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Progesterone is not a sex hormone, it plays no part in the secondary sexual characteristics which develop at puberty.
Progesterone regulates gene expression, has a positive fundamental effect on cell differentiation and growth, with anti-oxidative and autoimmune anti-inflammatory mechanisms.
Normal monthly cycles can vary from as little as twenty one days to as long as thirty five, the average being twenty eight.
The first half of the monthly cycle is known as the follicular or proliferative phase, and can last from 7 to 59 days, although the norm is 12-21 days.
At the beginning of the follicular phase, in response to FSH made by the pituitary gland, a few to several hundred eggs start developing. At the beginning of the cycle, ie day 1 of bleeding, oestradiol production either drops slightly or is flat for the first 2-4 days. During the fifty hours prior to the mid-cycle surge, oestradiol, progesterone and another pituitary hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland called LH (luteinising hormone) begin rising, while FSH declines. The androgens, notably androstendione, migrate from the theca cells to the granulosa cells where they are converted by the enzyme aromatase into oestrogen, particularly oestradiol.
This rise in the androgens is responsible for the acne, oily skin, facial hair, loss of scalp hair etc., that some women experience.
This preovulatory surge in progesterone is now known to be essential for the facilitation of feminine sexual behaviour too. The surge of the gonadotrophins causes oestradiol levels to rapidly fall, while progesterone continues to rise. Androstenedione (A) and testosterone (T) increase at a slow rate before the surge, rising faster when the mid-cycle surge begins. Ovulation occurs approximately 10-12 hours after the LH peak and 24-36 hours after the oestrogen peak. For the next twelve to fourteen days the corpus luteum secretes progesterone, which rises steeply until 6-7 days after ovulation when it peaks. Therefore using progesterone at ovulation will enhance the early rise in progesterone so vital for successful implantation.
The corpus luteum also produces androgens, oestrogens, 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, and 5alpha-reduced progesterones.
Under the influence of progesterone the lining of the uterus has stopped proliferating, instead becoming a spongy layer ready for the egg to embed itself. After intercourse, when millions of sperm enter the vagina, and make their way through the cervix, through the uterus and into the Fallopian tubes, fertilisation takes place when a sperm embeds itself into an egg. Low progesterone levels in the very early days of the luteal phase makes fertilisation less certain. The now fertilised egg continues on it's journey up the Fallopian tube until it reaches the uterus, where it becomes embedded in the endometrium (lining of the uterus).
During this time the placenta is developing and at about two months starts secreting progesterone, and continues to do so until birth. All women, irrespective of the length of their cycle, should start ovulating twelve to fourteen days before the next menstruation. If the corpus luteum does not make sufficient progesterone during these twelve to fourteen days, it will also result in a defective luteal phase. Research has found that a steeper early luteal rise in progesterone and higher mid-luteal progesterone and oestrogen concentrations make for successful implantation.
It is advisable to start the progesterone well before pregnancy to allow the body to adjust. Taking temperature readings or using a mini microscope will help to check for ovulation, the mini microscope is more reliable, as temperature can vary from as little as 0.5 degrees to 5 degrees. Saliva or vaginal mucus is used for the test, by dabbing a small amount on the end of the microscope.
One of the most important things to remember about conception is the life span of the sperm and ovum. All research points to a greater success in conception if intercourse takes place in the one to two days prior to ovulation, when the fern like pattern is almost complete.
This allows time for the sperm to travel through the uterus and up the Fallopian tubes to meet the egg before it becomes over mature or it dies. It must be remembered that twelve to fourteen days is necessary for the lining to mature enough to receive a fertilised egg. On no account must the progesterone be stopped at this stage, otherwise it could cause a miscarriage. It's advisable to continue using progesterone until birth if there's a likelihood of a pre-term birth or pre-eclampsia. Please monitor symptoms, and if spotting, headaches, water retention or nausea should occur increase the amount and continue using it till birth.
During this time the placenta is developing and after about two months starts secreting progesterone, while ovarian production starts declining. Of significance for this page are low levels of progesterone and Vitamin D, and high levels of oestrogen and free testosterone, often overlooked.

A ratio of 1.05 or higher for free testosterone to total testosterone indicates a miscarriage is likely. Progesterone also inhibits the enzyme aromatase, which effects the conversion of testosterone to oestrogen.
Many women are devastated by a miscarriage, understandably, but none are warned that as many as 20% of all pregnancies end in a miscarriage within two weeks of fertilisation.
A lack of selenium and low levels of glutathione and other antioxidants increase the risk too. Mention should be made of the drugs which are often given in place of progesterone to prevent miscarriages and pre-term births, in the mistaken belief they are one and the same. But because they're progestins, they are not broken down into the normal progesterone metabolites, such as the all important allopregnanolone. A metabolite of progesterone is sometimes used too, 17-Hydroxyprogesterone, this is natural, and increases during the third trimester.
No adverse side affects have been reported with the use of 17-OHP, which is produced primarily by the adrenal glands. Here's the link to the chapter from Dr Dalton's book 'PMS The Essential Guide to Treatment Options' on the role progesterone plays during pregnancy. The growing foetus is an extra burden on the mother, so it is essential to make sure all nutrients the foetus needs are available.
Preimplantation urinary hormone profiles and the probability of conception in healthy womenClin Exp Immunol.
The prognostic value of serum estradiol, progesterone, testosterone and free testosterone levels in detecting early abortionsBr J Obstet Gynaecol. The role of a single progesterone measurement in the diagnosis of early pregnancy failure and the prognosis of fetal viabilityJ Immunol. Progesterone favors the development of human T helper cells producing Th2-type cytokines and promotes both IL-4 production and membrane CD30 expression in established Th1 cell clonesJournal of Orthomolecular Medicine Vol. Deficient glutathione peroxidase activity in preeclampsia is associated with increased placental production of thromboxane and lipid peroxidesJournal of Orthomolecular Medicine Vol. Many other folk are now also providing invaluable advice and insights so keep asking for guidance. Although this web site is not intended to be prescriptive, it is intended, and hoped, that it will induce in you a sufficient level of scepticism about some health care practices to impel you to seek out medical advice that is not captive to purely commercial interests, or blinded by academic and institutional hubris.
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As it's something dear to my heart (I had five miscarriages before having my daughter) I have put together information on progesterone and conception and how to use it during pregnancy. It positively effects the nervous system by stimulating neurotrophic factors, quenching oxidative hyperactivity and regulating autoimmune responses. Each egg is contained in a cyst called a Graafian follicle, which starts making oestrogen, this in turn causes the egg to grow and mature.
LH is required for both the growth of preovulatory follicles and ovulation of the dominant follicle. This surge is produced by brain cells, and has nothing to do with the surge that occurs after ovulation. Then about fourteen hours after initiation of the surge, they decline, but at a slower rate than oestradiol. The peak lasts for about 3-4 days, when progesterone declines sharply, after which menstruation occurs. The typical negative feedback system seen in other endocrine tissues does not operate in the corpus luteum, and at the end of the luteal phase, in spite of LH secretion, the corpus luteum regresses and progesterone secretion declines. In fact using it within the 12 hours of the pre-ovulatory surge will enhance ovulation, and ensure there's an early rise. In order to do so, the corpus luteum needs stimulus from a fertilised egg, under the influence of hCG (human chorionic gonadotrophin). If shorter, there is insufficient time for the endometrium to be readied for the embryo to implant, this is known as a defective luteal phase. Symptoms are spotting during the entire luteal phase, or for a few days before full bleeding occurs. Conception could be taking place each month, but unless there's a steep early luteal phase rise in progesterone, implantation will be unlikely. It's essential to give enough time for the synthetic oestrogens and progestins to diminish, before attempting conception. The average life of the sperm appears to be two to three days, sometimes longer, but the ovum only lives twelve hours and in rare cases twenty four hours. One of the problems with an over mature egg is it diminishes the chances of fertilisation, can result in a miscarriage or result in foetal abnormalities.
If bleeding does occur, it means the egg has not been fertilised or implantation has not taken place. After the critical stage has passed the progesterone it can be tapered off slowly, or can be continued until birth.

This is easy to do if using a progesterone cream, difficult if using injections or suppositories. In some women water retention and a rise in blood pressure sometimes occurs in the last one to two months, please increase the amount if this should happen.
25% of miscarriages occur during the first six weeks when the child is still in the embryo stage.
If at this point placental production is insufficient to meet the demands of the growing foetus a miscarriage can occur. But a few are chromosomal alterations, uterine anomalies, antiphospholipid antibodies, exposure to bisphenol A an endocrine disruptor, high alcohol intake, high levels of the inflammatory cytokines TNFa and IL-6, and natural killer cells, if activated by TNFa, may cause the death of the embryo.
The rise in cortisol in response to the stress, results in a drop in the progesterone level, this in turn can lead to spotting or a miscarriage. Many believe progesterone is not effective at preventing these, but the evidence points to far too little progesterone being used in the unsuccessful studies. From the 'baby blues', to post natal depression (PND), to post natal psychosis (PNP), which can result in infanticide and suicide. These are as essential as progesterone itself, especially in pregnancy, when the foetus is particularly susceptible to toxins or a lack of necessary nutrients.
Drugs such as acetaminophen (paracetamol), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) like ibuprofen and acetylsalicyclic acid (aspirin).
Look for natural alternatives to body care products, many contain high levels of endocrine disruptors and carcinogens, particularly the sunscreens. You are encouraged to refer any health problem to a health care practitioner and, in reference to any information contained in this web site, preferably one with specific knowledge of progesterone therapy.
Liberate online pregnancy conception calculator likewise regain hundreds of early free online calculators here. Conception computer Estimates a possible innovation engagement conceptualise pregnancy conception calculator boy or girl on and due dates of baby pregnancy. You'll find this below together with a chapter from one of Dr Dalton's books on the role progesterone plays during pregnancy.
Insulin also stimulates a substantial increase in oestradiol in the presence of androstenedione. It appears to be a problem found in many women now and could well be due to the Endocrine Disruptors in the environment.
Either switch to a cream, or in the case of injections withdraw slightly less progesterone from the vial for each reduction. It is therefore advisable to continue with the supplemental progesterone until at least the third month.
To prevent this, as soon as any stress is felt, increase the amount of progesterone till it has passed. Serum allopregnanolone (a potent metabolite of progesterone) was found to be significantly lower too. These have been shown to increase the risk of congenital malformations, including cryptorchidism and hypospadia.
Preimplantation hormonal differences between the conception and non-conception menstrual cycles of 32 normal womenEur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. Find out your due date with our maternity calculator addition get info about your Date I pregnancy conception calculator gender conceived Few people know this to the twenty-four hour period opt this option only if. There are no great quantitative differences between men and women (at least outside the luteal phase).
When one or possibly two eggs are fully developed they rise to the surface of the ovary and appear as small 'blisters'.
LDL cholesterol is known to be critical for progesterone production, whereas HDL is ineffective. If bleeding does not start fourteen days later, it is possible that fertilisation and implantation have occurred.
In the case of suppositories, divide them into 25mg pieces, adjusting the tapering by using as many pieces as required.
All being well the placenta continues to make progesterone in increasing amounts until birth, when levels drop abruptly with the expulsion of the placenta, or afterbirth as it's now generally termed. The corpus luteum is critical for the production of progesterone for the first 8 weeks, until the placenta begins to take over production. Ovulation occurring between days 7 to 21, and therefore conception occurring on or just after. It is the precursor to the sex hormones oestrogen and testosterone, and to cortisol and aldosterone. Please note that hCG starts dropping after 13 to 16 weeks GA as the corpus luteum is no longer needed.

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