade, don’t scream and yell, but instead show them what they did wrong and help them understand. Please edit this article and find author credits at the original wikiHow article on How to Encourage Your Child to Love Learning. It is found in most standard multivitamins, as well as in fortified foods like cereal, bread and pasta. New research also suggests that folic acid might reduce the risk of other birth defects, such as cleft lip and palate and some heart defects.
New research indicates that folic acid may reduce the risk of heart disease, as well as colon, breast and cervical cancer. Preparing healthy meals often takes a back seat to other activities, and even people who eat a balanced diet every day may not get enough folic acid from their diet alone. Check your food in the oven by looking through the glass rather than opening the door and cover pots to reduce indoor humidity. Make sure your ceiling fans run in a counterclockwise direction to help keep you cool during evaporation. Sunscreen works better if you put it on 20 minutes before you go outside, and reapply it every two hours. They have studied whether a baby’s thin skin can absorb chemicals from sunscreen, which might damage the baby’s organs.
To cool hot little bodies, try frequent lukewarm baths, or sponge your child down with a cool face washer. Patience gives us time to reflect, to slow down and think about the world and the things we’re doing.
When the daily chores mount up and everyone is rushing about, sometimes it’s easy to take one another for granted. Allow a child to try new things often, so as to give them a sense of self-trust and personal responsibility. Children are ready to trust and soak up information from the people who care for them and spend time with them.
Instead of seeking to control, patience allows the child to grow at their own pace, rather than being pushed into doing things before being ready.
This breathing space is important for both of you, after which you can express your thoughts and establish boundaries when you are collected, rather than channeling your concerns through frustration. It can be very hard to be patient sometimes in a world where teaching Mozart in the womb and expectations of exemplary behavior from preschool are considered the norm. Sometimes our greatest impatience arises when we allow our own endeavors such as work, personal pursuits, hobbies, sports, etc., to get in the way of spending time with children.
The point of life is being with one another, a gift that can only be imparted to a child in the doing. In this case, part of the trick is to have a good sense of humor, not at the child but about the situation. People who have adopted or fostered children who have experienced hardship or horrors, such as living through a war, a famine, or violence of any kind, often attest to the need for waiting patiently while the child learns to trust again, to unfurl from the cocoon of safety in which the child has wrapped themselves up as they realize that people do care again and that they are respected. At the core of severe impatience could be psychological issues that can be successfully worked through with the right kind of help and support.
Please edit this article and find author credits at the original wikiHow article on How to Be Patient With Kids. If your child is rejecting certain foods and drinks, there’s a range of things you can do to encourage their eating.
Always make sure your child sits down while they’re eating and drinking and that an adult is with them. If your child drinks more than 2 cups of milk (500 ml) a day, they may not eat well because they’re already full. If you want them to behave in a kind and calm way, they need to see you often being kind and calm.
Make sure that everyone who looks after your child agrees on TV time, eating, playing, bedtime and general expectations. They’ll feel a lot safer when they know what the limits are, even though they will test them sometimes. Here are some tips to stop tantrums before they start, and to help your child when they do have a tantrum.


You may find it easier to stand behind your child and gently tilt their head back as you brush. Don’t rinse with water, because a small amount of fluoride toothpaste left around the teeth will help to protect them.
To protect your child’s teeth, give them low-sugar snacks between meals such as fruit, fresh vegetables, yoghurt and other dairy foods.
Do not give your child drinks that have natural or added sugar, such as fruit juice, cordial, fizzy drinks, flavoured milks and chocolate drinks.
Whether you home school your kids or just want to give your child a head-start, you can begin teaching your child to read at home. As with all things, it’s difficult to get good at something without having a bit of exposure to it. It’s no good if you have books around, but located in places that your child can’t easily take them. This can be done in two ways: create your own mini-library at home by collecting dozens of books in your child’s reading level, or make weekly trips to the local public library together to check out books. Before you even start getting into the alphabet and sound specifics, help your child recognize that the lines on the page are directly correlated to the words you are speaking.
In the recent past, some companies have advertised specialized flashcards to help babies, toddlers, and preschool age children to read. When your child has developed word awareness, begin breaking down words into individual letters. One of the most important steps in teaching reading is associating a spoken sound with a letter or letter-pair. Avoid confusion and build a solid foundation by working at a steady pace through all of the speech sounds. This can be done with the clapping game (clapping out each syllable in a word) or by sounding-out words into their individual letters. Rhyming teaches phonemic awareness and letter recognition, in addition to the most basic English words. Traditionally, children are taught to recognize a word based on its size, the first and last letters, and the general sound. If they cannot associate sounds with letters or letter pairs quickly, they need a bit more practice before moving onto complete words.
Classically known as ‘sounding out’ words, decoding is when a child reads a word by making the sounds of each individual letter, rather than trying to read the whole word at once.
Regional accents and weak auditory skills make it hard for children to say most sounds in an academically correct way. Preschoolers, kindergartners, and first graders are very concrete in the way they think and cannot handle complicated concepts. Certain words in the English vocabulary are spoken often, but don’t follow the typical phonics rules. Odds are, your child will be in school by the time they are able to read and will be given their own reading material by their teachers. Similar to when you were reading stories to your child, every time your child reads ask them questions about what they’ve just read.
Reading is a necessary precursor to writing, but as your child develops reading skills have them practice their writing in conjunction. You’ll be given a better idea of your child’s reading ability when they read out loud, and they’ll be forced to slow down their reading to correctly sound out words. Road signs are a great example of something your child sees on a daily basis, and can practice reading out loud to you. They can recognize some shapes and correlate them to pictures, but it is not really reading.
Please edit this article and find author credits at the original wikiHow article on How to Teach Your Child to Read.
Families who have meals at the table with no distractions (such as mobile devices or television) are found to be more likely to be a healthy weight.
We know it’s hard to get everything done without a little multitasking, but this is the time to avoid distractions of any kind. It will give you tremendous peace of mind – and the more peace of mind you have as a parent, the better.
Make sure backyard pools have four-sided fencing that’s at least 4 feet high and a self-closing, self-latching gate to prevent a child from wandering into the pool area unsupervised. This is quite rare, but if it happens, immediately get down on your knees and drop your head and upper body lower than your buttocks to decrease pressure on the cord until help arrives. You are passing blood clots and soaking through a new sanitary pad every hour for two or more hours. They do not grow as fast, but you don’t want your baby scratching up his or her little legs.
Please edit this article and find author credits at the original wikiHow article on How to Trim an Infant’s Fingernails. However, in this day and age, many parents forgo quality bonding time with their children simply because it is easier to thrust a smart device under their child’s nose and allow them to entertain themselves. Still, engaging a child through real-life activities and parental interaction are crucial and instrumental to their well-being and holistic growth.
Put down your phones, stow away your tablets, set aside your e-mails and place all of your attention on your little ones. This way, they are more aware with their surroundings and are more likely to explore the world around them. Try combining corn starch with water to form a more viscous, semi-liquid, semi-solid resource that children can marvel over and experiment with. The hands-on experience coupled with the aromas — fragrant or otherwise — will be more than a stimulating experience. Create a challenge of recording as many different sounds as possible within a period of time. However, rearing pets is also a great way of teaching a child the virtues of responsibility and commitment from young. HSV-1 can also cause genital herpes. Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is the most common cause of genital herpes, but it can also cause oral herpes. It can be frustrating and disheartening to cope with constant impulsive behavior from your child, but there are ways to make life easier. The second is negatively reinforcing bad behavior by following it with appropriate consequences, leading to the extinguishing of bad behavior (negative reinforcement). If your child acts out in public, they should be immediately removed in a calm and decisive manner. Simple daily tasks, such as having your child lay out his or her clothes for the next day, can provide essential structure. By decreasing time with electronics and increasing time doing engaging activities outside the home, your child will have an outlet for built-up energy. Just as your child will need to take breaks while studying, you’ll need your own breaks as well. Take time to breathe, relax, and collect your thoughts before attempting to pacify your child.
National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health (NIH) reports that “screen time” as a whole is the problem. And, when used properly, it can be a reliable source of information for kids who simply love to read or want to learn more about specific topics.
If screen time seems to be a problem, spend more time talking to your kids to find out why. Those who develop a love of learning at an early age continue the process throughout their lives and are generally more successful, interesting, and happier than those who don’t.
Sometimes, activities seem too difficult for your child only because you haven’t encouraged them to do it yet. For good grades, don’t buy big, expensive things to celebrate (at least not all the time).
Also, tighten all nuts, bolts, and screws every few months, and check the mattress support hangers and hooks regularly. To get enough folic acid, women should take a daily multivitamin and eat fortified grains as part of a healthy, well-balanced diet. These illnesses often lead to a slight rise in temperature by themselves but, in hot weather, this could lead to dehydration. Even a very young child can indicate their likes and dislikes; allowing these to express themselves at appropriate occasions is important. Taking time now and then to express your gratitude for your children will help you to respect them for the unique, individual beings they are, and helps them to see the importance of valuing others openly.
While their attempts might sometimes cause you frustration and worry, it is important to allow children to show you their way of doing things. Trying to control children lacks respect for their own self and is a way of trying to insert your way of thinking and preferences onto them. No matter what the competitive approach insists upon, patience gives you a means for remaining calm within yourself, to give you the perspective to recognize the readiness of a child at their own developmental pace, independent of external standards.
Whether we’re parenting, caring, teaching, working or volunteering with children, nobody is immune from impatience at times. Find amusing, fun, and happy things to entice the child out of their stubbornness and to becoming involved with whatever it is that you’re doing. This kind of patience takes a special kind of reserve but it is absolutely vital if the child is to learn to trust again. Healthy baby teeth usually mean healthy adult teeth too, so it’s important that you look after your child’s first teeth.
Use a small toothbrush with soft bristles and a smear of regular-strength fluoride toothpaste. In order to get your child interested in reading, you should be reading to them on a regular basis.
Keep books low to the ground and in typical play-areas so that your child begins to associate them with play activities. Spend a minimum of ten minutes a day reading when your child is around, so that they see you enjoying the activity on your own. Accompany this by pointing to words on the page to help them connect the lines on the page with the sounds that form words. Having a variety of books on hand (especially with an older child) will add interest for reading, and help to incorporate more vocabulary into their knowledge base. However, these don’t teach reading skills, but rather teach the children to associate a particular line drawing (word) with a correlated image.
Although the alphabet song is the most classic means of teaching the alphabet, try getting creative. Read nursery rhymes to your child, and then eventually make lists of easy-to-read rhymes such as mop, top, flop, pop, and cop.
This method of teaching is known as implicit phonics - working from the largest piece down. By age four, most English speaking children already have an excellent grasp of grammar and in due time, they will learn all the formal grammatical rules. Help them to read these whole stories by encouraging explicit phonics use, and recognizing vocabulary. At first it will be difficult for them to think critically about meanings of words and the buildup of character development and plot (or the semblance of those things in the most basic of stories), but over time they will develop the necessary skills to answer questions. They’ll develop a stronger phonemic awareness when they can see words as you read them, rather than struggling to do both at the same time themselves.
Avoid stopping your child to correct them while reading though, as doing so can interrupt their train of thought and make comprehending what they’re reading more difficult. Include your kids in simple chores like walking the dog or washing the car or organize a family bike ride. Try creating sandbags, water bags and flour bags, amongst other things, for your child to play with.
Parents racing around with their children in order to make and experiment with different sounds and music can be one of the most entertaining things to do.
It need not be a high maintenance pet; a small rabbit or hamster can help with the lesson too. Trends in HSV Types and Genital HerpesGenital herpes can be caused by either HSV-2 or HSV-1. By following these guidelines, you can limit destructive behavior and help your child overcome self-doubt.
You teach your child to understand that actions have consequences by establishing rules and clear outcomes for following or disobeying these rules. For example, allow the child to accrue points for good behavior that can be redeemed for spending money, time in front of the TV, or a new video game. Odd behaviors that aren’t detrimental to your child or anyone else should be accepted as part of your child’s individual personality.
Exercise also improves concentration, decreases depression and anxiety, and stimulates the brain. It’s important to understand your child’s thought process in order to help him or her curb impulsive behaviors. So, how much time is considered to be too much for kids to be on the Internet and in front of screens in general? Here are a few simple things you can do to engage your child: count the number of houses, black cars, bicycles, etc. For example, things like peeling their own banana, picking out which shirt to wear, and feeding the family cat, are all things that a young toddler can do.
Learning to let go despite the messes, frustration, and mistakes that will inevitably arise is a vital skill when caring for or being with children. It’s about respecting the wants and requests of the child within the appropriateness of the situation. Despite the worries of others, his mother took this in her stride, believing he’d speak more than enough when he was ready. Rushing can cause you to lose sight of your guiding role, and of the precious essence of the child. If you’re able, this should start when they are an infant and continue through their school years. Even if you’re not an avid reader, find something to read - a magazine, the newspaper, or a cookbook all count. In general, flashcards are not the most useful or effective technique for teaching reading skills.
Explain each of the letters with their name, but don’t worry about trying to incorporate the sounds the letters make yet.
There are 44 speech sounds created by the 26 letters in our alphabet, and each sound must be taught paired with its letter(s) counterpart. Your child will begin to see the patterns of sounds that are made when certain letters are combined - in this case, the sound ‘o-p’ makes. However, studies have shown that readable vocabulary dramatically increases (from 900 words to 30,000 words by the third grade) when taught in the opposite fashion: breaking each word into the smallest parts, and building them up into a full word - explicit phonics. Recognize that learning sounds is only an intermediate step to learning to read, it is not the goal. At this point, you need to concentrate only on the mechanical skill of reading, that is learning to decode new words and incorporating them in memory to build fluency. As their word recognition increases, they’ll be able to more fully understand story plots and meanings. An easy and fun way to help encourage this is to use puppets who represent characters in the story, so your child can describe it to you through them. The motor memory of the letters, listening to their sounds and seeing them in writing will reinforce new learning. Younger children can learn math skills and older ones will enjoy being able to choose and prepare foods they like.
The best way to foster a child’s natural curiosity about the world around them is to bring an animal into the equation. It’s ultimately harmful to discourage a child’s quirky behaviors just because you think they are unusual. Try to ignore mildly disruptive behaviors as a way for your child to release his or her pent up energy.
Letting your child do things like this makes them feel more in control of their world, which in turn inspires them toward bigger and better exploits. Giving too many rewards also encourages bad habits and manners, such as bragging, and can lead to complexes (such as fear of failure). Whether you’re raising children, or working or volunteering with them, a little patience goes a long way. Patience also enables others to accept us into their lives through our faithful, continued presence and enduring respect for them. Help the child to learn the difference between making a request and making a demand and what the consequences are.
Read books at levels that they would be able to read, should they know how; at a young age this may lead you to read 3-4 small books a day. Soon they’ll become interested in reading on their own, simply as a result of seeing you doing it too. Try to avoid them, and substitute out flashcards for another study and skill-development techniques described. This includes the long and short sound produced by each individual letter, as well as the specialized sounds some combined letters make (like ‘ch’ and ‘sh’). Help your child to begin reading by having them sound-out each individual letter without looking at the overall word first.
In recent years, HSV-1 has become a significant cause in developed countries, including the United States.
Some behaviors should always be unacceptable, like physical outbursts, refusal to get up in the morning, or unwillingness to turn off the television when told to do so.
However, destructive, abusive, or intentionally disruptive behavior should always be punished.
Experts believe that athletics can help a child with ADHD find a constructive way to focus their passion, attention, and energy.
When we accept the importance of patience in our lives, it becomes easier to be patient with others too. It is also important to help them understand the importance of delayed gratification, teaching them that when you do say no, sometimes this is about waiting, rather than never having or doing what they’ve asked for.
In watching and learning from your child or from other children, you will learn their character better, and see both their strengths and their weaknesses, giving you an opportunity to help them nurture the best talents and to learn to manage their weaknesses.
It is a time during which you can learn a great deal about seeing the world through fresh eyes. Through respecting the rhythm of ourselves and others, being patient presents an opportunity to give of ourselves rather than expecting others to conform to our wants. Helping them to understand this time perspective is far kinder than simply saying no and not explaining any further.
It can also be a time when you realize that you can make a big difference in the life of a child by teaching or showing them something new, and by helping them to love and respect themselves all the more.
The risk of infection is highest during outbreak periods when there are visible sores and lesions.
SymptomsWhen genital herpes symptoms do appear, they are usually worse during the first outbreak than during recurring attacks. Herpes, Pregnancy, and Newborn InfantsHerpes can pose serious risks for a pregnant woman and her baby. The risk is greatest for mothers with a first-time infection, because the virus can be transmitted to the infant during childbirth.


Guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend using specific diagnostic tests for women in labor to determine the risk of transmission. Babies born to mothers infected with genital herpes are often treated with the antiviral drug acyclovir, which can help suppress the virus. Herpes viruses include human herpes virus 8 (the cause of Kaposi sarcoma) and varicella-zoster virus (also known as herpes zoster, the virus responsible for shingles and chickenpox). The word "herpes" comes from the Greek word "herpein," meaning "to creep." This refers to the unique characteristic pattern of all herpes viruses to creep along local nerve pathways to the nerve clusters at the end, where they remain in an inactive (dormant) state for variable periods of time.
The usual cause of oral herpes (herpes labialis), which are commonly called cold sores or fever blisters.
HSV-1 can also cause genital herpes, which is a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2).
Until recently, the general rule was to assume that HSV-1 caused oral herpes and HSV-2 caused genital herpes. It is now clear, however, that either type of herpes virus can be found in the genital or oral areas (or other sites). In fact, HSV-1 is now responsible for more than half of all new cases of genital herpes in developed countries. The Disease ProcessHerpes is transmitted through close skin-to-skin contact. To infect people, the herpes simplex viruses (both HSV-1 and HSV-2) must get into the body through tiny injuries in the skin or through a mucous membrane, such as inside the mouth or on the genital or anal areas.
The risk for infection is highest with direct contact of blisters or sores during an outbreak. But the infection can also develop from contact with an infected partner who does not have visible sores or other symptoms. Once the virus has contact with the mucous membranes or skin wounds, it enters the nuclei of skin tissue cells and begins to replicate. The virus is then transported from the nerve endings of the skin to clusters of nerve cells (ganglia) where it remains inactive (latent) for some period of time. However, at some point, the virus wakes up and travels along nerve pathways to the surface the skin where it begins to multiply again.
During this time, the virus can infect other people if it is passed along in body fluids or secretions. Viral shedding may be accompanied by noticeable symptoms (outbreak) but it can also occur without causing symptoms (asymptomatic shedding). In either case, a person is infectious during periods of viral shedding. Symptoms may appear as multiple small red bumps or patches that develop blisters.
Certain triggers can wake up the virus from its dormant state and cause it to become active again.
In general, recurrent episodes of herpes cause less severe symptoms than the primary outbreak.
HSV-1 is the most prevalent form of herpes simplex virus, and infection is most likely to occur during preschool years. In addition, because HSV-1 can be passed in saliva, people should also avoid sharing toothbrushes or eating utensils. Transmission of Genital Herpes Genital herpes is transmitted through sexual activity. People can get HSV-2 through genital contact or HSV-1 through mouth-to-genital contact with an infected partner. People with active symptoms of genital herpes are at very high risk for transmitting the infection.
Unfortunately, most cases of genital herpes infections occur when the virus is shedding but producing no symptoms. Most people either have no symptoms or do not recognize them when they appear. In the past, genital herpes was mostly caused by HSV-2, but HSV-1 genital infection is increasing. There is also evidence that children today are less likely to get cold sores and become exposed to HSV-1 during childhood.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 1 in 6 Americans ages 14 to 49 years have genital herpes.
While HSV-2 remains the main cause of genital herpes, HSV-1 has significantly increased as a cause, most likely because of oral-genital sex.
African-American women are at particularly high risk. People with compromised immune systems, such as those who have HIV, are at very high risk for genital herpes. Drugs that suppress the immune system, and organ transplantation, can also weaken the immune system and increase the risk for contracting genital herpes.
It is almost impossible to defend against the transmission of oral herpes, because it can be transmitted by very casual contact, including kissing. Still, you can help reduce the risk of transmitting oral herpes by not sharing objects that touch the mouth, such as eating and drinking utensils, toothbrushes, and towels. It is best to refrain from any type of sex (vaginal, anal, or oral) during periods of active outbreak. However, herpes can also be transmitted when symptoms are not present (asymptomatic shedding).
Although condoms may not provide 100% protection, they are proven to significantly reduce the risk of sexual disease transmission, including herpes. Natural condoms made from animal skin do NOT protect against HSV infection because herpes viruses can pass through them. Use a water-based lubricant.
Lubricants can help prevent friction during sex, which can irritate the skin and increase the risk for outbreaks. Only water-based lubricants (K-Y Jelly, Astroglide, AquaLube, and glycerin) should be used. However, it is best not to use condoms pre-lubricated with spermicides. Do not use spermicides for protection against herpes. Nonoxynol-9 can cause irritation around the genital areas, which makes it easier for herpes and other STDs to be transmitted. Use a dental dam or condom for oral sex. If you have any symptoms of oral herpes, it is best not to perform oral sex on a partner until any visible sores or blisters have healed. Limit the number of sexual partners. The more sexual partners you have, the greater your chances of becoming infected or infecting others.
It is very unlikely to transmit or contract genital herpes from a toilet seat or bath towel. Studies suggest that male circumcision may help reduce the risk of HSV-2, as well as human papillomavirus (HPV) and HIV infections. However, herpes can cause significant and widespread complications in people who don't have a fully functioning immune system. The CDC recommends that all people diagnosed with herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) get tested for HIV. Most people with HIV are co-infected with HSV-2 and are particularly vulnerable to its complications.
HSV-2 infection increases HIV levels in the genital tract, which makes it easier for the HIV virus to be spread to sexual partners. Herpes and PregnancyPregnant women who have genital herpes due to either HSV-2 or HSV-1 have an increased risk for miscarriage, premature labor, inhibited fetal growth, or transmission of the herpes infection to the infant in the uterus or at the time of delivery. Herpes in newborn babies (herpes neonatalis) can be a very serious condition. Fortunately, neonatal herpes is rare.
Although about 25 to 30% of pregnant women have genital herpes, less than 0.1% of babies are born with neonatal herpes.
The baby is at greatest risk during a vaginal delivery, especially if the mother has an asymptomatic infection that was first introduced late in the pregnancy.
The risk for transmission also increases if infants with infected mothers are born prematurely, there is invasive monitoring, or instruments are used during vaginal delivery.
Transmission can occur if the amniotic membrane of an infected woman ruptures prematurely, or as the infant passes through an infected birth canal. This risk is increased if the woman is having or has recently had an active herpes outbreak in the genital area. Very rarely, the virus is transmitted across the placenta, a form of the infection known as congenital herpes.
Also rarely, newborns may contract herpes during the first weeks of life from being kissed by someone with a herpes cold sore. Infants may get congenital herpes from a mother with an active herpes infection at the time of birth. Aggressive treatment with antiviral medication is required. Most infected pregnant women do not have a history of symptoms, so herpes infection is often not suspected or detected at the time of delivery. Fortunately, if a woman does have genital lesions, rapid diagnostic blood tests can quickly determine her chances of transmitting the virus to her baby during delivery. Some women with new or recurrent herpes may also be prescribed antiviral medication during pregnancy. A woman with herpes can usually safely breastfeed her baby, as long as she does not have a lesion on her breast or nipple. Neonatal herpes can spread to the brain and central nervous system, causing encephalitis and meningitis. Herpes can also spread to internal organs, such as the liver and lungs. Infants infected with herpes are treated with acyclovir, an antiviral drug. They usually receive several weeks of intravenous acyclovir treatment, often followed by several months of oral acyclovir.
It is important to treat babies quickly, before the infection spreads to the brain and other organs.
Fortunately, rapid diagnostic tests and treatment with acyclovir have significantly improved survival rates and reduced complication rates.
Nearly all who recover have some impairment, ranging from very mild neurological changes to paralysis.
Like encephalitis, meningitis symptoms include headache, fever, stiff neck, vomiting, and sensitivity to light. Fortunately, herpes meningitis usually resolves after about a week without complications, although symptoms can recur. Herpes Eye ComplicationsOcular herpes is a recurrent infection that affects the eyes.
Ocular herpes is usually a simple infection that clears up in a few days, but in its more serious forms, and in severe cases, it can cause blindness. It only affects the upper layer (epithelium) of the cornea and heals with scarring. Stromal Keratitis. Iridocyclitis is another serious complication of ocular herpes, in which the iris and the area around it become inflamed. Herpes Skin ComplicationsEczema Herpeticum A rare form of herpes infection called eczema herpeticum, also known as Kaposi varicelliform eruption, can affect people with skin disorders and those with a weakened immune system.
Untreated, this condition can be extremely serious and possibly fatal. Gingivostomatiti Oral herpes can cause multiple painful ulcers on the gums and mucus membranes of the mouth, a condition called gingivostomatitis. Children with gingivostomatitis commonly develop herpetic whitlow (herpes of the fingers). Herpetic Whitlow A herpetic whitlow is an infection of the herpes virus involving the finger, often around the fingernail. In children, this is often caused by thumb sucking or finger sucking while they have a cold sore.
It can also occur in adult health care workers, such as dentists, because of increased exposure to the herpes virus. The use of latex or polyurethane gloves prevents herpes whitlow in health care workers. SymptomsHerpes symptoms vary depending on whether the outbreak is initial or recurrent. The primary outbreak is usually worse than recurrent outbreaks, with more severe and prolonged symptoms. In fact, studies indicate that 10 to 25% of people infected with HSV-2 are unaware that they have genital herpes. The first signs are a tingling sensation in the affected areas (genitalia, buttocks, and thighs) and groups of small red bumps that develop into blisters.
The sores may sometimes itch, but itching decreases as they heal. About 40% of men and 70% of women develop other symptoms during initial outbreaks of genital herpes, such as flu-like discomfort, headache, muscle aches, and fever. Some women may have difficulty urinating and may, occasionally, require a urinary catheter. Women may also experience vaginal discharge. Recurrent Genital Herpes Outbreak In general, recurrences are much milder than the initial outbreak. The virus sheds for a much shorter period of time (about 3 days) compared to an initial outbreak of 3 weeks.
Women may have only minor itching, and the symptoms may be even milder in men. On average, people have about four recurrences during the first year, although this varies widely. There are some differences in frequency of recurrence depending on whether HSV-2 or HSV-1 caused genital herpes.
HSV-2 genital infection is more likely to cause recurrences than HSV-1. Symptoms of Oral HerpesOral herpes (herpes labialis) is most often caused by HSV-1, but it can also be caused by HSV-2. It usually affects the lips and, in some primary attacks, the mucus membranes in the mouth.
A herpes infection may occur on the cheeks or in the nose, but facial herpes is very uncommon. Primary Oral Herpes Infection If the primary (initial) oral infection causes symptoms, they can be very painful, particularly in children. The sores last 10 to 14 days and can be very uncomfortable. Blisters that may be preceded or accompanied by sore throat, fever, swollen glands, and painful swallowing. Recurrent Oral Herpes Infection A recurrent oral herpes infection is much milder than the primary outbreak. It usually manifests as a single sore, commonly called a cold sore or fever blister (because it may arise during a bout of cold or flu). The sore usually shows up on the outer edge of the lips and rarely affects the gums or throat. Recurrences of genital herpes are more likely with HSV-2 infection than with HSV-1 infection.
The outbreak of infection is often preceded by a prodrome, an early group of symptoms that may include itchy skin, pain, or an abnormal tingling sensation at the site of infection. Recurrent outbreaks feature most of the same symptoms at the same sites as the primary attack, but they tend to be milder and briefer. Occasionally, the symptoms may not resemble those of the primary episode, but appear as fissures and scrapes in the skin or as general inflammation around the affected area. They include sunlight, wind, fever, physical injury, surgery, menstruation, suppression of the immune system, and emotional stress.
Oral herpes can be triggered within about 3 days of intense dental work, particularly root canal or tooth extraction. Timing of Recurrences Recurrent outbreaks may occur at intervals of days, weeks, or years. For most people, outbreaks recur with more frequency during the first year after an initial attack. The good news is that in most healthy people, recurring infections tend to become progressively less frequent, and less severe, over time.
However, other conditions can resemble herpes, and doctors cannot base a herpes diagnosis on visual inspection alone.
These tests include: Virologic tests (viral culture of the lesion) Serologic tests (blood tests that detect antibodies) The CDC recommends that both virologic and serologic tests be used for diagnosing genital herpes. People diagnosed with genital herpes should also be tested for other sexually transmitted diseases. At this time, experts do not recommend screening for HSV-1 or HSV-2 in the general population. Genital herpes can be caused by either HSV-1 or HSV-2. It is important to determine which virus is involved, as the type of herpes infection influences prognosis and treatment recommendations.
Recurrences of genital herpes, and viral shedding without overt symptoms, are much less frequent with HSV-1 infection than with HSV-2. False-negative (testing negative when herpes infection is actually present) or false-positive (testing positive when herpes infection is not actually present) results can occur. Your health care provider may recommend that you have a test repeated. Virologic TestsViral culture tests are made by taking a fluid sample, or culture, from the lesions as early as possible, ideally within the first 48 hours of the outbreak. PCR tests are much faster and more accurate than viral cultures, and the CDC recommends PCR for detecting herpes in spinal fluid when diagnosing herpes encephalitis. PCR can make many copies of the virus' DNA, so that even small amounts of DNA in the sample can be detected.
However, many labs now use PCR for herpes testing because it is highly accurate. An older type of virologic testing, the Tzanck smear test, uses scrapings from herpes lesions.
The scrapings are stained and examined under a microscope for the presence of giant cells with many nuclei or distinctive particles that carry the virus (called inclusion bodies). The Tzanck test is not reliable for providing a conclusive diagnosis of herpes infection and is not recommended by the CDC. Serologic TestsSerologic (blood) tests can identify antibodies that are specific for either HSV-1 or HSV-2. When the herpes virus infects you, your body's immune system produces specific antibodies to fight off the infection. If a blood test detects antibodies to herpes, it is evidence that you have been infected with the virus, even if the virus is in a non-active (dormant) state. The presence of antibodies to herpes also indicates that you are a carrier of the virus and might transmit it to others. Serologic tests can be especially useful for people who do not have active symptoms, but who have other risk factors for herpes (such as other STDs, multiple sex partners, or a monogamous partner who has genital herpes). Although glycoprotein (gG) type-specific tests have been available for many years, many of the older nontype-specific tests that cannot distinguish HSV-1 from HSV-2 are still on the market. Canker sores frequently crop up singly or in groups on the inside of the mouth, or on or underneath the tongue. The drugs are used initially to treat a first attack of herpes, and then afterward to either treat recurrent outbreaks (episodic therapy) or reduce frequency of recurrences (suppressive therapy). Drugs can, however, reduce the severity of symptoms, improve healing times, and prevent recurrences. If people experience very severe disease or complications, they need to be hospitalized and receive an antiviral drug intravenously. Your health care provider will prescribe one of the three antiviral medications, which you will take for 7 to 10 days.
You should begin the medication as soon as you notice any signs or symptoms of herpes, preferably during the prodrome stage that precedes the outbreak of lesions. If taken during prodrome, episodic therapy may help prevent an outbreak from occurring or reduce its severity. Valacyclovir is taken once a day. Suppressive treatment can reduce the frequency of outbreak recurrences by 70 to 80%. It is generally recommended for people who have frequent recurrences (6 or more outbreaks per year).
Because herpes recurrences often diminish over time, you should discuss annually with your health care provider whether you should stay with drug therapy or discontinue it. While taking any suppressive therapy for genital herpes, it is still important to regularly use latex condoms and to avoid any sexual activity during recurrences. A new form of acyclovir (Sitavig) is administered orally as an adhesive tablet; it is applied to the gum region of the mouth, where it dissolves during the course of the day. In addition, acyclovir is available in topical form, as is the related drug penciclovir (Denavir). Topical TreatmentsThese ointments or creams can help shorten healing time and duration of symptoms.
However, none are truly effective at eliminating outbreaks. Penciclovir (Denavir) heals HSV-1 sores on average about half a day faster than without treatment, stops viral shedding, and reduces the duration of pain.
Ideally, you should apply the cream within the first hour of symptoms, although the medication can still help if applied later. Apply the cream 5 times a day, beginning at the first sign of tingling or pain. Over-the-counter topical ointments may provide modest relief.
They include Anbesol gel, Blistex lip ointment, Campho-phenique, Herpecin-L, Viractin, and Zilactin.
Some contain a topical anesthetic such as benzocaine, tetracaine, or phenol. Lip balm that contains sunblock, or sunscreen applied around the lips may help prevent sun-triggered outbreaks. Herbs and SupplementsGenerally, manufacturers of herbal remedies and dietary supplements do not need FDA approval to sell their products. Just like a drug, herbs and supplements can affect the body's chemistry, and therefore have the potential to produce side effects that may be harmful.
There have been several reported cases of serious and even lethal side effects from herbal products. Always check with your provider before using any herbal remedies or dietary supplements. Many herbal and dietary supplement products claim to help fight herpes infection by boosting the immune system. There has been little research on these products, and little evidence to show that they really work. Epidemiology, clinical presentation, and antibody response to primary infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in young women. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 among persons aged 14 - 49 years -- United States, 2005-2008. Guidance on management of asymptomatic neonates born to women with active genital herpes lesions.
Genital shedding of herpes simplex virus among symptomatic and asymptomatic persons with HSV-2 infection.



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