Early pregnancy scan preston,how to eat during pregnancy for a healthy baby,dreams about being pregnant and the baby dying,having a baby jokes zone - Plans Download

Our friendly and experienced sonographers are dedicated to ensure you are given the utmost care through safe, and high quality services. Currently used equipments are known as real-time scanners, with which a continous picture of the moving fetus can be depicted on a monitor screen. They are emitted from a transducer which is placed in contact with the maternal abdomen, and is moved to "look at" (likened to a light shined from a torch) any particular content of the uterus. The information obtained from different reflections are recomposed back into a picture on the monitor screen (a sonogram, or ultrasonogram). A full bladder is often required for the procedure when abdominal scanning is done in early pregnency. A short history of the development of ultrasound in pregnancy can be found in the History pages. Ultrasound scan is currently considered to be a safe, non-invasive, accurate and cost-effective investigation in the fetus. The gestational sac can be visualized as early as four and a half weeks of gestation and the yolk sac at about five weeks. The viability of the fetus can be documented in the presence of vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy. Many women do not ovulate at around day 14, so findings after a single scan should always be interpreted with caution.
The timing of a positive pregnancy test may also be helpful in this regard to assess the possible dates of conception. The weight of the fetus at any gestation can also be estimated with great accuracy using polynomial equations containing the BPD, FL, and AC. Many structural abnormalities in the fetus can be reliably diagnosed by an ultrasound scan, and these can usually be made before 20 weeks. First trimester ultrasonic 'soft' markers for chromosomal abnormalities such as the absence of fetal nasal bone, an increased fetal nuchal translucency (the area at the back of the neck) are now in common use to enable detection of Down syndrome fetuses. Read also: Soft Markers - A Guide for Professionals and Ultrasonographic "soft markers" of fetal chromosomal defects. Ultrasound can also assist in other diagnostic procedures in prenatal diagnosis such as amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling, cordocentesis (percutaneous umbilical blood sampling) and in fetal therapy. In this situation, ultrasonography is invaluable in determining the number of fetuses, the chorionicity, fetal presentations, evidence of growth retardation and fetal anomaly, the presence of placenta previa, and any suggestion of twin-to-twin transfusion. Excessive or decreased amount of liquor (amniotic fluid) can be clearly depicted by ultrasound. With specially designed probes, ultrasound scanning can be done with the probe placed in the vagina of the patient.
Vaginal scans are also becoming indispensible in the early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancies. Doppler ultrasound is presently most widely employed in the detection of fetal cardiac pulsations and pulsations in the various fetal blood vessels. Blood flow characteristics in the fetal blood vessels can be assessed with Doppler 'flow velocity waveforms'.
The use of color flow mapping can clearly depict the flow of blood in fetal blood vessels in a realtime scan, the direction of the flow being represented by different colors.
An increasing volume of literature is accumulating on the usefulness of 3-D scans and the diagnosis of congenital anomalies could receive revived attention. More recently, 4-D or dynamic 3-D scanners are in the market and the attraction of being able to look at the face and movements of your baby before birth was also enthusiastically reported in parenting and health magazines. Most experts do not consider that 3-D and 4-D ultrasound will be a mandatory evolution of our conventional 2-D scans, rather it is an additional piece of tool like doppler ultrasound.
A short history of the development of 3-D ultrasound in pregnancy can be found in the History pages. There is no hard and fast rule as to the number of scans a woman should have during her pregnancy. A second scan is performed at 18 to 20 weeks mainly to look for congenital malformations, when the fetus is large enough for an accurate survey of the fetal anatomy. Many centers are now performing an earlier screening scan at around 11-14 weeks to measure the fetal nuchal translucency and to evaluate the fetal nasal bone (and more recently, to detect tricuspid regurgitation) to aid in the diagnosis of Down Syndrome.


Further scans may sometimes be done at around 32 weeks or later to evaluate fetal size (to estimate the fetal weight) and assess fetal growth.
The total number of scans will vary depending on whether a previous scan has detected certain abnormalities that require follow-up assessment. One should not dwell too much on the definitions or guidelines for a level II ultrasound scan. That a pregnancy should be scanned at 18 to 20 weeks as a rule is gradually becoming a matter of routine practice. Although certain harmful effects in cells are observed in a laboratory setting, abnormalities in embryos and offsprings of animals and humans have not been unequivocally demonstrated in the large amount of studies that have so far appeared in the medical literature purporting to the use of diagnostic ultrasound in the clinical setting. The greatest risks arising from the use of ultrasound are the possible over- and under- diagnosis brought about by inadequately trained staff, often working in relative isolation and using poor equipment. A discussion on the various possible effects of ultrasound on the human fetus can be found here. It should be bornt in mind that prenatal ultrasound cannot diagnose all malformations and problems of an unborn baby (reported figures range from 40 to 98 percent), so one should never interpret a normal scan report as a guarantee that the baby will be completely normal.
Some conditions, like for example hydrocephalus, may not have been obvious at the time of the earlier scan. Images tend also to be strikingly clear in skinny patients with lots of amniotic fluid, and frustratingly fuzzy in obese women, particularly if there is not much amniotic fluid as in cases of growth restriction. If you are interested to find out more about a particular fetal anomaly, take a look at this compilation of Web pages which describe in some detail specific congenital anomalies that are diagnosable by ultrasound. It provides you with with the most important information at this point of pregnancy - confirmation of the pregnancy itself, detection of a single baby or twins, and a calculated estimation of your due date. Relaxation is important, so we mildly warm up the ultrasound gel for a more comfortable experience. Since its introduction in the late 1950’s ultrasonography has become a very useful diagnostic tool in Obstetrics.
Movements such as fetal heart beat and malformations in the feus can be assessed and measurements can be made accurately on the images displayed on the screen. It has progressively become an indispensible obstetric tool and plays an important role in the care of every pregnant woman. A visible heartbeat could be seen and detectable by pulsed doppler ultrasound by about 6 weeks and is usually clearly depictable by 7 weeks.
Normal heart rate at 6 weeks is around 90-110 beats per minute (bpm) and at 9 weeks is 140-170 bpm.
The diagnosis of missed abortion is usually made by serial ultrasound scans demonstrating lack of gestational development. A positive pregnancy test 3 weeks previously for example, would indicate a gestational age of at least 7 weeks. Common examples include hydrocephalus, anencephaly, myelomeningocoele, achondroplasia and other dwarfism, spina bifida, exomphalos, Gastroschisis, duodenal atresia and fetal hydrops. Further developments in doppler ultrasound technology in recent years have enabled a great expansion in its application in Obstetrics, particularly in the area of assessing and monitoring the well-being of the fetus, its progression in the face of intrauterine growth restriction, and the diagnosis of cardiac malformations.
The "Doptone" fetal pulse detector is a commonly used handheld device to detect fetal heartbeat using the same doppler principle. Color doppler is particularly indispensible in the diagnosis of fetal cardiac and blood vessel defects, and in the assessment of the hemodynamic responses to fetal hypoxia and anemia. It uses amplitude information from doppler signals rather than flow velocity information to visualize slow flow in smaller blood vessels.
The transducer takes a series of images, thin slices, of the subject, and the computer processes these images and presents them as a 3 dimensional image. This is thought to have an important catalytic effect for mothers to bond to their babies before birth. What is often referred to as a Level II scan merely indicates a "targeted" examination where it is done when an indication is present or when an abnormality is suspected in a previous examination.
Unlike X-rays, ionizing irradiation is not present and embryotoxic effects associated with such irradiation should not be relevant. The position of the baby in the uterus has a great deal to do with how well one sees certain organs such as the heart, face and spine.


As in almost every endeavor, there is also a wide difference in the skill, training, talent, and interest of the sonographer or sonologists. After you book an early pregnancy scan with the Baby Clinic you will be greeted by our friendly and extremely qualified sonographer or an expert consultant specialising in pregnancy, depending on who you decide to book with. Ultrasound can also very importantly confirm the site of the pregnancy is within the cavity of the uterus.
At 5-8 weeks a bradycardia (less than 90 bpm) is associated with a high risk of miscarriage.
For example, if ultrasound scan demonstrates a 7mm embryo but cannot demonstrable a clearcut heartbeat, a missed abortion may be diagnosed. In patients with uncertain last menstrual periods, such measurements must be made as early as possible in pregnancy to arrive at a correct dating for the patient.
For example, if another scan done 6 or 8 weeks later says that one should have a new due date which is further away, one should not normally change the date but should rather interpret the finding as that the baby is not growing at the expected rate.
The better images are the result of the scanhead's closer proximity to the uterus and the higher frequency used in the transducer array resulting in higher resolving power. Using computer controls, the operator can obtain views that might not be available using ordinary 2-D ultrasound scan.
Volumetric measurements are more accurate and both doctors and parents can better appreciate a certain abnormality or the absence of a certain abnormality in a 3-D scan than a 2-D one and there is the possibility of increasing psychological bonding between the parents and the baby.
Other more subtle features such as low-set ears, facial dysmorphia or clubbing of feet can be better assessed, leading to more effective diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities.
What are known as 're-assurance scans' and the rather misnamed 'entertainment scans' have quickly become popular. 3-D ultrasound appears to have great potential in research and in the study of fetal embryology.
Otherwise a scan is generally booked at about 7 weeks to confirm pregnancy, exclude ectopic or molar pregnancies, confirm cardiac pulsation and measure the crown-rump length for dating.
In fact professional bodies such as the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine does not endorse or encourage the use of these terms. The use of high intensity ultrasound is associated with the effects of "cavitation" and "heating" which can be present with prolonged insonation in laboratory situations. Sometimes a repeat examination has to be scheduled the following day, in the hopes the baby has moved. The improvements in equipment has also lead to the earlier detection of abnormal structures in the fetus bringing along with it "false positives" and "difficult-to-be-sure-what-will-happen" diagnosis that could generate huge amount of undue anxiety in patients. If the measurements obtained in a first scan come out unclear, then it might be necessary to proceed with an internal transvaginal probe. In such cases, it is reasonable to repeat the ultrasound scan in 7-10 days to avoid any error.
3-dimensional ultrasound is quickly moving out of the research and development stages and is now widely employed in a clinical setting.
The most common reason for having more scans in the later part of pregnancy is fetal growth retardation.
You will be informed on all the details of this procedure by our friendly sonographer or consultant. In the latter part of pregnancy measuring body parameters will allow assessment of the size and growth of the fetus and will greatly assist in the diagnosis and management of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). The ability to obtain a good 3-D picture is nevertheless still very much dependent on operator skill, the amount of liquor (amniotic fluid) around the fetus, its position and the degree of maternal obesity, so that a good image is not always readily obtainable. The scans requires special probes and software to accumulate and render the images, and the rendering time has been reduced from minutes to fractions of a seconds. The Links section above also furnish you with some of the best reading and information on the Internet concerning the various aspects of ultrasonography in pregnancy.



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