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Male dog neutering, otherwise known as sterilisation, "fixing", desexing, castration (castrating) or by its correct veterinary name: orchiectomy (also termed gonadectomy), is the surgical removal of a male dog's testicles for the purposes of canine population control, medical health benefit, genetic-disease control and behavioral modification. 3.The writer must avoid the two essential faults of creative writinga€”those that touch its essence and those that are accidental. 4.The plot should have a beginning, middle, and end, and thus resemble a living organism in all its unity. 5.The beginning and end of the story must be capable of being brought within a single view or theme. 6.Plot should be arranged on the complex plan, one in which change of fortune takes place through reversal of situation, recognition, or both and includes scenes of suffering.
8.Plot can consist of either a single thread or double thread in which an opposite ending occurs for the good and bad characters.
10.Plot should imitate actions that incite pity and feara€”pity as aroused by unmerited misfortune, and fear by witnessing the misfortune of a character like ourselves. 11.This character must be someone who brings misfortune on himself or herself, not through vice or depravity, but by some error or frailty. 13.The writer must focus on the action in the story and the part taken by the characters, and not drift off in several lines of action carried on at the same time. 14.The writer should put the scene before his or her eyes, as if he or she is an actual eyewitness to an event happening while writing. Hero or heroine faces jeopardy that incites in reader emotions of sympathetic fear and anxiety as to the outcome of the situation. Plant the idea or action early, then develop readera€™s understanding by returning to idea or action later in story.
Description is the attempt to represent reality by using language to present as directly as possible the qualities of a person, place, object, or event.
1)The Eye of Insight sheds new light by examining inscape, viewing the interior, the shape within the shape of a thing.
2)The All-Accepting Eye examines things that we might rather not see, discards the labels, and searches for the beauty in a flaw, beginning discovery with the thing and not its label. 3)The Gliding Eye observes things in movement through time or space or both, picks up details of the passage, recording birth and decay of sensation at the center of a spinning mind. 4)The Childa€™s Eye observes a thing with the seriousness of a child at play, in a focused, highly concentrated way, without hurrya€”like watching an ant crawl across the ground or observing a dung beetle move a mass five times its size and weight. 5)The Dream Eye fragments reality and reshapes it, perhaps using symbols to penetrate below surface appearances.
The Naked Eye merges with the Imaginative Eye to create effective descriptiona€”The Big Picturea€”by making things from, not making things up.
New idea built from comparison between two unlike things; tension between two actualities creates possibility, or new meaning.
An Allusion measures a thing against a known cultural or memory tweak by referencing something the reader will know (Allegory, Conceit, direct or indirect reference to other texts (intertextuality), music, movies, etc.
Respond to each othera€™s work with respect, depth and thoughtfulness, in a manner that is civil and constructive. Over the Top a€“ material is presented in such a way that reader has a hard time believing the story. Greenfield, Tennessee, a farm and factory town of twenty-two hundred in the statea€™s rural northwest corner, has never been more than a place between places, one in a long list of towns to be passed through along kudzu-choked U.S.
It was in fact the railroad, and not the nearby Mississippi River, which was the prime mover in the delta land where I grew up.
On September 2, 1979, two members of the Weakley County rescue squad found the raped and murdered body of eight year-old Cary Ann Medlin in one of the communitya€™s namesake green fields, not far from the Illinois Central tracks. I remember hearing news of her murder and running to find my first grade yearbook, hoping to fix her school days photo in my mind so I wouldna€™t lose it. It wasna€™t until twenty-one years later, long after Ia€™d left Tennessee, after Martin and Greenfield had became only places in my mind and that Lovera€™s Lane a Memory Lane that I began to consider the murdera€™s place in a childhood which I now see as violent in so many other ways. That first grade photo of Cary appeared over and over in the news in the months leading up to the Coe execution, along with another I found printed years before in the Nashville Tennessean and now reprinted as the newspaper re-capped the story: a shot of those rescue workers bent over the soybean plants, long-haired and t-shirted, hunting the girla€™s body.
Bob Cowser, Jr.'s first book, Dream Season, was a New York Times Book Review a€?Editor's Choicea€? and a€?Paperback Rowa€? selection and was listed among the Chronicle of Higher Education's best-ever college sports books. Above our heads, a banner of the eartha€™s children: an African boy with corduroy hair, a fur-muffled Eskimo, a golden girl from Holland. Six years later my first stockings were seamed and I thought of Miss Ranney while I sat on the edge of the bathtub shaving the pale brown hairs. Rebecca McClanahan has published nine books, most recently Deep Light: New and Selected Poems 1987-2007 and The Riddle Song and Other Rememberings, which won the 2005 Glasgow prize in nonfiction.
There was a woman who died while I was in Daffiama; she was young and eight months pregnant.
Jillian Schedneck taught Literature and Creative Writing at the American University in Dubai for the 2007-2008 academic year. Sitting on the edge of her bed, with legs dangling and shoulders slumped, my six-year-old stares at the wall in a trance. She moves to the beat of her own drum, but once in the car, I settle into the morning routine. As the overburdened stretch of I-95 south of the Capitol extends before me, with cars packed in every lane as we creep toward our northbound destinations, I cannot stop the seething anger and indignation that boils within me. Our passage onto the base is slowed at the gate by the forklift placing barriers in front of the gate shack. I look at her, and though I answer a€?yes,a€? I realize that I was late because I forgot to leave. Being a mother is not just something I do; it is who I am, who I should have been, and who I always want to be. On the way to work, I listen to the news, but then I turn it off and just listen to the sound of my breathing. During my first sixth months of recruiting duty, workdays lasted from 0700 to 2300 Monday thru Friday, and from 0800 to 1800 on Sunday.
Making all those a€?numbersa€? was occasionally impossible, especially the a€?three appointments for the next day.a€? The recruiter had to contact the staff non-commissioned officer in charge and report his numbers before securing. Create Scene, driving home, reflecting on the hours spent on the road as a recruiter and the nastiness of the bars carried on Na€™s clothing into the cara€”describe car: At the end of that night, I went home exhausted, sweaty, and smelling like the smoke from the bars, an odor I despise. Create Scene: Pulling into the driveway at 0200 all I could think of was getting a shower and going to sleep. Deodorant soap replaced the smell of sweat and cigarette smoke from my body, but the taste in my mouth was getting worse. A recruiting SNCOIC doesna€™t want his recruiters getting caught with their integrity down but he is willing to risk it to make mission. This is a separate story inside this storya€”N is avoiding the real story by ending with this: Anyway, rumor had it the old man had assaulted a recruiter in Georgia and the Colonel just moved him to a new duty-station, in Daytona Beach, Florida. Like I said before, you have real talent, so dona€™t think badly of your writing when you see my comments.
One of the most important things you can do, is to take this piece and determine what is summary and what is scene.
When you create your timeline, start with placing the major events in this piece on the line first.
Being assigned to recruiting from my usual job as a criminal investigator was both good and bad. Getting back to those tasks based on statistics, stay with me now as I get through how the numbers worked out.
I talked to those people either on the telephone or in person, what we called daily activities. When I returned to my desk from the bathroom, the old sergeant was heading out the door with his Bible. This was the guy I had to call every night and get approval to secure, to leave work and go home at night.
After almost five hours of talking to people on the phone and going out and talking to people at malls, stores and various other public places, I felt done for the day. Dragging ass, I continued to approach people around 7-eleven stores and such, acting like I just happened to be stopping by on my way home from work. After ironing out the details and writing down his contact information, I finally left the musty tavern and drove home, exhausted and sweaty. The glowing numbers on the clock said it was a short night before I had to get back up and start another recruiting day. Born and raised in a small town in the South, David Charles joined the US Marine Corps as a teenager during the Cold War period.
Considered to be a basic component of responsible pet ownership, the neutering of male dogs is a common surgical procedure that is performed by most veterinary clinics all over the world. Determine the point at which protagonist must make a decision in order to achieve goal (crisis).
Coherent: Distilled image remains True to Life by reproducing the distinctive features of original. Consistent: Distilled image links the intended meaning from beginning to middle to end creating Unity of Meaning, as in an extended metaphor or exemplification. Allusion requires an understood knowledge base between writer and reader and recognition of a Cultural Memory Tweak by the reader in most cases. Elusion is complex and mysterious and requires not just recognition, but discovery of what is absent.
In depicting the motions of the a€?human hearta€™ the durability of the writing depends on the exactitude.
Submit line-edit suggestions, marginal comments, and an end comment (summary of your thoughts on the piece) addressed to the writer. Offer an end comment that notes what you believe the work to be about, how you see the work achieving this, and what opportunities you can see for further exploration in this work.
My slightly larger hometown of Martin, ten miles north up Highway 45, took its name from tobacco plantation owner Colonel William Martin who donated land for the railroad bed. Cary had gone on a bike ride with her little brother twenty hours earlier, gotten into a strangera€™s Grand Torino and disappeared. Her stepfather worked in those days on the assembly line at the Goodyear tire plant in Union City, her mother as a nurse at a Jackson hospital, and before moving to Greenfield in the summer of a€?79 the family had lived for a time in Martin.
As the state of Tennessee prepared to execute Coe for the Medlin murder (its first execution in forty years), I began to understand Bean Switch Road as a rutted track in memory which might run between me and many people I loved and respected, separating me from them. Both Medlin and Coe are as dead as they could bea€”Coe for almost five years at this writing, Cary Ann for nearly a quarter century. He is also the author of Scorekeeping, a collection of coming-of-age essays, and his essays and reviews have appeared widely in American literary magazines, including Missouri Review, Prairie Schooner, American Literary Review, Sycamore Review, Brevity, Sonora Review, Fourth Genre, and Creative Nonfiction. I checked the seams each morning as we stood facing the chalkboard, my hand across a place I called a pocket but she called your heart, and I pledged allegiance to a flag no bigger than my brother's diaper flapping on the line. I fingered my Brownie badge and renewed my oath to help other people at all times, especially those at home.
She has also authored four previous books of poetry and two books of writing instruction, including Word Painting: A Guide to Writing More Descriptively.
I didna€™t go to the funeral, but those who did said you could see the baby circling around inside of her, like a hand moving under a sheet. The first one fell with the Twin Towers, and as the clots of blood dripped into the toilet, I said goodbye almost thankfully, glad not to bring a child into such a world.
Something is different, something has changed, and I search my body for signs that my baby is still therea€”check my breasts, my belly, the fluid in the toilet, and back again to the breasts, wondering if the life inside me has died.
Not just any brown, but the kind you make with paint or too many layers of crayon when youa€™re a little kid. I would have gone to the funeral and made them cut the baby out while it was still alive, instead of after it had died. Her essay a€?Circling,a€? which first appeared in Brevity, will be anthologized in Online Writing: The Best of the First Ten Years (Snowvigate Press, 2009). As she rifled through the box of pencils, Alejandra must have also been watching my backside as I bent over Todda€™s desk, pondering the thin line of flower-print elastic that clings to my waistline. He has dutifully added the e, but his compositiona€”five sentences describing his homea€”is riddled with errors. Calculating the hours, I am certain the Virginia state legislature steals an hour and a half from me five days a week. Amandaa€™s before and after school care is local to our neighborhood, and my year old baby attends the day care on base. Calculating the hours, I am certain the Virginia state legislature steals an hour and a half from me every workday.
We are working with the Marine Corps program manager to set the timeline and milestones for the new Department of Defense messaging software.
She joined the Marine Corps in 1990 and is currently a Master Sergeant servingA with III Marine Expeditionary Force, Okinawa Japan. Those activities included about 200 telephone calls and, getting back to this day at a little after 5 p.m.
Having joined for law enforcement training, his first Marine job after a€?recruita€? and a€?studenta€? was as a military policeman.
Scatter descriptive details by breaking large clumps of information into smaller bits and sprinkle throughout the story. More than a century ago now a conductor on a southbound Illinois Central Gulf train offered the town its name, noting the fields of winter wheat still green late in the year. Engineer Casey Jones lived 50 miles south in Jackson, Tennessee at the time of his legendary 1903 wreck, his modest house there now a museum. By the time they found her tiny body atop a trampled swath of soybean plants just off Bean Switch Road, a notorious Lovera€™s Lane, the corpse had begun to turn in the late summer heat. I was as sad as a nine year-old boy could be about the business I suppose, but Cary had violated that cardinal rule of childhood about talking to strangers, and the Tennessee Bureau of Investigation had Robert Glen Coe in custody just three days later. I sensed with a kind of strange excitement how the photo was an emblem of my childhooda€”the unmistakable heat, those men, something awful hidden just out of sight. We sang of mountains and amber grain, our voices always a beat or two behind the warped '45 spinning on the phonograph beside the globe on Miss Ranney's desk. Later that year, I was in Home Ec tracing my face shape with soap onto a mirror when the intercom crackled the news. McClanahana€™s work has appeared in The Best American Poetry, The Best American Essays, Kenyon Review, Georgia Review, Gettysburg Review, and numerous other publications. Later I felt bad that I hadna€™t gone to the funeral, but I was never sure if my motivation was guilt or disappointment over missing such a spectacle. This one is taking its time, and I have nothing more than my intuition to tell me that ita€™s gone. Ia€™m still not completely sure, so I survey again, trying to find the feeling that was once there, that still comes back in little wisps, but seems mostly gone. You mix all the colors togethera€”the good colors and the bad colors too, just to see what will happen, and you come up with a muddy, greenish, sickly version of the color brown, a sort of chaos and confusion of life and lifelessness all blended into one, never to be separated into sky blue, tangerine, and sea foam again. I would have taken the dead womana€™s baby for my own, as a guard against the possibility that either of us would ever be alone, as a stone thrown in the face of death, as protection against this circling, this looking for something we both need desperately that is no longer there. I consider asking him what the correct spelling might be, imagine him looking up at me with big, brown eyes, searching the details of my face for the correct letter, but decide to just tell him what he needs instead.
I nod solemnly, mentally adding another dress code violation to my long list of teaching errors.
Traffic is finally moving, and this idiot thinks the left lane is for pacing instead of passing. On the way to work, I listened to the news, but sometimes I turned it off and just listened to the sound of my breathing.
Looking at my watch, I realize that the few minutes that I have been delayed will cost me many more. With my simple math skills, I conclude that including weekends, they rob me of at least ten hours a week. My thoughts are focused on security, contingency operations, alternate network operations, and the myriad of requirements to overcome the obstacles presented by this occurrence.
She knows something terrible has happened today and I dona€™t know how to explain it to her. Being a Marine is not something I do; it is who I am, who I have been, and who I will always be.
The hands of time are moving again, but now I hear the slow, steady tick tock of each moment.


She is also married to a Marine and has two daughters, ages 13 and 8.A She has served in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom, and her husband has served in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. Once he cut his teeth guarding gates and on patrol, David became a Marine criminal investigator.
After all, something has drawn you here, readera€”you want to know what it is the searchers seek among the soybean plants. Lawrence University, where he teaches courses in nonfiction writing and later American literature, and an adjunct member of the faculty of Ashland Universitya€™s Low-Residency MFA program. Our world was the Weekly Reader, hopscotch and jump rope, the only war the Cold One which America of course was winning. They lived only for my welfare, wrote notes about my progress and pinned them to my shirt, exchanged report card signatures. McClanahan, who lives in New York, has received the Wood Prize from POETRY, a Pushcart Prize in fiction, and (twice) the Carter prize for the essay from Shenendoah.
There is something about the way the breasts suddenly deflate, the way the body stops gurgling and humming, that lets me know I will continue to chase after the symptoms of another life in my body without ever finding what I am looking for. This brown, this color I am, it sucks in the colors of crocuses, bananas, my husbanda€™s eyes, and it holds them tight, keeping them for its own but never changing, never brightening to a rich mahogany or surrendering to black.
As my bitten fingernail zigzags over his sentences, I realize that even my fingers dona€™t match my image of a fourth grade teacher, who should be neat and composed, with a rosy complexion and trimmed, polished nails.
He grins back at me, but there is something about his expression, the penetrating, hooded brown eyes, that tells me he knows Ia€™m overlooking his other mistakes. She is currently working on a travel memoir about her experiences in the United Arab Emirates titled a€?Abu Dhabi Days, Dubai Nights.a€? Her creative work has been published in literary journals such as The Common Review, Brevity, and Fourth River. Adding lanes in both directions just wouldna€™t have been right a€“ all that grass dividing the highway looks so much better!
Most of his career was in military law enforcement minus some out of specialty assignments, including three years on recruiting duty. Even though I wore undergarments, I felt naked in front of this older man with the bushy mustache and thick glasses. We carried it proudly all the way back to one of their houses and proceeded to patch the hole with a piece of plywood and tar.
She is not someone who must ask repeatedly for attention and good behavior, whose voice gets muffled in the chatter of children, who anxiously picks at her nails and tears at her cuticles until tiny red bumps appear. I finally allow myself to smile as I imagine the opportunity to place a full handed slap across the face of the Neanderthal that came up with that brilliant idea. And now these paragraphs lie before you like stands of trees, a deep forest of wonder and darkness whose mystery beckons. Each morning Mother locked my thermos and only Miss Ranney could loosen it, leaning over me in her ivory crepe blouse until the cap sighed once, then was free.
The rest of the orbit swirls out from there: King murdered the week of my senior prom, then Bobby in a hotel just miles from my school while I marched to Pomp and Circumstance, not knowing that within a year on a July night in the back seat of a Volkswagen, I would pledge what was left of my heart to a boy leaving for Vietnam while above us the tired moon finally gave in to a tiny man in gravity boots, planting an American flag. Shea€™s probably doodling on the desk, her long, dark lashes cast down as she tries to escape the demands of the classroom and enter into the world of her drawing.
She is no longer a manipulative ten year old who pouts when she wants permission to draw hearts on the chalkboard or be excused to the lavatory for the third time in an hour.
He told me to stand up and bend down and reach for my toes as he examined my back for scoliosis. Ia€™m trying to ignore her insubordinationa€”she should be writing a paragraph like the rest of the six students in my after school reading classa€”but clearly another one of my tactics has failed.
In a moment, Alejandra has become a young woman learning how to manage the intimate details of our gender. I turn around, ready to demand she sit back in her seat, prepared to be heard and heeded this time, but she is looking at me, wide eyed. The disadvantages of desexing (the cons of desexing) - why people choose not to neuter dogs.3.
One of the boys found a canoe paddle in the weeds and we three got into the boat and started to paddle out. I covered my deformed right hand, which looked like a puppy's paw, with my left hand and looked down at the floor. Neutering puppies - information about the early spay and neuter of young dogs (puppy desexing).
We feverishly paddled with that one oar and bailed out the water with our hands and an old can.
People with Moebius can't do things like smile, blink, raise their eyebrows, or pucker their lips. Barely we made it to shore and got out just before the boat sank below the water and headed downstream. Wet, cold and shaking the three of us headed home knowing we would never tell our parents of this stupid adventure. We were lucky to be alive and it was only by Goda€™s grace that I can live to tell about it. I also have a club foot and webbed toes.I couldn't be breast fed when I was a baby because I wasn't able to suck properly.
Even when I was a baby, I didn't let Moebius hold me back.As I grew up, the name-calling was brutal.
Kids called me names like "Captain Hook" and "One-Handed Bandit." They would also tell me to smile and then laugh when I couldn't do it.
I was a stubborn, determined child, insisting I could do everything the other kids could do. I learned how to rollerblade, even though my balance wasn't that good because of my club foot. That's how I showed people I was happy, through giggles and gleaming eyes instead of grins. When I was 10 years old, my family heard about a girl in California who had the very first smile surgery. Sometimes that other road will bring you back to your original path and sometimes it will take you farther away from it. But God used him to gather and lead his people out of Pharaoha€™s slavery and split the Red Sea in two.A  Joseph was sold into slavery by his brothers and was cast into prison but became the second most powerful person inEgypt. To my shock and displeasure, the medicine was only a sedative and didn't numb my face at all. I did have some nerve in my face and felt a sharp prick as the needle was shoved in near my jaw.
I was deathly afraid of needles before, and after that experience, I wanted nothing more to do with the smile surgery.A few years went by and as I matured, I decided to revisit the idea of having the smile surgery. When I was 15 years old, I flew to California and a well-known doctor performed my surgery. Or, maybe just maybe a smile or a kind word from you to a stranger may just prevent them from going home and ending their own life and their grandson will some day save the world.
A blood clot developed in my face, and I was rushed into emergency surgery because the swelling was about to block my breathing passage. He will bring to light things that are now hidden in darkness, and will make known the secret purposes of people's hearts.
It took a month or two for the nerve and muscle to start working, so after my surgeries my family and I anxiously awaited my first smile. When I stood face to face with my aunt and smiled at her for the first time, she smiled back and asked me why I was staring at her. Throw your troubled waters out of your boat and paddle on down that river of life with Him at your side.
She was so used to naturally smiling back at people that it took her a few seconds to realize what was happening. You have ears, but you don't really listen.Psalm 13:2 -- How long must I worry and feel sad in my heart all day?
I have been praying for something to happen for 4A? years now and what I prayed for was not granted.
I still get a thrill when I'm walking down the street and someone passes by and smiles at me, and I'm able to smile back.
Leta€™s speak of reality a€“ He is God and He can do what He wants to or not do what He doesna€™t want to. We cannot command the Lord to do anything whether we do it in pleading, tears, anger, or desperation. August 8 2015 Official 2015 Moebius Syndrome Awareness Day Page Our 2014-2015 Moebiuis Syndrome Family Holiday HeroesGallery 2 Moebius Syndrome Awareness Day 2015 Video Gallery Smiling with our Hearts upon the World! If God has the will, He may answer our prayers about life but nothing says that He absolutely has to. All we have is the hope that he will hear us, see what we are going through, and grant us a little drop of His mercy in this life. He will cure a cancer, heal the deaf, grow an arm back or bring someone back to life but that does not mean He will do it all the time. He has given us guidance through His word (the Bible) and occasionally gives us a nudge or lesson to learn from but basically kicks us out of the nest like the mother bird does to face the challenges of life.
I covered my deformed right hand, which looked like a puppy's paw, with my left hand and looked down at the floor.
People with Moebius can't do things like smile, blink, raise their eyebrows, or pucker their lips. I get so frustrated at times that my prayers are not answered and I have to keep reminding myself that this is my life and I need to deal with it on my own sometimes. Their job is to preach the message to inspire, encourage, and give hope to their congregations. If we are to be an example of His mercy to others, it can only be done with people of lesser stature than us. I learned how to rollerblade, even though my balance wasn't that good because of my club foot.
He wants us to spread the Gospel and not make up stories of what He has done for us personally in life.
A lot of cost and effort and expertise goes into producing a quality litter for profitable sale.
Just show others how you believe in His salvation and forgiveness and tell them of His Word. If your bitch needs a caesarean section at one in the morning or develops a severe infection after whelping (e.g.
That's how I showed people I was happy, through giggles and gleaming eyes instead of grins. On top of that, if you fail to do your homework and breed poor quality pups or poorly socialised pups that won't sell, then you've just condemned some of those animals to a miserable life of being dumped in shelters or on the streets.2.
The reduction of stray and feral animal populations:By having companion dogs neutered, they are unable to go out and mate with feral or stray bitches and get them pregnant. This results in fewer litters of stray and feral dogs being born which, in return, benefits not just those unwanted puppies (who lead a tough neglected life), but also society in general. To reduce the spread of inferior genetic traits, genetic diseases and congenital deformities:Dog breeding is not merely the production of puppies, it is the transferral of genes and genetic traits from one generation to the next in a breed population.
To my shock and displeasure, the medicine was only a sedative and didn't numb my face at all. Pet owners and breeders should desex male dogs that have conformational, colouring and temperamental traits, which are unfavourable or faulty to the breed as a whole to reduce the spread of these defects further down the generations. He has promised everything in His kingdom of Heaven to those who accept His Son as Lord and Savior.
The prevention or reduction of testicular (and epididymal) diseases:It is difficult to contract a testicular disease if you have no testicles. Early neutering prevents dogs from contracting a range diseases and disorders including: testicular cancer, epididymal cancer, orchitis (testicular inflammation), epididymitis, testicular torsion, testicular abscessation and testicular trauma. Life here is just a temporary setback, trial and test to see if we are worthy of everlasting life sharing in His love -- or without it in a very dark place.
So accept His Son as your Lord and claim the only real promise that He made to us --- Forgiveness and Salvation.
The prevention or reduction of testosterone-induced diseases:Dogs can suffer from a range of diseases and medical conditions that are directly associated with high blood testosterone levels.
These disease conditions include:benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), prostatitis, prostatic abscess, perianal or perineal adenomas (small cancers that occur around the anus of male dogs), perineal hernias and certain castration-responsive skin disorders (dermatoses).
Desexing removes the main source of testosterone in the animal's body (the testes), which not only prevents the onset of these diseases but can even help to control or cure these diseases if they are already present. Tears streamed from my grandfather's gentle eyes when I smiled at him for the first time.
It is the testicles that make male animals exhibit the kinds of "male" testosterone-dependent behaviors normally attributed to an entire animal. They are more prone to displaying often unwanted masculine territorial behaviours such as the guarding of resources (food, bones, territory, companion people and pets and so on) and the marking of territory with urine and feces (e.g.
Additionally, entire male animals are more likely than neutered animals are to leave their yards and roam the countryside looking for females and trouble.
The neutering of entire animals can reduce some of these problematic testosterone-mediated behaviours.
The disadvantages of desexing (the cons of desexing) - why some people choose not to neuter.There are many reasons why some individuals, breeders and pet groups choose not to advocate the sterilisation of entire male dogs. Many of these reasons have been listed below, however the list is by no means exhaustive.1.
The dog may become overweight or obese:Studies have shown that neutered animals probably require around 25% fewer calories to maintain a healthy bodyweight than entire male animals do.
This is because a neutered animal has a lower metabolic rate than an entire animal does (it therefore needs fewer calories to maintain its bodyweight). Because of this, what tends to happen is that most owners, unaware of this fact, continue to feed their neutered male dogs the same amount of food after the surgery that they did prior to the surgery, with the result that their pets become fat.
Consequently, the myth of automatic post-desexing obesity has become perpetuated and, as a result, many owners simply will not consider desexing their dogs because of the fear of them gaining weight and developing weight-related problems (e.g.
They will only become obese if the post-neutering drop in their metabolic rate is not taken into account and they are fed the same amount of food calories as an entire animal.
A neutered dog potentially costs less to feed than an entire animal of the same weight and, therefore, neutering your animal may well save you money in the long run. Desexing equates to a loss of breeding potential and valuable genetics:There is no denying this. In an era where many unscrupulous breeders and pet owners ("backyard breeders" we call them) will breed any low-quality dog regardless of breed traits and temperament to make a quick buck, the good genes for breed soundness, breed traits and good temperament are needed more than ever.
Current desexing age recommendations.In Australia and throughout much of the world it is currently recommended that male dogs are neutered at around 5-7 months of age and older (as far as the "older" goes, the closer to the 5-7 months of age mark the better - there is less chance of your dog developing a testicular or testosterone-dependant medical condition if he is desexed at a younger age). The reasoning behind this 5-7 month age specification is one of anaesthetic safety for elective procedures. When asked by owners why it is that a dog needs to wait until 5-7 months of age to be desexed, most veterinarians will simply say that it is much safer for them to wait until this age before undergoing a general anaesthetic procedure. The theory is that the liver and kidneys of very young animals are much less mature than those of older animals and therefore less capable of tolerating the effects of anaesthetic drugs and less effective at metabolising them and breaking them down and excreting them from the body. Younger animals are therefore expected to have prolonged recovery times and an increased risk of suffering from severe side effects, in particular liver and kidney damage, as a result of general anaesthesia. Consequently, most vets will choose not to anesthetize a young dog until at least 5 months of age for an elective procedure such as neutering. Whether the 5-7 month age specification for general anaesthesia is valid nowadays (2008 onwards), however, is much less clear and is currently the subject of debate.
The reason for the current desexing-age debate is that the 5-7 month age specification was determined ages ago, way back in the days when animal anaesthesia was nowhere near as safe as it is now and relied heavily upon drugs that were more cardiovascularly depressant than modern drugs (e.g. Because modern animal anaesthetic drugs are so much safer on young animals than the old drugs used to be, there is increasing push to drop the age of desexing in veterinary practices. As modern pet anaesthetics have become a lot safer, with fewer side effects, the debate about the recommended age of canine neutering has been reopened in the veterinary world with some vets now allowing their clients to opt for an early-age spay or neuter, provided they appreciate that there are greater, albeit minimal, anaesthetic risks to the very young pet when compared to the more mature pet. In these situations, cat and dog owners can opt to have their male and female pets desexed as young as 8-9 weeks of age (the vet chooses anaesthetic drugs that are not as cardiovascularly depressant and which do not rely as heavily upon extensive liver and kidney metabolism and excretion).NOTE - in 1993, the AVMA (American Veterinary Medical Association) advised that it supported the early spay and neuter of young dogs and cats, recommending that puppies and kittens be spayed or neutered as early as 8-16 weeks of age. This again helps to reduce the incidence of irresponsible breeding - dogs sold already desexed cannot reproduce. I take about 3-7 minutes to neuter a male pup of about 9 weeks of age compared to about 10-15 minutes for an older animal.


More early age neuters can be performed in a day than mature dog neuters and less anaesthetic gas is used on each individual, thereby saving the practice money per procedure.Routine, across-the-board, early spay and neuter by shelters avoids the need for a sterilisation contract to be signed between the shelter and the prospective pet owner. A sterilisation contract is a legal document signed by people who adopt young, non-desexed puppies and kittens, which declares that they will return to the shelter to have that dog or cat desexed when it has reached the recommended sterilisation age of 5-7 months.
The problem with these sterilisation contracts is that, very often, people do not obey them (particularlyif the animal seems to be "purebred"); they are rarely enforced by law and, consequently, the adopted animal is left undesexed and able to breed and the cycle of pet reproduction and dumped litters continues.
Many of these disadvantages were outlined in the previous section (3a) when the reasons for establishing the 5-7 month desexing age were discussed and include: Early age anaesthesia and desexing is never going to be as safe as performing the procedure on an older and more mature dog.
Regardless of how safe modern anaesthetics have become, the liver and kidneys of younger animals are considered to be less mature than those of older animals and therefore less capable of tolerating the effects of anaesthetic drugs and less effective at metabolising them and breaking them down and excreting them from the body. Even though it is very uncommon, there will always be the occasional early age animal that suffers from potentially life-threatening side effects, in particular liver and kidney damage, as a result of young age anaesthesia.
Thishypothermia predisposition is caused by the young animal's increased body surface area (higher area for heat to be lost), reduced ability to shiver and reduced bodyfat covering (fat insulates against heat loss). The predisposition towards hypoglycemia is the result of a reduced ability to produce glucose from stores of glycogen and body fat as well as the fact that these stores of fat and glycogen are smaller in the young animal.
Early neutering may result in retained juvenile behaviours inappropriate to the animal's age later on. Many breederschoose to only desex their dogs after they have had some time to grow (after all, it is not possibleto look at a tiny puppy and determine whether or not it will have the right color, conformation and temperament traits to be a breeding and showing dog).
This allows the breeder time to determine whether or not the animal in question will be a valuable stud animal or not. Early age neuteringprevents breeders from being able to accurately determine which pups will be valuable studanimals (it is too early to tell when they are only puppies).
This can potentially result in urinaryhygiene problems and an increased risk of preputial urine scalding and prepuce infections throughout life.Early spaying and neutering will not 100% reduce pet overpopulation and dumping problems when a large proportion of dumped animals are not merely unwanted litters, but purpose-bought, older pets that owners have grown tired of, can't manage, can't train and so on. Because shelter policy was not to add to the numbers of litters being born irresponsibly by selling entire animals, all dogs, including puppies, were required to be desexed prior to sale.
Consequently, it was not unusual for us to desex male and female puppies and kittens at early ages (anywhere from 9 weeks of age upwards).
Hundreds of puppies and kittens passed under the surgeon's knife every year on their way to good homes and I must say that the incidence of post-operative complications that were a direct result of underage neutering was exceedingly low. Please remember, however, that if you do decide to have your pet neutered at an early age, you do make this choice at your own risk.
Current veterinary recommendations do still state that pet cats and dogs should be neutered at 5-7 months of age and that there is a greater risk (albeit minor) of young animals suffering from operative or post-operative complications as a result of general anaesthesia.4.
Neutering procedure (desexing surgery) - a step by step pictorial guide to canine neutering.As stated in the opening section, neutering is the surgical removal of a male dog's testicles.
During the procedure, each of the dog's testes and testicular epididymi are removed along with sections of the dog's testicular blood vessels and spermatic ducts (vas deferens or ductus deferens). And to be quite honest, from a general, non-veterinary pet owner's perspective, this is probably all of the information that you really need to know about the surgical process of desexing a dog. There are numerous surgical desexing techniques available for use by veterinarians, however, I have chosen to demonstrate the very commonly-used "open procedure" of dog castration. Water should not be withheld - it is fine for your animal to drink water before admission into the vet clinic.Any food that the animal fails to consume by bedtime should be taken away to prevent it from snacking throughout the night. Please note that certain animal species should not be fasted prior to surgery or, if they are fasted, not fasted for very long. For example, rabbits and guinea pigs are not generally fasted prior to surgery because they run the risk of potentially fatal intestinal paralysis (gut immotility) from the combined effects of not eating and receiving anaesthetic drugs.
Vet clinics usually tell owners what time they should bring their pet in for surgical admission and it is important that you abide by these admission times and not be late.
Vet clinics need to plan their day around which pets arrive and do not arrive for surgery in the morning.
His gum colour will be assessed, his heart and chest listened to and his temperature taken to ensure that he is fine to operate on. This pre-surgical examination is especially important if your pet is old (greater than 7-8 years).
This is a simple blood test that is often performed in-house by your vet to assess your pet's basic liver and kidney function. It may help your vet to detect underlying liver or kidney disease that might make it unsafe for your pet to have an anaesthetic procedure. Old dogs in particular should have a pre-anaesthetic blood panel performed (many clinics insist upon it), but cautious owners can elect to have young pets tested too.
Things happen (very rarely, but they do) and you need to be aware of this before signing an anaesthetic consent form.
As with human medicine, it is becoming more and more common these days for pet owners to sue vets for alleged malpractice. Vets today require clients to sign a consent form before any anaesthetic procedure is performed so that owners can not come back to them and say that they were not informed of the risks of anaesthesia, should there be an adverse event.
Vets may need to call owners if a complication occurs, if an extra procedure needs to be performed on the pet or if the pet has to stay in overnight. It is often best if you ring the veterinary clinic before picking your pet up just in case it can not go home at the time expected (e.g.
The animal is normally given a premedication drug before surgery, which is designed to fulfill many purposes. The sedative calms the animal making it slip into anaesthesia more peacefully; the sedative often contains a pain relief drug (analgesic), which reduces pain during and after surgery and the sedative action results in lower amounts of anaesthetic drug being needed to keep the animal asleep.
General anaesthesia is normally achieved by giving the pet an intravenous injection of an anaesthetic drug, which is then followed up with and maintained using an anaesthetic inhalational gas.
The animal has a tube inserted down its throat during the surgery to facilitate the administration of the anaesthetic gas.
The animal is drawn laying on its back as it would be positioned during a sterilization surgery.
The second thing to notice is that the spermatic ducts (vas deferens) and blood vessels supplying each of the testicles arise from within the animal's abdominal cavity.
These vessels exit the animal's abdominal cavity in the region of the animal's groin, via a natural hole in each side (right and left) of the abdominal wall called the inguinal canal or inguinal ring (marked in purple). After exiting the abdominal cavity via the inguinal canal, these ducts and vessels run deep within the fat situated alongside the animal's penis and into the scrotum, where they unite with the sperm ducts and blood vessels within the animal's testicles. The third thing to remember is that some of the thick connective tissue lining the animal's abdominal cavity (the peritoneal lining - marked in green) actually comes out through the inguinal canal when the testicle descends during infancy and encases the testicle within the scrotal sac. The section of peritoneal lining containing the testicle within the scrotal sac and inguinal canal is termed the tunica vaginalis or vaginal tunic. On top of this, some of the abdominal fluid (lubricating fluid that exists in small amounts within the abdomen to let the organs slide over each other and not adhere to each other) and abdominal 'space' that exists within the abdominal cavity also goes with the peritoneal outpouching (tunica vaginalis) and into the scrotal sac and inguinal canal surrounding the testicular structures.
It allows the testicular vessels and testicles to slide a bit within the scrotal sac and tunica vaginalis casing.
Images: An incision is made into the skin just ahead of the animal's scrotal sac, on the midline of the animal.
Both testicles will be removed through the one incision.Caution needs to be taken to ensure that the urethra is not accidentally cut into during this incision. The fat surrounding the testis and tunica vaginalis is trimmed away and the testis (enclosed within the thick, capsule-like tunica vaginalis) is lifted through the hole in the animal's skin.
Image: The tunica vaginalis (green) is incised and the testicle itself (testis and epididymus) is exposed. Because the space between the tunica vaginalis and testicle contains small volumes of lubricating fluid (blue) from inside of the abdominal cavity, the testicle does not stick to the tunica vaginalis but instead slips easily out of it.
They are tied tightly to ensure that the blood vessels supplying the testes are fully occluded (closed off). This will prevent the animal's testicular blood vessels from bleeding once the testicle is cut off.
The surgeon cuts off the testicle (testis and epididymus) above the level of the sutures and discards it. Author's note: Some surgeons like to also tie off the tunica vaginalis itself, instead of leaving it open.
The first is that the tunica vaginalis has some blood supply of its own and oozes blood when you cut it. Although this seldom ever presents a significant, life-threatening bleeding issue, in large dogs this oozing of blood from the cut tunic can be enough to cause the scrotal sac to become swollen up with blood and therefore very painful and bruised after surgery.
Leaving the tunic open may potentially increase the risk of suture-line infections extending through into the abdominal cavity. There is also the potential (though it is rare) for abdominal contents to travel down the inguinal canal within the tunica vaginalis and end up under the skin, resulting in an inguinal hernia, which can be life threatening. Neutering aftercare - what you need to know about caring for your dog after neutering surgery.When your dog goes home after neutering surgery, there are some basic exercise, feeding, bathing, pain relief and wound care considerations that should be followed to improve your pet's healing, health and comfort levels. 1) Feeding your dog immediately after neutering:After a dog has been desexed, it is not normally necessary for you to implement any special dietary changes. Unless your veterinarian says otherwise, it is normally fine to feed your pet the night after surgery.
Offer your pet a smaller meal than normal in case your pet has an upset tummy from surgery and do not be worried if your pet won't eat the night after surgery. It is not uncommon for pets to be sore and sorry after surgery and to refuse to eat that night. If your pet is a bit sooky and won't eat because of surgery-site pain, feel free to tempt your pet with tasty, strong-smelling foods to get him to eat.
Avoid fatty foods such as mince, lamb and processed meats (salami, sausages, bacon) because these will cause digestive upsets.
Do not give these drugs if your pet is refusing to eat.Most dogs that are neutered are not normally off their food for more than a day. It is therefore recommended that running-around exercise be avoided or minimised during this period to allow the skin the best chance of staying still and healing. The most important thing that you do need to do is monitor the wound to ensure that it remains looking healthy and clean. Look out for any signs of redness, swelling and wound pain (surgical wounds should not normally appear painful or red beyond the first 3-5 days after surgery).
The wound and sutures should then be dried thoroughly to stop bacteria from wicking deep into the surgical site. The wound should then be closely monitored over the next few days because wounds soiled in dirt or faeces are at high risk of becoming infected, even if they are bathed. This is a major cause of wound breakdown - the pet licks the wounds making them wet and infected or the pet actually pulls out the sutures, resulting in the wound breaking apart. At the very first sign of wound licking, go to your vet immediately and get an Elizabethan collar (E collar) for it. The collar will stop the pet tampering with the stitches and hopefully prevent wound break down. If the dog starts licking in the middle of the night and you can not get an E collar, you can cut the circular bottom out of an appropriately-sized, clean plastic flower pot (leave the drainage holes intact); place this over your pet's head and neck like an Elizabethan collar and thread the pet's collar or a stocking through the pot-plant drainage holes to secure it to your pet's neck. Be careful to place it so that your pet can not choke and go and get a proper E collar from your vet in the morning. Wound licking can also be reduced by putting bitter apple spray, methyl phthalate solution or another commercial bitterant solution onto the pet's suture line. Woundgard is one commercial product that serves this role (there are many other products that serve a similar function).
4) Bathing or washing your dog after neutering:Because it takes 10-14 days for sutured (stitched) skin wounds to heal and seal closed, it is advised that the animal not be bathed or allowed to go swimming for the first 14 days after surgery.
They can be removed at home, but ideally they should be removed by a veterinarian (the vet can determine if the wounds have healed up before removing them).
6) Pain relief after neutering:In my experience, most dogs do not seem to show all that much pain after neutering surgery.
Most vets send their neutering patients home with a few days of pain relief as a matter of course, however, some vet clinics do not.
If you haven't been sent home with any pain relief for your pet and your pet shows signs of pain after surgery, you can return to your vet clinic and request pain relief pills. If your pet is very old or it has compromised kidney or liver function, certain pain medications may not be recommended and other pain relief solutions may need to be found.DO NOT self-medicate your pet with human pain-killers. Pets that are allowed to run around after surgery are more likely to traumatize and move their sutures, leading to swelling and pain of the surgical site.
Placing a dried-off ice pack wrapped in a tea towel (never put ice directly against the skin) on the pet's surgery site for 10 minutes and then placing a hot water bottle (also wrapped in a tea towel) on the site for another 10 minutes and then replacing the cold pack and so on (i.e. CAUTION - Only do this if you have a very nice tempered dog - remember that pets in pain can bite and you may well upset the animal more by handling his wound, even though you are only trying to help him. Possible surgical and post-surgical complications of neutering.There are some surgical and post surgical complications of desexing a dog that should be considered before you take the step of having your pet neutered.
The most important thing to remember about the complications listed below is that the vast majority of these complications are very rare and the small risk of them occurring should not outweigh the benefits of having your pet neutered.
Of those complications that are more common (the common ones are indicated), the vast majority of these are not life-threatening and most can be prevented by good attention to after-care and wound care. Pain after surgery (common).It is not uncommon for dogs to show some signs of mild to moderate discomfort and pain immediately after having a desexing surgery. It stands to reason: the vet has just performed a surgical procedure on a very delicate area of the male body. Dogs that are in discomfort after desexing will normally show signs suggestive of pain in the groin region. Some dogs will even go off their food for a few days after desexing because of the discomfort. If you haven't been sent home with any pain relief for your pet and your pet shows signs of pain after surgery, you can return to your vet clinic and request pain relief pills - these will normally be enough to keep your pet comfortable.
If your pet is very old or it has compromised kidney or liver function, certain pain medications may not be recommended and other pain relief solutions may need to be found.Keep your pet confined and quiet if it is in pain. Pets that are allowed to run around after surgery are more likely to traumatise and move their sutures, leading to swelling and pain of the surgical site. Placing an ice pack wrapped in a tea towel (never put ice directly against the skin) on the pet's surgery site for 10 minutes and then placing a hot water bottle (also wrapped in a tea towel) on the site for another 10 minutes and then replacing the cold pack and so on (i.e.
WARNING - Only do this if you have a very nice tempered dog - remember that pets in pain can bite and you may well upset the animal more by handling his wound, even though you are only trying to help him. If the scrotal skin appears very abraded and red to you (either from clipper rash during pre-surgical shaving of fur or due to your pet's licking), you should speak to your vet about it. He may prescribe some cream containing a steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, an antibiotic compound and a local anaesthetic (e.g. If the wound break down is only mild, the animal may only require antibiotic coverage; an Elizabethan collar and better home care to treat the problem. If the wound has completely fallen apart, the vet may need to operate on your pet again to retrim and repair the surgical wound. The bacterial invasion causes damage to the body tissues in the site of infection (this limits healing of tissues) and triggers a secondary immune system attack on the region, resulting in inflammation and a build up of pus (invading white blood cells produce yellow or green discharges) in the area.Owners often first notice infection when the neutering incision line becomes sore, swollen, red and hot-to-touch.
Sometimes, the pet will tell the owner that it is in pain by licking the infected regions obsessively: infection should certainly be suspected if a pet goes from not being bothered by its wounds to licking and biting at them excessively.
Within hours to days of this redness and inflammation being noticed, the owner may witness a yellow to green purulent discharge coming from the suture holes or the incision line itself. If allowed the progress, the wound may split apart completely, resulting in wound breakdown.
It tends to occur because the pet was allowed to lick the sutureline and, consequently, introduce mouth bacteria into its surgical incision. Infection also tends to occur if the sutures are allowed to get wet (the animal was bathed, allowed to go swimming, allowed to lay in mud) or if the sutures are allowed to become soiled by faeces, urine or dirt. Bacterial numbers are very high in diseased skin and will easily enter the wound site during surgery, regardless of the amount of prepping done. Animals with Cushing's disease, Diabetes Mellitus and other immune suppressive disorders may be more prone to wound infections.




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