Pregnancy medicine chart,struggling to get pregnant after stillborn mean,early pregnancy with baby boy,pregnancy brain activity - PDF Books

Same here in PA – people are already bundled up in their thick Northfaces while others are clinging to the spaghetti straps and flipflops. After the egg is fertilized by a sperm and then implanted in the lining of the uterus, it develops into the placenta and embryo, and later into a fetus. Pregnancy urine tests check for the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which is produced by a placenta. A pregnant woman should be sure to eat a balanced, nutritious diet of frequent, small meals.
This means cutting back on high-calorie, high-fat, high-sugar snacks, and increasing the amount of fruits, vegetables and whole grains in her diet.
Anil Aggrawal, Professor of Forensic Medicine, at the Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi-110002. Congrats on your new coming addition and don’t worry about the models, they are too skinny anyway.
The newest home tests can detect pregnancy on the day of the missed menstrual period.Home pregnancy tests are more than 97% accurate if the result is positive, and about 80% accurate if the result is negative.
Women should begin taking 400 mcg of folic acid several months before becoming pregnant, as folic acid has been shown to reduce the risk of spinal cord defects, such as spina bifida.No medication (not even a nonprescription drug) should be taken except under medical supervision, since it could pass from the mother through the placenta to the developing baby. Once she becomes pregnant, she should make sure to get at least six to 11 servings of breads and other whole grains, three to five servings of vegetables, two to four servings of fruits, four to six servings of milk and milk products, three to four servings of meat and protein foods, and six to eight glasses of water. My cousin wore a gorgeous dress to a wedding that made me consider becoming pregnant just so I could get a dress like that.
In the UK, you can visit the public health service's NHS Direct site for "a comprehensive on-line health encyclopaedia".
Due to technological advances, pregnancy is increasingly occurring among older women in the United States.First monthAt the end of the first month, the embryo is about a third of an inch long, and its head and trunk-plus the beginnings of arms and legs-have started to develop. If the result is negative and there is no menstrual period within another week, the pregnancy test should be repeated.
Some drugs, called teratogens, have been proven harmful to a fetus, but no drug should be considered completely safe (especially during early pregnancy). She should limit caffeine to no more than one soft drink or cup of coffee per day.PrognosisPregnancy is a natural condition that usually causes little discomfort provided the woman takes care of herself and gets adequate prenatal care. Such pregnancy and its ectopic nature should have been diagnosed early and appropriate treatment could have been initiated saving the life of woman. The embryo receives nutrients and eliminates waste through the umbilical cord and placenta. While home pregnancy tests are very accurate, they are less accurate than a pregnancy test conducted at a lab. Drugs taken during the first three months of a pregnancy may interfere with the normal formation of the baby's organs, leading to birth defects.
By the end of the first month, the liver and digestive system begin to develop, and the heart starts to beat.Second monthIn this month, the heart starts to pump and the nervous system (including the brain and spinal cord) begins to develop.
Abnormally high levels of this substance suggests there may be defects in the fetal neural tube, a structure that will include the brain and spinal cord when completely developed.
This more expensive test, which also looks for hCG, can produce a result within nine to 12 days after conception.Once pregnancy has been confirmed, there are a range of screening tests that can be done to screen for birth defects, which affect about 3% of unborn children. Facial features begin to form.Third monthBy now, the fetus has grown to 4 in (10 cm) and weighs a little more than an ounce (28 g). This would include women over age 35, who had another child or a close relative with a birth defect, or who have been exposed to certain drugs or high levels of radiation. Now the major blood vessels and the roof of the mouth are almost completed, as the face starts to take on a more recognizably human appearance.
The blotches may appear in the forehead, cheeks, and nose, and may merge into one dark mask.
It usually fades gradually after pregnancy, but it may become permanent or recur with subsequent pregnancies. Some women may also find that the line running from the top to the bottom of their abdomen darkens. The average gestation period for a human pregnancy is 10 lunar months (280 days) from the first day of the last menstrual period.Conception. Once a month an ovum (secondary oocyte) matures in one of the ovaries and travels down the nearby fallopian tube to the uterus; this process is called ovulation. All organs are now fully formed, although they will continue to grow for the next five months. At Fertilization, which must take place within a day or two of ovulation, one of the spermatozoa unites with the ovum to form a zygote.
The fetus has skin, eyebrows, and hair.Fifth monthNow weighing up to a 1 lb (454 g) and measuring 8-12 in (20-30 cm), the fetus experiences rapid growth as its internal organs continue to grow. The zygote then implants itself in the wall of the uterus, which is richly supplied with blood, and begins to grow. At this point, the mother may feel her baby move, and she can hear the heartbeat with a stethoscope.Sixth monthEven though its lungs are not fully developed, a fetus born during this month can survive with intensive care. Weighing 1-1.5 lbs (454-681 g), the fetus is red, wrinkly, and covered with fine hair all over its body.
The fetus will grow very fast during this month as its organs continue to develop.Seventh monthThere is a better chance that a fetus born during this month will survive. Unless the period is more than 10 days late, however, this is not a definite indication, since many factors, including a strong fear of pregnancy, can delay menstruation. Now the fetus can suck its thumb and look around its watery womb with open eyes.Eighth monthGrowth continues but slows down as the baby begins to take up most of the room inside the uterus.
About 4 weeks after conception, changes in the breasts become noticeable: there may be a tingling sensation in the breasts, the nipples enlarge, and the areolae (dark areas around nipples) may become darker.
Frequent urination, another early sign, is the result of expansion of the uterus, which presses on the bladder.Other signs of pregnancy include softening of the cervix and filling of the cervical canal with a plug of mucus.
Early in labor this plug is expelled and there is slight bleeding; expulsion of the mucous plug is known as show and indicates the beginning of cervical dilatation.
A woman's breasts swell and may become tender as the mammary glands prepare for eventual breastfeeding.


Nipples begin to enlarge and the veins over the surface of the breasts become more noticeable.Nausea and vomiting are very common symptoms and are usually worse in the morning and during the first trimester of pregnancy.
They are usually caused by hormonal changes, in particular, increased levels of progesterone.
Women may feel worse when their stomach is empty, so it is a good idea to eat several small meals throughout the day, and to keep things like crackers on hand to eat even before getting out of bed in the morning.Many women also feel extremely tired during the early weeks. The average pregnancy lasts about 280 days, or 40 weeks, from the date of conception to childbirth.
Frequent urination is common, and there Pregnancy usually lasts 40 weeks in humans, beginning from the first day of the woman's last menstrual period, and is divided into three trimesters. Since the exact date of conception usually is not known, the estimated date of delivery can be calculated using nägele's rule. This is approximate, since pregnancy may be shorter than the average or can last as long as 300 days.
A host of influences can adversely affect the growth and development of the fetus and his or her chances for survival and good health after birth. Weight begins to increase.In the second trimester (13-28 weeks) a woman begins to look noticeably pregnant and the enlarged uterus is easy to feel. The diet of the mother should be nutritious and well-balanced so that the fetus receives the necessary food elements for development and maturity of body structures.
The nipples get bigger and darker, skin may darken, and some women may feel flushed and warm. It is especially important that the mother receive adequate protein in her diet, because a protein deficiency can hamper fetal intellectual development. Supplemental iron and vitamins usually are recommended during pregnancy.There is now less emphasis on severe restriction of the mother's dietary intake to maintain a limited weight gain. The average gain is about 28 lb during pregnancy, and either starvation diets or forced feedings can be unhealthy for the mother and hazardous for the fetus.
During the second trimester, nausea and vomiting often fade away, and the pregnant woman often feels much better and more energetic.
Ideally, the mother should achieve normal weight before she becomes pregnant because obesity increases the possibility of eclampsia and other serious complications of pregnancy.
Heart rate increases as does the volume of blood in the body.By the third trimester (29-40 weeks), many women begin to experience a range of common symptoms. Mothers who are underweight are more likely to deliver immature babies who, by virtue of their physiologic immaturity, are more likely to suffer from birth defects, hyaline membrane disease, and other developmental disorders of the newborn.Other factors affecting the fetus include certain drugs taken by the mother during pregnancy. Stretch marks may develop on abdomen, breasts, and thighs, and a dark line may appear from the navel to pubic hair.
A well-known example is thalidomide, which inhibits the growth of the extremities of the fetus, resulting in gross deformities. Many drugs, including prescription as well as nonprescription medications, are now believed to be capable of causing fetal abnormalities. Most health care providers recommend that all drugs be avoided during pregnancy except those essential to the control of disease in the mother.Diseases that increase the risk of obstetrical complications include diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, kidney disease, and anemia. Sexually transmitted diseases can have tragic effects on the baby, even though the symptoms in the mother are minor at the time of pregnancy. This may relieve pressure on the upper abdomen and the lungs, allowing a woman to breathe more easily.
However, the new position places more pressure on the bladder.A healthy gain for most women is between 25 and 35 pounds.
The baby is either stillborn or born infected, and rarely escapes physical or mental defects or both. Successful treatment of the mother before the fifth month of pregnancy will prevent infection in the infant.During the birth process the infant may be infected with gonorrhea as it passes through the birth canal.
Generally, women will gain three to five pounds in the first three months, adding one to two pounds a week until the baby is born. The mortality and morbidity rates for such infected infants are high.The age of the mother is also an important factor in the well-being of the fetus. The remaining weight that a woman gains during pregnancy is mostly due to water retention and fat stores. The mortality and morbidity rate for infants born of mothers below age 15 and above 40 are higher than for those of mothers between these ages.Recently developed tests to monitor fetal health have taken much of the guesswork out of predicting the chances of survival and health status of the fetus after birth.
Such tests and evaluation techniques include amniocentesis, chemical and hormonal assays, biophysical profiles, testing for alpha-fetoprotein, ultrasound examinations, electronic surveillance of fetal vital signs and reaction to uterine contractions, and analyses of the infant's blood during labor.Prenatal Care. The care of the mother during her entire pregnancy is important to her well-being and that of the fetus she is carrying.
The health care provider learns about the patient's physical condition and medical history, and can detect possible complications before they become serious.On the first prenatal visit the patient's medical history is taken in considerable detail, including any diseases or operations she has had, the course of previous pregnancies, if any, and whether there is a family history of multiple births or of diabetes mellitus or other chronic diseases.
Gums may become more sensitive and bleed more easily; eyes may dry out, making contact lenses feel painful.
The first visit also includes a thorough physical examination and measurement of the pelvis.
Blood samples are taken for screening for rubella and sexually transmitted diseases such as syphilis, hepatitis B, chlamydiosis, infection by the human immunodeficiency virus, and other conditions. On subsequent visits the patient brings a urine specimen, collected upon arising that morning, to be tested for albumin and glucose. Some women also find that the line running from the top to the bottom of their abdomen darkens. This is called the linea nigra.While the above symptoms are all considered to be normal, there are some symptoms that could be a sign of a more dangerous underlying problem.
In the second trimester, when the uterus becomes an abdominal organ, the height of the fundus is measured at each visit. Often it requires no treatment or can be relieved by such simple measures as eating dry crackers and tea before rising.
Indigestion and heartburn are best prevented by avoiding foods that are difficult to digest, such as cucumbers, cabbage, cauliflower, spinach, onions, and rich foods.
Hemorrhoids sometimes occur in pregnancy because of pressure from the enlarged uterus on the veins in the rectum.


Lying flat with the feet raised on a pillow several times a day will help relieve swelling and pain in the legs.
In more difficult cases the health care provider may prescribe an elastic bandage or support stockings.Backache during pregnancy is caused by the heavy abdomen pulling on muscles that are not normally used, and can be relieved by rest, sensible shoes, and good posture.
Swelling of the feet and ankles usually is relieved by rest and by remaining off the feet for a day or two. If the swelling does not disappear, the health care provider should be informed since it may be an indication of a more serious complication.Shortness of breath is common in the later stages of pregnancy. If at any time it becomes so extreme that the woman cannot climb a short flight of stairs without discomfort, the health care provider should be consulted. Called also extrauterine pregnancy.In a tubal pregnancy a spontaneous abortion may occur, but more often the fetus will grow to a size large enough to rupture the tube.
The symptoms of such a tubal rupture are vaginal bleeding and severe pain in one side of the abdomen. Prompt surgery is necessary to remove the damaged tube and the fetus, and to stop the bleeding. Fortunately, the removal of one tube usually leaves the other one intact, so that future pregnancy is possible. Patients who are Rh-negative should be given Rh0 (D) immune globulin (RhoGAM) after ectopic pregnancy for isoimmunization protection in future pregnancies.Ectopic pregnancy. The fallopian tube is the most common site for ectopic pregnancies but they can also occur on the ovary or the peritoneal surface of the abdominal cavity. The resultant child represents only the male of the marital unit, and may be adopted by the female.pregnancy tests procedures for early determination of pregnancy. By the first missed menstrual period or shortly thereafter, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone secreted by the placenta, is present in the blood and urine of a pregnant woman.
It was formerly determined by bioassay in which a urine or serum specimen was injected into a laboratory animal and the response of ovarian tissue was noted.
All testing now uses immunologic techniques based on antigen-antibody binding between hCG and anti-hCG antibody. Clinical laboratories generally use radioimmunoassay or radioreceptor assay to determine serum hCG levels. The expected date of delivery (EDD) is calculated on the latter basis even if a woman's periods are irregular.
If a woman is certain that coitus occurred only once during the month of conception and if she knows the date on which coitus occurred, the EDD may be calculated as 266 days from that date.
Pregnancy begins after coitus at or near the time of ovulation (usually about 14 days before a woman's next expected menstrual period).
Of the millions of ejaculated sperm cells, thousands reach the female ovum in the outer end of the fallopian tube, but usually only one penetrates the egg for union of the male and female pronuclei and conception.
The zygote, genetically a unique entity, begins cell division as it is transported to the uterine cavity, where it implants in the uterine wall. Maternal and embryological elements together form the beginnings of the placenta, which grows into the substance of the uterus. The placenta functions in maternal-fetal exchange of nutrients and waste products, although the maternal and fetal bloods do not normally mix. Although an immune response is normally activated in the mother, all of her tissues and organs undergo change, many of them profound and some of them permanent.
The increase begins at about the sixth week, reaches a maximum about the sixteenth week, declines slightly after the thirtieth week, and rapidly falls off after delivery.
Blood pressure may drop slightly after the twelfth week of gestation and return to its usual level after the twenty-sixth week. Total blood volume also increases in pregnancy; plasma volume increases more than red cell volume, and this results in a drop in the hematocrit, caused by dilution. See At-risk pregnancy, Cervical pregnancy, Clinical pregnancy, Crisis pregnancy, Ectopic pregnancy, Fatty liver of pregnancy, High-risk pregnancy, Mole pregnancy, Multifetal pregnancy, Postterm pregnancy, Pseudopreganancy, PUPPP, Selective termination of pregnancy, Sympathy pregnancy, Teenage pregnancy, Tubal pregnancy, Unwanted pregnancy.
Pregnancy test results are positive owing to the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in blood and urine. Signs and symptoms arise as the growing embryo distends the fallopian tube; associated complaints include intermittent, unilateral, colicky abdominal pain. Ovarian: Conception and implantation within the ovary itself occurs in approximately 1 in 7,000 to 1 in 50,000 pregnancies.
It has also largely replaced culdocentesis for confirmation of hemoperitoneum.TreatmentAn operative approach is most common. Laparoscopy and linear laser salpingostomy can be used to excise early ectopic implantations; healing is by secondary intention. Salpingectomy is reserved for cases in which tubal damage is so extensive that reanastomosis is not possible. Methotrexate has been used successfully to induce dissolution of unruptured tubal masses less than 3.5 cm.
An IV fluid infusion via a large-bore cannula is started and blood is drawn to type and cross (including Rh-compatibility) for potential transfusion.
Medications (including RhoGAM if the patient is Rh negative) may be prescribed and administered and the patient's response evaluated. The patient's and family's wishes regarding religious rites for the products of conception are determined. Prescribed analgesics and other medications are administered, and the patient evaluated for desired and adverse effects. Pregnancy in association with these conditions is more likely to compromise the health of the mother or developing fetus than are normal pregnancies.
In about one-half of twin pregnancies diagnosed by ultrasound early in the first trimester, one twin will silently abort, and this may or may not be accompanied by bleeding. The incidence of birth defects in each embryo of a twin pregnancy is twice that in singular pregnancies.



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