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It is believed that the most favorable time for conception of twins is considered to be spring, when there is an increase of the day, as the length of daylight depends hormone.
Of course, women who have sisters or brothers-twins have a better chance of conceiving twins. While experts claim that the frequency of thunderstorms (lightning) is currently on the increase globally, it still doesna€™t account for the seemingly exponential growth in a€?lightninga€? claims submitted by Insureds.A  The primary reason for the rise in claims is due to the increasing susceptibility of electronic equipment to damages associated with over-voltage exposure. 1) Create a general mapping of the affected areas and equipment positions, supported by ample photographic documentation.A  Although using an as-built blueprint is ideal, copies of fire evacuation maps or hand-drawn maps are commonly used and effective. No matter how hard you try to protect your data, your system may still fall victim to data loss. This publication provides guidelines on how to handle electrical equipment that has been exposed to water through flooding, fire fighting activities, hurricanes, etc.
There can be no doubt that before the time of Eratosthenes the ideas of the learned world on the subject of geography had assumed a more regular and systematic form. It appears indeed from repeated statements of Strabo that Eratosthenes made it the object of his special attention to a€?reform the map of the world,a€? as it had existed down to his time, and to reconstruct it upon more scientific principles.
With regard to the fundamental idea of all geography - the position and figure of the earth - Eratosthenes adopted the views that were current among the astronomers of his day, which had been received almost without exception from the times of Aristotle (ca. But Eratosthenes had the merit of making one valuable addition to the previously existing ideas upon this subject, by a more careful and successful measurement than had ever been previously attempted, of the magnitude of the earth, or circumference of the terrestrial globe. The method pursued by Eratosthenes was theoretically sound, and was in fact identical in principle with that which has been adopted by astronomers in modern day.
While still keeping to the geocentric views of the universe, Eratosthenes started from the assumption that the sun was so distant that for practical purposes one could consider its rays parallel anywhere on earth. The only theoretical error in this mode of calculation was in the assumption - which was inevitable in the days of Eratosthenes - that the earth was exactly spherical, instead of being as it really is, a slightly oblate spheroid, and that therefore a meridian great circle was equal to that of the equator.
In the first place, it was assumed that Syene lay directly under the tropic, it being a well-known fact that at the summer solstice the sun could be seen from the bottom of a deep well, and that at the same time the gnomon cast no perceptible shadow.
It is remarkable that while the terrestrial measurement was thus grossly inaccurate, the observation of latitude as deduced from the gnomon at Alexandria was a very fair approximation to the truth: a fiftieth part of a great circle being equivalent to an arc of 7A°12a€™, thus exceeding by about 7a€™ only the true interval between Alexandria and Syene, while falling short of that between Alexandria and the real Tropic by about 30a€™ or half a degree. It appears indeed almost certain that Eratosthenes himself was aware of the imperfection of his data, and regarded the result of his calculation only as an approximation to the truth. After all it must be admitted that the calculation of Eratosthenes, considering the disadvantages under which he labored, came surprisingly near the truth. Once the value of 252,000 stades was accepted, it was feasible also to work out the circumference of any parallel circle. Having thus laid the foundation of what has been called in modern times a€?geodesya€? - the determination of the figure and dimensions of the earth, considered in its entirety, as a part of the system of the universe, Eratosthenes next proceeded to consider that portion of it which was in his time geographically known, or supposed to be inhabited. In his Geographica Eratosthenes discussed the best method of drawing a map of the inhabited area of the earth as known.
Therefore, as with earlier map construction, the length of the oikumene greatly exceeds the width, though by what proportion depends on how much of the northern, eastern and southern extremities were regarded as inhabited.
As approximations to sizes and shapes of parts of the world, Eratosthenes first divided the inhabited world by a line stretching from the Pillars of Hercules [Straits of Gibraltar] to the Taurus Mountains and beyond, then subdivided each of these two sections into a number of irregular shapes, or sphragides, which literally meant a€?an official seala€™ and later was extended to represent a plot of land numbered by a government surveyor, then by extrapolation to a numbered area on a map. Eratosthenes undoubtedly conceived, in accordance with the prevalent belief in his day, that the Ocean was found immediately to the east of India, and that the Ganges flowed directly into it. From that point he supposed the coast to trend away towards the northwest, so as to surround the great unknown tracts of Scythia on the north, but sending in a deep inlet to the south, which formed the Caspian Sea. His ideas of the geographical position and configuration of India were also in great measure erroneous.
Physical geography, in the modern sense of the term, was still quite in its infancy in the days of Eratosthenes, and it cannot be said that he did much to impart to it a scientific character.
Eratosthenes also adopted, and apparently developed at considerable length, an idea first suggested by the physical philosopher Strabo, that the Mediterranean and the Euxine [Black] Seas had originally no outlet, and stood in consequence at a much higher level, but that they had burst the barriers that confined them, and thus given rise to the Straits of the Bosphorus, the Hellespont and that of the columns. This map of the known world was a very striking achievement and may be considered to be the first really scientific Greek map. After all, twins and triplets often cause others attention and affection, despite the fact that they bring up – twice as hard. It is also noticed that the conception of twins may also affect the duration of the menstrual cycle. Also, if your family, especially the mother, the twins are often born, it is possible that you will be born as twins. Using file recovery software on a faulty hard drive may destroy what was otherwise recoverable data.
Your chances for a successful recovery are greatly reduced if you make any attempts yourself to clean or dry your damaged computer. Professional data recovery services offer the expertise and tools required to recover your data quickly and efficiently.A  As a Kroll Ontrack Data Recovery Certified Partner, you can count on Technical Recovery Process when disaster strikes and compromises your data! A It is designed for use by suppliers, installers, inspectors, and users of electrical products.A  Electrical equipment exposed to water can be extremely dangerous if reenergized without proper reconditioning or replacement. More symmetrical than accurate, its partitions were the forerunners of parallels and meridians after DicA¦archus (#111). And it is certain also that these had been embodied in the form of maps, which, however imperfect, were unquestionably very superior to anything that had preceded them. It is this enlarged and philosophical view of the subject that constitutes his special merit, and entitles him to be justly called as the a€?parent of scientific geographya€?.
Once the idea of a spherical earth was accepted, and that it was a perfect sphere, the measurement of this body was a logical step, even to Greek scholars who were more given to philosophical speculation than to quantification and experimentation. The method pursued by Eratosthenes is fully stated and explained by the astronomer Cleomedes, in his work on the Circular Motion of the Heavenly Bodies. He observed that the rays of the sun, at midday, at the time of the summer solstice, fell directly over Syene [modern-day Aswan] and that the vertical rod of the sun dial (gnomon or style) would not cast a shadow (predicated on the assumption that Syene was situated exactly under the Tropic of Cancer). But, though these facts were perfectly correct as matters of rough observation, such as could be made by general travelers, they were far from having the precise accuracy requisite as the basis of scientific calculations. Hence, as mentioned above, he felt himself at liberty to add 2,000 stades to the 250,000 obtained by his process, in order to have a number that would be readily divisible into sixty parts, or into degrees of 360 to a great circle. His measurement of 250,000 stades (the immediate result of his calculation) would be equivalent to 25,000 geographical miles, while the actual circumference of the earth at the equator falls very little short of 25,000 English miles. Thus Eratosthenes calculated that the parallel at Rhodes, 36A°N., was under 200,000 stades in circumference. And here it must be observed that the relation between the habitable world, which was alone regarded as coming within the scope of the geographer (properly so called), and the terrestrial globe itself, was, in the days of Eratosthenes, and even long afterwards, a very different one from that which we now conceive as subsisting between them. The first task of the geographer therefore, according to the notions then prevailing, was to determine the limits and dimensions of the map of the world, which was to form the subject of his special investigations. India he suggested drawing as a rhomboid; Ariana [the eastern part of the Persian Empire] would be illustrated as approximating a parallelogram. Just to the north of the Ganges the great mountain chain of Imaus, which he regarded as the continuation of the Indian Caucasus and the Taurus, descended (according to his ideas) to the shores of the Eastern Ocean; and he appears to have given the name of Tarnarus to the headland which formed the termination of this great range.
Of the northern shores of Asia or Europe he had really no more knowledge than Herodotus (#109), but, unlike that historian, he assumed the fact that both continents were bounded by the Ocean on the north; a fact which is undoubtedly true, but in a sense so widely different from that supposed by Eratosthenes that a can hardly be held as justifying his theory.
As mentioned above, he conceived it to be of a rhomboidal form, which may be regarded as a rough approximation to the truth, and he even knew that the two sides, which enclosed the southern extremity, were longer than the other two. In treating the mountain chains of Asia as one continuous range, to which he applied the name of Taurus, he may be regarded as having made a first attempt, however crude, at that systematic description of mountain ranges to which we now give the name of orography. In proof of this theory he alleged the presence of marine shells far inland in Libya, especially near the temple of Jupiter Ammon, and on the road leading to it, as well as the deposits and springs of salt that were also found in the Libyan deserts.
Although the dimensions are not known exactly, as it was presented to the Egyptian court a may be assumed to have been fairly large.
But if this is possible, especially to plan the birth of twins and become a mom of two babies at once?
According to recent studies, women who during pregnancy breastfed, there is a chance of multiple births. This tool must be used immediately; however, because your computer will quickly write new data over the deleted file. Reductions in integrity of electrical insulation due to moisture, debris lodged in the equipment components, and other factors, can damage electrical equipment by affecting the ability of the equipment to perform its intended function. 76), Meditation on First Philosophy: 45 ?ABSTRACTI establish how a biochemist and psychiatrist, Ian Stevenson, MD, Chair of Psychiatry and Director of the Department of Perceptual Studies at the University of Virginia, rhetorically maintained his broader, Cartesian (Descartes, 1993) definition of the psychophore through arguing for research on apparitions, and phantom limbs, as essential to verify his definition of the psychophore.
Geographic information that was gathered by Alexander the Great and his successors was the primary source used by Eratosthenes, a scholar with vision large enough to put this information into a logical framework. The first use of world maps by the Greeks had been introduced at a very early period by Anaximander (ca. The materials at his command were still very imperfect, and the means of scientific observation were wanting to a degree which we can, at the present-day, scarcely figure to ourselves; but the methods which he pursued were of a strictly scientific character, and his judgment was so sound that he proved in many instances to be better informed and more judicious in his inferences than geographers of two centuries later. He was not indeed the first who had attempted the solution of this problem, which would naturally engage the attention of astronomers and geometers, as soon as it was agreed that the earth was of a spherical form. Both the method and the accuracy of Eratosthenesa€™ well-known measurement of the earth have evoked the admiration of later workers, and his calculation is regarded as one of the greatest achievements of Greek science. Syene is in fact situated in latitude 24A° 5a€™ 30a€?, or nearly 37 miles to the north of the Tropic.
Ever since the discoveries of the great Portuguese and Spanish navigators in the 15th and 16th centuries opened out to us new continents, and extensions of those already known, far beyond anything that had previously been suspected or imagined, men have been accustomed to regard the a€?map of the worlda€? as comprising the whole surface of the globe, and including both the eastern and western hemispheres, while towards the north and south it is capable of indefinite extension, until it should reach the poles, and is in fact continually receiving fresh accessions. This question, which was taken up by Eratosthenes at the beginning of his second book, had already been considered by several previous writers, who had arrived at very different results.
Rather than a rectangle, he thought of the oikumene as tapering off at each end of its length, like a chlamys [short Greek mantle].
In fact the conclusion of Eratosthenes was mainly based upon the erroneous belief that the Caspian communicated with the Ocean to the north in the same manner that the Persian Gulf did to the south; a view which was adopted by all geographers for a period of three centuries, on the authority of Patrocles. Yet the erroneous idea of its communication with the Ocean to the north sufficiently shows how questionable the information possessed by the Greeks really was.


But as he supposed the range of Imaus that bounded the country to the north to have its direction from west to east, while the Indus flowed from north to south, he was obliged to shift around the position of his rhomb, so as to bring the other two sides approximately parallel to the two thus assumed.
He also arrived at a sound conclusion concerning the causes of the inundation of the Nile, a subject that must naturally have engaged the attention of a geographer resident in Egypt. It must have been drawn as closely as possible to scale, and its influence on subsequent Greek and Roman cartography was tremendous. The relationship between breastfeeding and multiple pregnancy allegedly due to depletion of calcium in lactating women, which affects the egg during conception and ovulation.
This is explained by the possibility of fertilization by more than one egg at any time of ovulation. A Damage to electrical equipment can also result from flood waters contaminated with chemicals, sewage, oil, and other debris that will affect the integrity and performance of the equipment.
His logic is very simple, research is required to prove or disprove the psychophore, thus a proper definition must anticipate the functions, mechanisms, and products of the psychophore as an extended consciousness surviving even without the body (Descartes, 1993 & Stevenson, 1997).
He regarded the earth as a sphere, placed in the center of the universe, around which the celestial sphere revolved every twenty-four hours: besides which, the sun and moon had independent motions of their own. Aristotle refers to the calculation of a€?mathematiciansa€? who had investigated the subject (without naming them) that the earth was 400,000 stades in circumference.
Secondly, Alexandria, instead of being exactly on the same meridian with Syene, lay in fact not less than three degrees of longitude to the west of it: an error of no trifling moment when the distance between the two was assumed as the basis of calculation.
Thus was established the basis of a fairly accurate system of coordinates for any sectional mapping of the Mediterranean based upon the Rhodes parallel. With the Greek geographers on the contrary, from Eratosthenes to Strabo, the known or habitable world was conceived as a definite and limited portion of the eartha€™s surface, situated wholly within the northern hemisphere, and comprised within about a third of the extent of that section. On one point indeed they were all agreed, that the length of the habitable world, from west to east, greatly exceeded as breadth, from north to south.
Moreover, Strabo tells us that to the above total of 74,000 stades Eratosthenes, using another mathematical ploy, added 2,000 at each end, to prevent the width being more than half the length. Hence he conceived the projecting angle of India to have a direction towards the southeast instead of the south, and even supposed it to advance farther towards the east than the mouth of the Ganges. On the other hand he stated a strange hypothesis: that the surplus waters of the Euphrates were carried by subterranean channels to Coele, Syria, and thence again underground so as to feed the streams which broke out near Rhinocorura and Mount Casius. Indeed, with Ptolemya€™s inaccurate alterations to the overall dimensions of the world and the oikumene, it can be said to have affected world maps right down to the Age of Discovery. It is known that women of a certain nationality, for example, the percentage of African-American birth of twins is higher than in women of other nationalities. Of course, increased the chances of conceiving twins, triplets and even in women taking hormones and undergoing procedures in vitro (IVF).
My hormones get really crazy sometimes… And I feel sometime something twisting in my stomach.
A Ocean water and salt spray can be particularly damaging due to the corrosive and conductive nature of the salt water residue. Cartesian dualism stipulates that the source of the Mind is separate from the physical body, thus a classical Mind and body split (Descartes, 1993).
24, #115) to whom we are indebted for much of our knowledge of geography in antiquity, including the work of Eratosthenes whose relevant works, neither of which have survived, were On the Measurement of the Earth and Geographica, Cleomedes summarized the former, Strabo criticized the latter.
The obliquity of the suna€™s course to that of the celestial sphere was of course well known; and hence the great circles of the equinoctial, and the ecliptic, or zodiacal circle, as well as the lesser circles, called the tropics, parallel with the equinoctial, were already familiar to the astronomers of Alexandria. But a much graver error than either of these two was that caused by the erroneous estimate of the actual distance between the two cities.
Towards the north and south it was conceived that the excessive cold in the one case, and the intolerable heat in the other, rendered those regions uninhabitable, and even inaccessible to man.
Democritus, two centuries before Eratosthenes, had asserted that it was half as long again as it was broad, and this view was adopted by DicA¦archus (#111), though recent discoveries had in his day materially extended the knowledge of its eastern portions.
On the parallel of Rhodes, this total of 78,000 stades corresponds to about 140A° longitude, which is roughly the distance from Korea to the west coat of Spain. He appears in fact to have obtained, probably from the information collected by Patrocles, a correct general idea of the great projection of India in a southerly direction towards Cape Comorin, but was unable to reconcile this with his previously conceived notions as to its western and northern boundaries, and was thus constrained altogether to distort its position in order to make it agree with what he regarded as established conclusions. This may be due to enhanced ovulation of several eggs, leading to the birth of fraternal twins. However, on their own without a doctor’s prescription to take these drugs are dangerous to health.
Stevenson's psychophore functions as a federation of fields, consisting of deceased personalities, among the present individual (Stevenson, 1997), thus indivisible.
Nor can it be doubted that the discoveries resulting from the conquests of Alexander the Great (ca. Future scholars, however, would have a higher opinion of Eratosthenes, regarding him, a€?as the parent of scientific geographya€? and at least a€?worthy of alphaa€? in that subject, particularly for his remarkable measurement of the circumference of the earth. Moreover it appears that these conceptions, originally applied to the celestial sphere, had been already transferred in theory to the terrestrial globe. What mode of measurement had been resorted to, or how Eratosthenes arrived at his conclusion upon this point, we are wholly without information: but it may well be doubted whether he had recourse to anything like actual menstruation.
That there might be inhabitants of the southern hemisphere beyond the torrid zone, or that unknown lands might exist within the boundless and trackless ocean that was supposed to extend around two-thirds of the globe from west to east, was admitted to be theoretically possible, but was treated as mere matter of idle speculation, much as we might at the present day regard the question of the inhabitants on Mars. The astronomer Eudoxus on the other hand maintained that the length was double the breadth; Eratosthenes went a step farther and determined the length to be more than double the breadth, a statement that continued to be received by subsequent geographers for more than three centuries as an established fact. It was doubtless from the same source that he had learned the name of the Coniaci, as the people inhabiting this southernmost point of India; a name that hence forward became generally received, with slight modifications, by ancient geographers.
Arguably the function of the psychophore is similar to the Soul, bridging research goals between scientific fields and theological pursuits of study (John Paul, 2002).
Thus the idea of the globe of the earth, as it would present itself to the mind of Eratosthenes, or any of his more instructed contemporaries, did not differ materially from that of the modern geographer. But as a mathematical ploy, in order to achieve a number divisible by 60 or 360, so as to correlate stades with his subdivisions or degrees, he emended this to 252,000 stades [a stade, stadion, stadia], originally the distance covered by a plough before turning, was 600 feet of whatever standard was used]. Indeed the difficulty which modern experience has shown to attend this apparently simple operation, where scientific accuracy is required, renders it highly improbable that it was even attempted; and the round number of 5,000 stades at once points to its being no more than a rough approximation. I am not writing that the psychophore is the same as the Soul, nor am I writing that the psychophore is different from the Soul, just that they seem to serve the same function. The same thing was the case in ancient times, and it is highly probable that if you could now recover the map of the world as it was generally received in the time of the first Ptolemies, we should find it still retaining many of the erroneous views of Herodotus and HecatA¦us (#109 and #108). For all geographical purposes, at least as the term was understood in his day, the difference between the geocentric and the heliocentric theories of the universe would be unimportant. A conversion to modern units of measure finds Eratosthenesa€™ calculation to be somewhere between 45,007 km (27,967 miles) to 39,690 km (24,663 miles), as compared to actual equatorial circumference of 40,075 km (24,902 miles), there has always been some controversy over the equivalent modern length of a stade as used by Eratosthenes.
But even considered as such, it exceeds the truth to a degree that one could hardly have expected, in a country so well known as Egypt, and in an age so civilized as that of the Ptolemies.
After an individual's death, or death of a limb (amputation), the body's federation of diachronic (across time) morphogenetic and synchronic (across space) morphostatic fields, together called the psychophore, remains intact and visible, as apparitions, and somatically experienced as phantom limb memory (Stevenson, 1997, pp.
Alexandria is in fact situated at a distance of about 530 geographical miles (5,300 stades) from Syene, as measured on the map along the nearest road but the direct distance between the two, or the arc of the great circle intercepts between the two points, which is what Eratosthenes intended to measure, amounts to only 453 miles or 4,530 stades. But we have no information as to the data on which these first crude attempts were based, or the mode by which he authors arrived at their results. Eratosthenes, therefore, in fixing the length of this arc at 5,000 stades, was 470 beyond the truth. Think of an amputation, the dead limb leaves the Soul, yet the Soul remains with the living body (Descartes, 1993, p. The difference in latitude between Alexandria and Syene really amounts to only 7A° 5a€™, so that the direct distance between the two cities, supposing them to have been really situated on the same meridian (as Eratosthenes assumed them to be) would not have exceeded 425 miles or 4,250 stades, instead of 5,000. Besides a useful field of study for scientists, this is also an area of interest for theologians (John Paul, 2002). Phallocentric able-bodied narcissism is based on the primacy of men as physically fit, and biological male bodily fluids as distributing sources of knowledge. This is often a practice based ideology to justify violence against children, adolescents, handicapped and women, as a biological insemination of knowledge held by men (Stein, 2002). Stevenson actually attributed consciousness to a ghost like apparition that we are born with and that dwells in our physical body since before birth. Contrastingly, the phallocentric able-bodied rationale suggests that persons become dependent on, and would not otherwise know how to behave, nor know what to do, without a male or able-bodied person instructing them (Stein, 2002). Phallocentric or able-bodied narcissism relegates women and amputees as an inferior incarnation. Stevenson states that theapparition of the psychophore can move or move through a person, like a piece of "furniture" (Stevenson, 1997, p.
Persons who misread this statement will not understand that our ghost moves us, and instead use this "furniture" reference to mean that persons, women, the handicapped, and children, must be moved or adjusted often through physical abuse, or as without a Soul or consciousness. Triangulated research methodologies are designed to provide a check-and-balance against inherent biases, and against data driven results. The first step to avoid a biased outcome is to test for no outcome, what is called the 'null hypothesis'. An example is, to prove that reincarnation is a possible answer for inherited personality traits, we first try to prove the 'null hypothesis; 'that reincarnation is not a possible answer for inherited personality traits. An interdisciplinary approach is arbitrated by one primary faculty, while utilizing expertise and methodologies from other faculties, or areas of study. For example, I am performing a communication study on the issue of reincarnation by studying Stevenson's literature describing the psychophore and his rhetorical style in defending his description (Stevenson, 1997). Reincarnation is traditionally an area of study for psychologists, psychiatrists, and theologians (Wolffram, 2009), yet I am using communication strategies of rhetoric, content analysis, and photography to bridge the concerns of all these differing faculties plus the mass media. Reincarnation studies can be profitable if properly marketed through documentaries presented as news items in the mass media. A multidisciplinary approach is not interested in generating consensus among very different fields of research.


Negating bodily fluids or functions being the source of consciousness means that the sperm or egg do not contain the Soul at fertilization. How can consciousness transfer without the transfer of bodily fluids?Stevenson argues for a unified consciousness existing separately yet functioning with the biological human body. This memory transfer from the deceased does not end at the beginning of a new human life (Greyson, 2011, & Stevenson, 1997). The psychophore, personality and memory, remains indivisible in regards to a new female or male incarnation: "a body such as I [Stevenson] conceive the psychophore to be" (Stevenson, 1997, p. 2089), that after death or amputation, the psychophore's "body" is still intact and whole as a federation of diachronic morphogenetic and synchronic morphostatic fields of the psychophore, which are visible as apparitions, and somatically experienced as phantom limb memory (Stevenson, 1997, pp. Thus in my research I essentially operationalize Stevenson's definition of the psychophore with the definition of Soul, and mind as consciousness, interchangeably. This does not balance with Hindu concepts of the Soul, in that Stevenson's psychophore has a visible form, a body, whereas the Soul in Hinduism does not.
Stevenson does seem to borrow some reincarnation concepts from Hinduism, though he then changes these concepts to fit his description of the psychophore, as he sees it, with a definite body and form, like a ghost, an apparition.
Stevenson's psychophore has extension of its mental images, a form of consciousness.This essay is very complex, building step by step upon complex terms like diachronic, synchronic, morphogenetic, and morphostatic to explain what a psychophore is.
It will take several re-readings of my essay to understand what I have synthesized from Stevenson's two volume book on the cases that establish the existence of the psychophore, as the mechanistic process in reincarnation processes.
Its much easier and cheaper to read and re-read my essay than the 2268 pages of Stevenson's two volume book.
In this essay I cite specifically the instances why we scholars need to broaden the traditional operational definition of psychophore by understanding Stevenson's explanation of the psychophore properly, and patiently (Stevenson, 1997). Stevenson was an astute rhetoritician in dealing with critics, as evidenced in this rhetorical analysis of his discussion of the recursive function of the psychophore. A recursive function in reincarnation means that memories remain through a field federation, yet the human life is reset to its birthing process.Souls, like the psychophore, are unique, and Stevenson's work is applicable to theological study as well. This is a premise in critical exegesis (analysis of religious scripture) that I think should be scientifically provable, through research of the psychophore, to balance with the Roman Catholic Papal Encyclical "Fides et ratio" (John Paul, 2002), among other theological statements. What we know through intuition, or Faith (John Paul, 2002), should be scientifically verifiable, researched and tested. Faith and reason are two differently explained views to describing the same phenomena (John Paul.
Oddly enough the 1998 Papal letter regarding spiritual matters (John Paul, 2002) and Stevenson's masterpiece on reincarnation and biology (Stevenson, 1997) were both released within the same period. At this time women and handicapped had made great advancements fighting for respect and their compensation rights in both religious institutions and academia.
This era was soon followed by the post-Princess Diana 1997 pro-Muslim and pro-Christian fundamentalist repressive femminicidal and phallocentric backlash of the Bush era administration in research funding that favored the premise that knowledge originates from men, to women and handicapped, through a water-boarding style fluid transfer, 'communion'. Male based religious and political ideologies emphasized the male's perspective in theory and research, heavily biasing the interpretation of definitions, research paradigms, and ensuing results (Bem, 1993, & Gilligan, 1993). This is particularly an issue when we women and amputees are doing the work yet not recognized nor rewarded for our achievements. Male bias will even go so far as claim that the presence of a male's odor or bodily fluid is the "template", a vessel for 'his' knowledge and memory to be inseminated (Matlock, 2013, p.
254) in the woman; thus women and handicapped do not deserve the recognition for their work, since the knowledge originated fluidly from a man or an able-bodied person.
Stevenson disagreed with this view, yet he had to write under the pressure of pleasing the able-bodied and phallocentric prejudices of his corporate and institutional funders.Taking Stevenson's words out of context, specifically a ten-page context detailing the functions of the psychophore, to favor a "template" sound-bite (Matlock, 2013, p. Equating the psychophore to a mere sperm, sweat, or some other fluid "template" (Mattock, 2013), is wrong. Using Stevenson's words outside of their proper context is wrong, indicating either a lazy or malicious reading of Stevenson's work.
Identifying Possible Inherent BiasWe can avoid inherent bias in reincarnation research, data gathering, and interpretation of results by studying carefully our definitions in reincarnation studies, such as the term psychophore.
A thorough understanding of the term psychophore, as Stevenson intended, requires understanding Stevenson'srhetorical pattern and motive behind his evasive yet transformative rhetoric.
Stevenson needed to get money for research, yet he did not want the federal or private funders' prejudice to be an obstacle. Stevenson had to circumvent skeptics of reincarnation, get their money, and use this money to get published and inform our research designs and methodologies with the accurate information. Communication study encompasses photography as an objective instrument for measurements of light, particularly documentation of apparitions, and phantom limbs. By taking a communication study approach,, combining rhetorical and literature content analysis, and photography.
I begin by identifying the inherent bias, which is the pro-phallocentric result our culture usually desires. A phallocentric, or femminicidal culture, protects males and others that abuse and perform violence against handicapped, children and women.
Once the bias, phallocentrism, or able-bodiedness is identified, it is possible to make certain the literature informing research methodology, data collection techniques, and interpretation of data is designed to weed-out inherent bias that has plagued institutions.I begin by reviewing the writing on the psychophore by Ian Stevenson (1997, pp.
Most scientists do not wish to read discussions about the Soul, ghosts or spirits, and Stevenson was aware that he could be ridiculed if he did not appease critics with a very scientistic bait and hook description of the psychophore (Stevenson, 1997, p.
Thus Stevenson first establishes the necessity for the psychophore by arguing: if there is a transmission of previous life memory, there must be a vehicle that functions for this purpose. After obtaining the reader's attention, based on the appeal to necessity, Stevenson reels in the reader to more difficult concepts, such as the psychophore not just as a template, but a federation of a diachronic morphogenetic field and a synchronic morphostatic field, that aids in explaining the retention of phantom sensations of limbs in amputees, congenital amputees, sexual arousal in homosexuals, and the transmission of vital information by apparitions, a personality, whose field is inhabited by a living human being, an individual, acting as a host for an apparition (Stevenson, 1997, pp. Of course if Stevenson stated right away that he believed in ghosts or a "a spiritual self or person" (Dreyfus & Thompson, 2007, p.
91), and that he conceived of the psychophore as a multidirectional intrapersonal communication exchange among our past ghosts, that the individual human body occupies, most critics would not read his books nor articles. Stevenson actually believed that the physical body leaves the soul or ghost, not vice-versa: "at death our bodies leave us, while we continue to exist in our mental space" (Stevenson, 1997, p. This statement sets the stage to describe what the functions, and parts, of the psychophore are providing a realm of multidirectional pathways for information exchange, and suppression, between discarnate personalities, and the individual terrestrial life, that occupies their mental space (Stevenson, 1997, pp. The mind body gap provides for a temporary barrier so that information from our past is suppressed and we have a safety zone.
Otherwise, unexplainably, previous lifetime memories would surface.A repressive mechanism, regulated by the psychophore, must also be at work to suppress memories that could otherwise harm the individual's progress, under certain cultural conditions, and needs to be further researched to be properly explained. Stevenson establishes the need for an explanation of the continuity and suppression of memory, and later hints at the indestructible and self-organizing nature of the memory's vehicle. Explaining the continuity and suppression of memory from a previous life helps us understand how the past, and survival of its memory, informs, without overwhelming, our lives, and persists between and through lives (Stevenson, 1997, p. This model of reincarnation is recursive, meaning that previous memories of personalities remain, yet the human life is reset to its individual birthing process. Although a useful introductory concept, Matlock's template example does not explain repression of memories, nor does Matlock account how other elements of the psychophore, such as apparitions, phantom limb sensations, and congenital amputeeism are possible. Where Matlock feeds us a sound-byte, Stevenson strategically addresses our questions with a broader definition of psychophore (Stevenson, 1997, pp. To obtain this effect, Stevenson, subtly, plays on the phallocentric bias of some readers (Bem, 1993, & Burke, 1969). Psychophore is at least serving as an "intermediate vehicle" (Stevenson, 1997, 2083), begins Stevenson, yet it is also described as having 'extension', like a telephone, throughout lives (Stevenson, 1997, p. 2087).Why is Stevenson seemingly making a very conservative statement, when throughout the discussion of the psychophore, he maintains that it persists throughout the lifetime?
I suspect this is a rhetorical strategy to attract the attention of critics who think of the psychophore like a memory capsule, maybe of bodily fluid, a "vehicle for memories" (Stevenson, 1997, p. 254), and do not think of the psychophore as a structure, a scaffolding able to conduct electrical signals, and as persisting throughout a lifetime, having extension into the next (Stevenson, 1997, p.
2094).Stevenson's rhetorical style invites the male chauvinist, perhaps a phallus worshiper, to think that Stevenson agrees with their worldview. Having hooked the reader, Stevenson brings the patient reader to a fuller understanding of the function of the psychophore.
Stevenson utilizes the human capacity to interpret a word differently, to bring the person in as part of a broader readership, while educating the audience, by refining his meaning. The psychophore's meaning is thus extended from just a "vehicle for memories", ending at birth, to a broader meaning that endures throughout the lifetime, and the next. In a sense, Stevenson seems to treat the individual reader as having multiple capacities of interpretation, as he helps each inner person, ghost, of the individual reader come to a higher level of learning, bringing about consensus on a broader operational definition of the psychophore (Dreyfus & Thompson, 2007, p. 91).Those that cannot keep up with Stevenson's bait and hook technique slowly reeling them in to a broader understanding can resort to jumping to an incomplete definition, such as what Matlock offers (2013), or others offer. Again, if the psychophore carries memory, and memories are survivable separate from the body, then the psychophore is not just a "template", but a vehicle for memory survival separate from the body (Greyson, 2011, & Stevenson, 1997). Otherwise the psychophore would be functioning like a chicken laying eggs, a mere "template" (Matlock, 2013, p. 254), or a woman from whom eggs are harvested, then the chicken or woman, the template, is jettisoned away.Hammerman and Lenard (2000) surpass Matlock's template evaluation of the psychophore (2013), yet do not account for the form that survives outside of the body, where Stevenson provides a description of it in the form of apparitions and phantom sensations (Stevenson, 1997). Hammerman and Lenard (2000) are cautious, as Stevenson (1997), at leaving the possibility open for a broader definition of the psychophore, as enduring throughout and beyond several lifetimes, as consciousness (Greyson, 2011, & Stevenson, 1997). Although Hammerman and Lenard do not address the Lamarckian RNA evolution of behavior, Stevenson does (Stevenson, 1997, p.



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