Fertility preferences definition,what pills can you take to help you get pregnant calendar,pregnancy and baby head down quotes - PDF Books

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY). Socioeconomic characteristics of population such as household wealth status and woman educational levels play a crucial role in fertility preferences.
Prior research indicates a negative relationship between women’s labor force participation and fertility at the individual level in the United States, but little is known about the reasons for this relationship beyond work hours. JavaScript is currently disabled, this site works much better if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Nevertheless, there is limited research on addressing spatial patterns of fertility preferences in Egypt.
IntroductionFamily planning programmes have been widely considered as sources of information for population growth particularly in fertility indicators. Therefore, this paper aimed at modelling spatially the influences of population characteristics on fertility preferences and examining how the relationships between a set of socioeconomic factors and fertility intentions vary across the Eastern Delta Governorates in Egypt (Damietta, Al Dakahlia and Al Sharkia).
However, little attention has been given to the attitudes of marriage men for the contraceptive use and fertility preferences (Tuloro et al., 2009). The role of men in contraceptive use and fertility preference in Hossana Town, southern Ethiopia. Further, fertility intentions and the importance of career considerations were more predictive of birth outcomes as women’s work hours increase. Adoption of Integrated Soil Fertility and Nutrient Management Approach: Farmers` Preferences for Extension Teaching Methods in Bangladesh. Using data on fertility and women socioeconomic characteristics from the 2008 Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), spatial linkage to census administrative boundary was conducted. Ultimately, our findings challenge the assumption that working more hours is the direct cause for employed women having fewer children and highlight the importance of career and fertility preferences in fertility outcomes. Research on household labor: Modeling and measuring the social embeddedness of routine family work. Specifically, a Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) technique was used to identify the variables that are associated with the proportion of women who prefer to have another child. Spatial patterns of fertility decline at regional scale have been examined in Eastern African countries (Ezeh et al., 2009).
The causal relationship between African American fertility and female labor supply: Policy implications. Factors associated with negative spillover from job tohome among Latinos in the United States. Nonrecursive models of labor force participation, fertility behavior, and sex role attitudes.
This technique is valuable in investigating local variations of spatial relationships when the response and predictors variables are non-stationary. It was found that fertility decline has stalled at the national level in Kenya and Tanzania and the decline trend was strongly associated with woman educational levels. Intended childbearing and labor force participation of young women: Insights from non-recursive models.
The results revealed that the effect of population characteristics on fertility preferences is plausibly heterogeneous across the study area. Little research also has been conducted on the factors associated with changes in fertility preferences over time.
Technology assessment and transfer for sustainable agriculture and rural development in the asia pacific region. The changes in fertility timing preferences usually take place because of the shifts in life circumstances especially socioeconomic and demographic variables (Sennott & Yeatman, 2012).To our knowledge, previous research on evaluating and investigating spatial patterns of the impacts of population characteristics on fertility preferences in Egypt is very rare. The proportion of women with higher education was negatively correlated with fertility desire to childbearing.
Yet little attention has been paid to spatial variations of fertility preferences and its determinants at subnational scale. In contrast, husband attitudes was positively associated with the desire to have more children. Although several studies have reported various reasons for fertility preferences, the influences of socioeconomic characteristics on fertility preferences could be identified as the strongest explanatory variables at both national and subnational levels. The findings of this research provide several noteworthy contributions to understanding local variations of fertility preferences in Egypt specifically on family planning issues and population growth. Within subnational administrative boundaries the impacts of socioeconomic factors on reproductive preferences tend to be more consistently inverse in better developed areas (e.g. It is more realistic to assume that the impacts of certain variables varies by geographical zone due to spatial reasons.
The main objective of this paper is to study the influences of population characteristics on fertility preferences employing global ordinary least squares (OLS) and local Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) models. Substantive questions raised by this research are whether the woman socioeconomic status influence the decision making for reproductive behaviour? The divorce of marriage and fertility: Changing attitudes and behavior in the United States. Is the relationship between the desire to childbearing and socioeconomic variables meaningful and significant?
Are the associations mentioned above constant or nonstationary across various districts of Eastern Delta Governorates in Egypt? An explicit spatial modelling was adopted to address the effects of population characteristics on fertility preferences in the districts of three governorates of Egypt. Stall in fertility decline in Eastern African countries: regional analysis of patterns, determinants and implications.
Using data on fertility and socioeconomic factors from the Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), spatial linkage to census administrative units was conducted.
Specifically, the GWR technique was used to identify the variables that are associated with the proportion of women who prefer to have another child. Additionally, examining how the relationships between a set of socioeconomic factors and fertility preferences vary across the study area.
That is, while a global regression model (OLS) can identify the associations between explanatory variables and dependent variable, this technique generate a single equation and regression coefficient to all parts of the study area. GWR, however is a local model that can identify whether or not the associations between fertility preferences as a dependent variable and socioeconomic factors as predictors vary locally across different districts of Eastern Delta governorates2.
Related WorkThe debate on the determinants of fertility decline has been clearly addressed by (Hakim, 2003). He argues that in the absence of any guidance theory on childbearing in woman life, there are different perspectives work as the norms of the fertility decline theories. Promotion and uptake pathways for research output: A review of analytical frameworks and communication channels.


Firstly, demographers justify the changes in fertility rates essentially as a result of changes happened in the nuclear family structures.
On the other hand, economists claim that industrialization, urbanization and economic status of women have recently influenced woman desire on large family size. Another theory introduced by sociologist suggests that the ideological and cultural factors are considered strong predictors of fertility decline. An important contribution to the debate of Fertility preferences was introduced by (Hener, 2010).
He argues that couple heterogeneity or homogeneity about the number of children they want and child benefit allowance both affect the demand for children. Thus, child poverty and household wealth are ultimately associated with fertility preferences.
Several studies have addressed spatial variations of fertility decline using mapping techniques (e.g.
Role of knowledge in the adoption of new agricultural technologies: An approach and an application.
However, these previously efforts to map fertility transitions have not conducted the analysis due to smaller spatial units (Potter et al., 2010).
Schmertmann et al., (2008) found that spatial patterns in Brazilian fertility change are strongly associated to measurable local sociodemographic conditions such as electrification, child mortality, and female education. Various indicators have been used to investigate fertility preferences in particular the effectiveness of ideal family size and desire for an additional children (Roy et al., 2008). Although evolutional theory indicates a positive relationship between wealth and fertility, household wealth classes and fertility declines are reported as they are negatively correlated (Gurmu & Mace, 2008).The stopping rules of producing children have been discussed by Yamaguchi, (1989). From the first to the second demographic transition: An interpretation of the spatial continuity of demographic innovation in France, Belgium and Switzerland.
These rules assume that couples continue childbearing until they reach their desired number of sons.
Consequently, there is no any limit on the maximum number of wanted children in the attempt to attain the target number of sons. However, this model fails to avoid the simplification when the wanted number of children can increase without bounds (Basu & Jong, 2010). Effective Communication Teaching Methods in Technology Transfer in Nigeria: Sweet Potato Processors Experience. In spite of the reported achievement recently of fertility declines in East Asian countries, demographers argued that son preference in Asian countries is a major barrier to reducing fertility (Park & Cho, 1995). Chowdhury et al., (1993) pointed out that gender composition of living children was strongly correlated with fertility preferences. For instances, the higher number of sons is associated with a higher percentage of women wanting no more children.
Son preference remains a guiding characteristic of reproductive behaviour in many developing countries. Such this attitude leads to higher fertility since the parents of daughters tried to produce one or more sons (Brunson, 2010). Effectiveness of extension teaching methods in acquiring knowledge, skill and attitude by women farmers in osun state. An empirical analysis on son targeting fertility behaviour (Basu & Jong, 2010) revealed that couples who target sons are more likely to have larger number of children. In addition, spatial location and income of households strongly influence son targeting.In most Arab countries, the fertility preference is influenced by number of living children and more strongly the number of living sons.
Previous research that published on the effects of son preference on fertility proposed that higher levels of female educations do not necessarily lead to decline in son preference (Murthi et al., 1995). The issue of gender bias in most developing countries has a significant impact on preferring male births. It is hypothesized that woman desire for sons often influences fertility preference where sons are considered more valuable than daughters. Thus, women with a small number or low proportion of sons are more likely than other women to continue childbearing (Chaudhuri, 2012).
This norm of son preference appears to be supported by the fact that the proportion of living sons in a family influences the probability that the woman will continue childbearing (Clark, 2000). Gadalla et al., (1985) examined the impacts of number of living sons on contraceptive use in rural of Menoufia governorate in Northern Egypt. The findings of this research indicated that women with higher number of living sons were more likely to be using contraceptive methods. Farmers’ preferences for methods of receiving information on new for innovative farming practices. On contrast, women with no sons or have only one son are expected to be less receptive to family planning programmes. Study AreaThe study area includes three governorates: Al Dakahlia, Damietta and Al Sharkia and they are located in eastern Nile Delta (Figure 1). Al Dakahlia governorate is divided into 18 districts and has population about 6 million inhabitants in 2015 (5.949 million). Consistency and predictive ability of fertility preference indicators: Longitudinal evidence from rural India.
A formal theory for male-preferring stopping rules of childbearing: Sex differences in birth order and in the number of siblings.
Consequences of son preference in a low-fertility society: imbalance of the sex ratio at birth in Korea. Effects of family sex composition on fertility preference and behaviour in rural Bangladesh.
Son preference in the context of fertility decline: limits to new constructions of gender and kinship in Nepal.
The Dependent VariableThe data used in this analysis is a secondary data computed from the 2008 Egyptian DHS. The percentage of interviewed women who desire to have another child is used as a dependent variable. Figure 2 shows the geographic distribution of the dependent variable across the three governorates. Higher percentages is depicted in Al Sharkia governorate in particular eastern and southern parts and mainly in rural districts. On the other hand, lower percentage of desire fertility can be seen in Damietta governorate and the northern part of Al Dakahlia governorate. The desire for sons and excess fertility: a household-level analysis of parity progression in India.
The administrative units with small area size often are urban areas and these illustrate a spatial pattern of lower percentage of wanted fertility.Figure 2.


Problems of spatial linkage of a geo-referenced Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) dataset to a population census: A case study of Egypt. In addition, the wealth index could be a valuable measure in the most of developing countries where there is a lack of attribute and spatial data on household socioeconomic status (DHS, b2015).
The wealth index statistically classifies all households into five wealth quintiles ranging from richest to poorest. The spatial distribution of wealth index across districts of the three governorates shows that the richest households are located in urban areas (small size polygons) in Al Dakahlia and Damietta governorates while the poorest household fundamentally are located in rural districts of Al Sharkia governorate. Household who belong to middle class tend to be distributed among the three governorate and in both urban and rural districts.Level of higher education Woman education has been recognized as a crucial variable influencing childbearing and fertility desire.
This variable was computed as a continuous variable since it express the proportion of women who finished higher level of education. Looking at the distribution of women with higher education across districts of the three governorates, the districts with high proportion tend to be located in Damietta governorate, western part of Al Dakahlia and middle part of Al Sharkia.
Rural districts tend to show lower proportion of women with higher education in most of Al Sharkia districts and districts of Al Dakahlia governorate that are located in western and northern parts.4. Spatial LinkageIn the absence of attribute data on fertility preferences in the Egyptian census, data from the 2008 Egyptian DHS were used for this research analysis. GIS linkage process was conducted using both Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) and ArcGIS 10.2 software. The resultant of this process is one database file where each cluster number falls within a specific administrative unit. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) ModelOrdinary least squares OLS regression is a statistical technique that uses sample data to estimate the true population relationship between one dependent variable and one or more independent variables.
In this technique, the main focus is the explanation of the dependent variable y as a function of one or multiple of independent variables (x1, x2…). OLS technique is a global model used specifically to examine the relationship between the dependent variable and different set of explanatory variables based upon a single equation. Thus, a single coefficient is estimated and implying over all parts of the study area (Fox, 1997; Ryan, 2008). In this research, the relationship between a dependent variable (fertility preference of having another children) as a response variable y is predicted by various explanatory variables (x1, x2, x3…….).
Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR)Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) technique is a nonparametric spatial model and nonstationary regression which assumes non-static relationship between a response variable and one or more independent variables. The GWR takes the coordinates of geographic locations to a normal regression model and applies a spatial weighting of each regression coefficient to express the spatial variability over the study area.
Therefore, GWR allows regression coefficients to vary and generates a single equation for each spatial unit within the study area. The calibration follows Tobler’s (1970) first law of geography where higher weight assigns to the nearby locations based on their proximity to the target location i.
The geographically weighted regression extension in the spatial statistics toolbox of ArcGIS 10.2 was used to perform the modelling process.
The same dependent variable and explanatory variables of the global OLS model were used as data input of the model.5. The Global OLS ModellingDetermining the most effective variables to be included in a model is essential and a critical step in fitting the model. Accordingly, the first step was to select the appropriate combination of independent variables as predictors for fertility preferences. To achieve this target, the exploratory regression tool in ArcGIS 10.2 was used to evaluate all possible combination of candidate independent variables. The finding of this process revealed that five explanatory variables out of ten were the best combination to construct a regression model (Figure 3).Figure 3.
Differential effect of wealth quintile on modern contraceptive use and fertility: evidence from Malawian women. The adjusted R? value is 0.42 indicating that the explanatory variables accounts for 42 percent of the spatial variations in the fertility desire. Although the results of modelling the fertility desire using OLS model were relatively better, possible improvements may be achieved through using local modelling in which spatial non-stationary is accounted. This suggests using GWR and comparing its outputs with the global modelling to adjust the influence of the geospatial distribution. The standardized residuals of the GWR are the difference between the observed values of the dependent variable and the predicated values by the fitted model.
This result confirms the absence of spatial autocorrelation and consequently higher level of reliability of the GWR modelling.
Figure 10 illustrates that the explanatory variable of the number of living children is a positive indicator and has a strong influence on fertility desire generally in most of rural districts of Al Sharkia governorate particularly the southern and eastern parts.
In the districts of other governorates (Al Dakahlia and Damietta), the impact of this variable on fertility desire tend to be lower compared with Al Sharkia governorate. Thus, this variable is considered as a strong predictor of fertility desire to more children in the districts of Al Sharkia governorate while it has less influence in other areas. ConclusionsThe main goal of this paper was to determine the impacts of population characteristics on fertility preferences and examining whether these effects vary across the districts of Eastern Delta governorates because of their spatial settings.
This map offers a great benefit to know the areas where the model could be improved using additional covariates. Overall, the local model fit the data well particularly in the districts that are located in southern and western parts of study area. Not surprisingly, in most of these areas the associations between woman desire to childbearing and various socioeconomic factors were significant.
The analytical method presented in this paper offers a generic avenue for addressing the effects of population socioeconomic characteristics on fertility preferences. Applying a local modeling to examine the spatial variations of fertility indicators provides a potential opportunity to explore the association between fertility and various covariates at subnational geographic level and small areas.
The findings of this research have principal implications for understanding local variations of fertility preferences in Egypt. Health and population policymakers can use the spatial distribution of fertility preferences to identify clustered areas above or below expectations. Fundamentally, districts with higher than expected proportion of fertility preferences could be targeted for future interventions. This is can be achieved through highlighting determinants of decreasing son preference particularly cultural and custom beliefs.



Fetus not gaining weight at 8 months
Chances pregnancy precum birth control


Comments to «Fertility preferences definition»

  1. addari writes:
    The first day of my final menstrual cycle was Dec15 the.
  2. PORCHE writes:
    And modifications to an expectant and emotional adjustments that many moms.