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Shortly after the publication of The Old Man and the Sea (1952), Hemingway went on safari to Africa, where he was almost killed in two successive plane crashes that left him in pain or ill health for much of his remaining life.
Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. From 1913 until 1917, Hemingway attended Oak Park and River Forest High School where he took part in a number of sports, namely boxing, track and field, water polo, and football.
Early in 1918, Hemingway responded to a Red Cross recruitment effort in Kansas City and signed on to become an ambulance driver in Italy. On July 8, he was seriously wounded by mortar fire, having just returned from the canteen bringing chocolate and cigarettes for the men at the front line. While recuperating, he fell in love, for the first time, with Agnes von Kurowsky, a Red Cross nurse seven years his senior.
In Chicago, he worked as an associate editor of the monthly journal Cooperative Commonwealth, where he met novelist Sherwood Anderson. Carlos Baker, Hemingway's first biographer, believes that while Anderson suggested Paris because "the monetary exchange rate" made it an inexpensive place to live, more importantly it was where "the most interesting people in the world" lived. During his first 20 months in Paris, Hemingway filed 88 stories for the Toronto Star newspaper.
Hemingway, Hadley and their son (nicknamed Bumby) returned to Paris in January 1924 and moved into a new apartment on the rue Notre-Dame des Champs. With his wife Hadley, Hemingway first visited the Festival of San FermA­n in Pamplona, Spain, in 1923, where he became fascinated by bullfighting. The Sun Also Rises epitomized the post-war expatriate generation, received good reviews, and is "recognized as Hemingway's greatest work". Pfeiffer, who was from a wealthy Catholic Arkansas family, had moved to Paris to work for Vogue magazine. In the late spring, Hemingway and Pauline traveled to Kansas City, where their son Patrick was born on June 28, 1928. Upon his return to Key West in December, Hemingway worked on the draft of A Farewell to Arms before leaving for France in January.
Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899A - July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short story writer, and journalist.
During the early 1930s, Hemingway spent his winters in Key West and summers in Wyoming, where he found "the most beautiful country he had seen in the American West" and hunted deer, elk, and grizzly bear.
His third son, Gregory Hancock Hemingway, was born a year later on November 12, 1931, in Kansas City.
In 1937, Hemingway agreed to report on the Spanish Civil War for the North American Newspaper Alliance (NANA), arriving in Spain in March with Dutch filmmaker Joris Ivens. Journalist and writer Martha Gellhorn, whom Hemingway had met in Key West the previous Christmas (1936), joined him in Spain.
In the spring of 1939, Hemingway crossed to Cuba in his boat to live in the Hotel Ambos Mundos in Havana. As he had after his divorce from Hadley, he changed locations, moving his primary summer residence to Ketchum, Idaho, just outside the newly built resort of Sun Valley, and his winter residence to Cuba. He credited Gellhorn with inspiring him to write his most famous novel, For Whom the Bell Tolls, which he started in March 1939 and finished in July 1940.
In August 1939 Hemingway was one of 400 US intellectuals who signed open letter "To All Active Supporters of Democracy and Peace" which stated that "the reactionaries" had "encouraged the fantastic falsehood that the USSR and the totalitarian states are basically alike" and claimed that the USSR had "shown a steadily expanding democracy in every sphere". Hemingway was present at the Normandy Landings wearing a large head bandage but, according to Meyers, he was considered "precious cargo" and not allowed ashore. On August 25, he was present at the liberation of Paris although, contrary to the Hemingway legend, he was not the first into the city, nor did he liberate the Ritz. In 1954, while in Africa, Hemingway was almost fatally injured in two successive plane crashes. In November 1956, while in Paris, he was reminded of trunks he had stored in the Ritz Hotel in 1928 and never retrieved. The Finca Vigia became crowded with guests and tourists, as Hemingway, beginning to become unhappy with life there, considered a permanent move to Idaho. Through the end of the 1950s, Hemingway continued to rework the material that would be published as A Moveable Feast. Three months later back in Ketchum, in April 1961, one morning in the kitchen Mary "found Hemingway holding a shotgun". During his final years, Hemingway's behavior had been similar to his father's before he committed suicide; his father may have had the genetic disease hemochromatosis, in which the inability to metabolize iron culminates in mental and physical deterioration.
Family and friends flew to Ketchum for the funeral, officiated by the local Catholic priest who believed Hemingway's death accidental.
In a press interview five years later, Mary Hemingway admitted that her husband had committed suicide. Hemingway's son, Jack Hemingway, authored several non-fiction books and writings, as well as assisting with the final editing of several of his father's posthumously published works, including A Moveable Feast (1964).
The New York Times wrote in 1926 of Hemingway's first novel, "No amount of analysis can convey the quality of The Sun Also Rises. Henry Louis Gates believes Hemingway's style was fundamentally shaped "in reaction to [his] experience of world war". Developing this connection between Hemingway and other modernist writers, Irene Gammel believes his style was carefully cultivated and honed with an eye toward the avant-garde of the era. Jackson Benson believes Hemingway used autobiographical details as framing devices about life in general--not only about his life. In his literature, and in his personal writing, Hemingway habitually used the word "and" in place of commas. The popularity of Hemingway's work to a great extent is based on the themes, which according to scholar Frederic Svoboda are love, war, wilderness and loss, all of which are strongly evident in the body of work. Fiedler believes Hemingway inverts the American literary theme of the evil "Dark Woman" versus the good "Light Woman". The theme of emasculation is prevalent in Hemingway's work, most notably in The Sun Also Rises.
Susan Beegel has written that some more recent critics--writing through the lens of a more modern social and cultural context several decades after Hemingway's death, and more than half a century after his novels were first published--have characterized the social era portrayed in his fiction as misogynistic and homophobic. Tamera Mowry-Housley Reveals Her Body After Baby: It Took a Year to Lose the Weight – So What?! Sister, Sister star Tamera Mowry-Housley is looking hotter than ever posing for the new issue of In Touch Weekly — wearing a bikini for the first time since she gave birth to son Aden in November 2012! And Tamera, who shares with In Touch that she's now a svelte 127 pounds, is even prouder of the fact that she did it on her own healthy schedule. His economical and understated style had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his life of adventure and his public image influenced later generations. After high school, he reported for a few months for The Kansas City Star, before leaving for the Italian front to enlist with the World WarA I ambulance drivers.
The couple moved to Paris, where he worked as a foreign correspondent and fell under the influence of the modernist writers and artists of the 1920s "Lost Generation" expatriate community. Hemingway maintained permanent residences in Key West, Florida, (1930s) and Cuba (1940s and 1950s), and in 1959, he bought a house in Ketchum, Idaho, where he committed suicide in the summer of 1961. His father, Clarence Edmonds Hemingway, was a physician, and his mother, Grace Hall-Hemingway, was a musician.
He excelled in English classes and performed in the school orchestra with his sister Marcelline for two years.
He left New York in May and arrived in Paris as the city was under bombardment from German artillery. Despite his wounds, Hemingway assisted Italian soldiers to safety, for which he received the Italian Silver Medal of Bravery. By the time of his release and return to the United States in January 1919, Agnes and Hemingway had decided to marry within a few months in America.
Not yet 20 years old, he had gained from the war a maturity that was at odds with living at home without a job and with the need for recuperation. In Paris, Hemingway met writers such as Gertrude Stein, James Joyce, and Ezra Pound who "could help a young writer up the rungs of a career".
He covered the Greco-Turkish War, where he witnessed the burning of Smyrna, and wrote travel pieces such as "Tuna Fishing in Spain" and "Trout Fishing All Across Europe: Spain Has the Best, Then Germany".
Hemingway helped Ford Madox Ford edit the The Transatlantic Review, which published works by Pound, John Dos Passos, Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven, and Stein, as well as some of Hemingway's own early stories such as "Indian Camp". Hemingway himself later wrote to his editor Max Perkins that the "point of the book" was not so much about a generation being lost, but that "the earth abideth forever"; he believed the characters in The Sun Also Rises may have been "battered" but were not lost. In the spring of 1926, Hadley became aware of his affair with Pfeiffer, who came to Pamplona with them that July. He was joined there by Dos Passos and in November 1930, after bringing Dos Passos to the train station in Billings, Montana, Hemingway broke his arm in a car accident. Pauline's uncle bought the couple a house in Key West with a carriage house, the second floor of which was converted into a writing studio. The 10-week trip provided material for Green Hills of Africa, as well as for the short stories "The Snows of Kilimanjaro" and "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber". This was the separation phase of a slow and painful split from Pauline, which had begun when Hemingway met Martha Gellhorn.
Hemingway, who had been disgusted when a Parisian friend allowed his cats to eat from the table, became enamored of cats in Cuba, keeping dozens of them on the property.
Hemingway went with her, sending in dispatches for the newspaper PM, but in general he disliked China.
When Hemingway first arrived in London, he met TIME magazine correspondent Mary Welsh, with whom he became infatuated. The landing craft came within sight of Omaha Beach before coming under enemy fire and turning back. Charles 'Buck' Lanham, as it drove toward Paris", and Hemingway became de facto leader to a small band of village militia in Rambouillet outside of Paris. In Paris, he visited Sylvia Beach and Pablo Picasso with Mary Welsh, who joined him there,; in a spirit of happiness, he forgave Gertrude Stein. He was recognized for his valor, having been "under fire in combat areas in order to obtain an accurate picture of conditions", with the commendation that "through his talent of expression, Mr.
He modestly told the press that Carl Sandburg, Isak Dinesen and Bernard Berenson deserved the prize, but he gladly accepted the prize money. Organizations for writers palliate the writer's loneliness but I doubt if they improve his writing. He was told to stop drinking to mitigate liver damage, advice he initially followed but then disregarded.
Upon re-claiming and opening the trunks, Hemingway discovered that the trunks were filled with notebooks and writing from his Paris years.
In 1959 he bought a home overlooking the Big Wood River, outside Ketchum, and left Cuba--although he apparently remained on easy terms with the Castro government, telling The New York Times he was "delighted" with Castro's overthrow of Batista. In the summer of 1959, he visited Spain to research a series of bullfighting articles commissioned by Life magazine, returning to Cuba in January 1960 to work on the manuscript. Hemingway then traveled alone to Spain to be photographed for the front cover for the Life magazine piece.
He worried about his taxes, and that he would never return to Cuba to retrieve the manuscripts he had left there in a bank vault. She called Saviers who sedated him and admitted him to the Sun Valley hospital; from there he was returned to the Mayo Clinic for more electro shock treatments.


Medical records made available in 1991 confirm that Hemingway had also been diagnosed with hemochromatosis in early 1961.
Hungry for "vanguard experimentation" and rebelling against Ford Madox Ford's "staid modernism", Hemingway published the work of Gertrude Stein and Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven in The Transatlantic Review. For example, Benson postulates that Hemingway used his experiences and drew them out with "what if" scenarios: "what if I were wounded in such a way that I could not sleep at night? Zoe Trodd believes Hemingway crafted skeletal sentences in response to Henry James's observation that World WarA I had "used up words". These are recurring themes of American literature, which are clearly evident in Hemingway's work. The dark woman--Brett Ashley of The Sun Also Rises--is a goddess; the light woman--Margot Macomber of "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber"--is a murderess. Emasculation, according to Fiedler, is a result of a generation of wounded soldiers; and of a generation in which women such as Brett gained emancipation. In her 1996 essay, "Critical Reception", Beegel analyzed four decades of Hemingway criticism and found that "critics interested in multiculturalism", particularly in the 1980s, simply ignored Hemingway, although some "apologetics" have been written. Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s, and won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954. Both were well-educated and well-respected in the conservative community of Oak Park, a community about which resident Frank Lloyd Wright said, "So many churches for so many good people to go to".
In his junior year, he took a journalism class, taught by Fannie Biggs, which was structured "as though the classroom were a newspaper office". Still only 18, Hemingway said of the incident: "When you go to war as a boy you have a great illusion of immortality.
As Reynolds explains, "Hemingway could not really tell his parents what he thought when he saw his bloody knee.
Louis native Hadley Richardson came to Chicago to visit the sister of Hemingway's roommate, he became infatuated and later claimed, "I knew she was the girl I was going to marry". The Hemingway of the early Paris years was a "tall, handsome, muscular, broad-shouldered, brown-eyed, rosy-cheeked, square-jawed, soft-voiced young man." He and Hadley lived in a small walk-up at 74 rue du Cardinal Lemoine in the Latin Quarter, and he worked in a rented room in a nearby building.
Hemingway was devastated on learning that Hadley had lost a suitcase filled with his manuscripts at the Gare de Lyon as she was traveling to Geneva to meet him in December 1922. When In Our Time (with capital letters) was published in 1925, the dust jacket bore comments from Ford. A few days after the fiesta ended, on his birthday (July 21), he began to write the draft of what would become The Sun Also Rises, finishing eight weeks later. On their return to Paris, Hadley asked for a separation; in November she formally requested a divorce. They honeymooned in Le Grau-du-Roi, where he contracted anthrax, and he planned his next collection of short stories, Men Without Women, which was published in October 1927, and included his boxing story "Fifty Grand". That spring, Hemingway suffered a severe injury in their Paris bathroom, when he pulled a skylight down on his head thinking he was pulling on a toilet chain. After Patrick's birth, Pauline and Hemingway traveled to Wyoming, Massachusetts, and New York.
The serialization in Scribner's Magazine was scheduled to begin in May, but as late as April, Hemingway was still working on the ending, which he may have rewritten as many as seventeen times.
Its location across the street from the lighthouse made it easy for Hemingway to find after a long night of drinking. The couple visited Mombasa, Nairobi, and Machakos in Kenya; then moved on to Tanganyika Territory, where they hunted in the Serengeti, around Lake Manyara, and west and southeast of present-day Tarangire National Park. During this period he also worked on To Have and Have Not, published in 1937 while he was in Spain, the only novel he wrote during the 1930s.
The incident changed Dos Passos' opinion of the leftist republicans, creating a rift between him and Hemingway, who later spread a rumor that Dos Passos left Spain out of cowardice.
Martha soon joined him in Cuba, and they almost immediately rented "Finca Vigia" ("Lookout Farm"), a 15-acre (61,000A m2) property 15 miles (24A km) from Havana. Consistent with his pattern of moving around while working on a manuscript, he had written For Whom the Bell Tolls in Cuba, in Wyoming, and in Sun Valley. A 2009 book suggests during that period he may have been recruited to work for Soviet intelligence agents under the name "Agent Argo". Martha had been forced to cross the Atlantic in a ship filled with explosives because Hemingway refused to help her get a press pass on a plane, and she arrived in London to find Hemingway hospitalized with a concussion from a car accident. Hemingway later wrote in Collier's that he could see "the first, second, third, fourth and fifth waves of [landing troops] lay where they had fallen, looking like so many heavily laden bundles on the flat pebbly stretch between the sea and first cover." Mellow explains that, on that first day, none of the correspondents were allowed to land and Hemingway was returned to the Dorothea Dix.
Of Hemingway's exploits, World WarA II historian Paul Fussell remarks: "Hemingway got into considerable trouble playing infantry captain to a group of Resistance people that he gathered because a correspondent is not supposed to lead troops, even if he does it well". Hemingway enabled readers to obtain a vivid picture of the difficulties and triumphs of the front-line soldier and his organization in combat". The platonic love affair inspired the novel Across the River and into the Trees, written in Cuba during a time of strife with Mary, and published in 1950 to negative reviews. On their way to photograph Murchison Falls from the air, the plane struck an abandoned utility pole and "crash landed in heavy brush".
Mellow claims Hemingway "had coveted the Nobel Prize", but when he won it, months after his plane accidents and the ensuing world-wide press coverage, "there must have been a lingering suspicion in Hemingway's mind that his obituary notices had played a part in the academy's decision." Because he was suffering pain from the African accidents, he decided against traveling to Stockholm. In October 1956, he returned to Europe and met Basque writer Pio Baroja, who was seriously ill and died weeks later. Excited about the discovery, when he returned to Cuba in 1957, he began to shape the recovered work into his memoir A Moveable Feast.
He was in Cuba in November 1959, between returning from Pamplona and traveling west to Idaho, and the following year for his birthday; however, that year he and Mary decided to leave after hearing the news that Castro wanted to nationalize property owned by Americans and other foreign nationals.
A few days later, he was reported in the news to be seriously ill and on the verge of dying, which panicked Mary until she received a cable from him telling her, "Reports false. Hemingway believed the writer could describe one thing (such as Nick Adams fishing in "The Big Two-Hearted River") though an entirely different thing occurs below the surface (Nick Adams concentrating on fishing to the extent that he does not have to think about anything else).
What if I were wounded and made crazy, what would happen if I were sent back to the front?" Writing in "The Art of the Short Story", Hemingway explains: "A few things I have found to be true. Hemingway's polysyndetonic sentence--or in later works his use of subordinate clauses--uses conjunctions to juxtapose startling visions and images; Jackson Benson compares them to haikus.
Critic Leslie Fiedler sees the theme he defines as "The Sacred Land"--the American West--extended in Hemingway's work to include mountains in Spain, Switzerland and Africa, and to the streams of Michigan. Robert Scholes admits that early Hemingway stories, such as "A Very Short Story", present "a male character favorably and a female unfavorably".
Young believes the emphasis in "Indian Camp" was not so much on the woman who gives birth or the father who commits suicide, but on Nick Adams who witnesses these events as a child, and becomes a "badly scarred and nervous young man". This also applies to the minor character, Frances Clyne, Cohn's girlfriend in the beginning in the book. After his 1927 divorce from Hadley Richardson, Hemingway married Pauline Pfeiffer; they divorced after he returned from the Spanish Civil War where he had been a journalist, and after which he wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940). For a short period after their marriage, Clarence and Grace Hemingway lived with Grace's father, Ernest Hall, who eventually became their first son's namesake.
Her insistence that he learn to play the cello became a "source of conflict", but he later admitted the music lessons were useful to his writing, as is evident in the "contrapuntal structure" of For Whom the Bell Tolls. It was probably around this time that he first met John Dos Passos, with whom he had a rocky relationship for decades. Biographer Jeffrey Meyers states in his book Hemingway: A Biography that Hemingway was devastated by Agnes' rejection, and in future relationships, he followed a pattern of abandoning a wife before she abandoned him. He could not say how scared he was in another country with surgeons who could not tell him in English if his leg was coming off or not." In September, he took a fishing and camping trip with high school friends to the back-country of Michigan's Upper Peninsula. Stein, who was the bastion of modernism in Paris, became Hemingway's mentor and godmother to his son Jack; she introduced him to the expatriate artists and writers of the Montparnasse Quarter, whom she referred to as the "Lost Generation"--a term Hemingway popularized with the publication of The Sun Also Rises. The following September, the couple returned to Toronto, where their son John Hadley Nicanor was born on October 10, 1923. A few months later, in December 1925, the Hemingways left to spend the winter in Schruns, Austria, where Hemingway began revising the manuscript extensively. They split their possessions while Hadley accepted Hemingway's offer of the proceeds from The Sun Also Rises.
In the winter, he was in New York with Bumby, about to board a train to Florida, when he received a cable telling him that his father had committed suicide. Hemingway was hospitalized for seven weeks, with Pauline tending to him; the nerves in his writing hand took as long as a year to heal, during which time he suffered intense pain. Their guide was the noted "white hunter" Philip Hope Percival who had guided Theodore Roosevelt on his 1909 safari. Pauline and the children left Hemingway that summer, after the family was reunited during a visit to Wyoming, and when Hemingway's divorce from Pauline was finalized, he and Martha were married November 20, 1940, in Cheyenne, Wyoming. It became a Book-of-the-Month Club choice, sold half a million copies within months, was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize, and as Meyers describes it, "triumphantly re-established Hemingway's literary reputation". They returned to Cuba before the declaration of war by the United States that December, when he convinced the Cuban government to help him refit the Pilar, which he intended to use to ambush German submarines off the coast of Cuba.
Unsympathetic to his plight, she accused him of being a bully and told him that she was "through, absolutely finished".
This was in fact in contravention of the Geneva Convention, and Hemingway was brought up on formal charges; he said that he "beat the rap" by claiming that he only offered advice. On December 17, 1944, a feverish and ill Hemingway had himself driven to Luxembourg to cover what was later called The Battle of the Bulge.
The following year, furious at the critical reception of Across the River and Into the Trees, he wrote the draft of The Old Man and the Sea in eight weeks, saying that it was "the best I can write ever for all of my life". For he does his work alone and if he is a good enough writer he must face eternity, or the lack of it, each day. During the trip, Hemingway became sick again and was treated for "high blood pressure, liver disease, and arteriosclerosis". In July 1960, the Hemingways left Cuba for the last time, leaving art and manuscripts in a bank vault in Havana. The FBI had, in fact, opened a file on him during World War II, when he used the Pilar to patrol the waters off Cuba, and J. Two days later, in the early morning hours of July 2, 1961, Hemingway "quite deliberately" shot himself with his favorite shotgun. Added to Hemingway's physical ailments was the additional problem that he had been a heavy drinker for most of his life. About 70 percent of the sentences are simple sentences--a childlike syntax without subordination. If you leave out important things or events that you know about, the story is strengthened. Many of Hemingway's followers misinterpreted his lead and frowned upon all expression of emotion; Saul Bellow satirized this style as "Do you have emotions? The American West is given a symbolic nod with the naming of the "Hotel Montana" in The Sun Also Rises and For Whom the Bell Tolls. According to Rena Sanderson, early Hemingway critics lauded his male-centric world of masculine pursuits, and the fiction divided women into "castrators or love-slaves". Her character supports the theme not only because the idea was presented early on in the novel but also the impact she had on Cohn in the start of the book while only appearing a small number of times. Additional works, including three novels, four short story collections, and three non-fiction works, were published posthumously. Martha Gellhorn became his third wife in 1940; they separated when he met Mary Welsh in London during World War II.


Later Ernest Hemingway would say that he disliked his name, which he "associated with the naive, even foolish hero of Oscar Wilde's play The Importance of Being Earnest". The family owned a summer home called Windemere on Walloon Lake, near Petoskey, Michigan, where as a four-year-old he learned from his father to hunt, fish, and camp in the woods and lakes of Northern Michigan.
Hemingway and Marcelline both had pieces submitted to The Trapeze; Hemingway's first piece, published in JanuaryA 1916, was about a local performance by the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. On his first day in Milan, he was sent to the scene of a munitions factory explosion, where rescuers retrieved the shredded remains of female workers.
Then when you are badly wounded the first time you lose that illusion and you know it can happen to you." He sustained severe shrapnel wounds to both legs, underwent an immediate operation at a distribution center, and spent five days at a field hospital before he was transferred for recuperation to the Red Cross hospital in Milan. The trip became the inspiration for his short story "Big Two-Hearted River", in which the semi-autobiographical character Nick Adams takes to the country to find solitude after returning from war. Despite being older than Hemingway, Hadley, who had grown up with an overprotective mother, seemed less mature than usual for a young woman her age.
A regular at Stein's salon, Hemingway met influential painters such as Pablo Picasso, Joan MirA?, and Juan Gris. Pauline Pfeiffer joined them in January and against Hadley's advice, urged Hemingway to sign a contract with Scribner's. Hemingway was devastated, having earlier written his father telling him not to worry about financial difficulties; the letter arrived minutes after the suicide. Biographer James Mellow believes A Farewell to Arms established Hemingway's stature as a major American writer and displayed a level of complexity not apparent in The Sun Also Rises.
He invited friends--including Waldo Peirce, Dos Passos, and Max Perkins--to join him on fishing trips and on an all-male expedition to the Dry Tortugas. During these travels, Hemingway contracted amoebic dysentery that caused a prolapsed intestine, and he was evacuated by plane to Nairobi, an experience reflected in "The Snows of Kilimanjaro". Late in 1937, while in Madrid with Martha, Hemingway wrote his only play, The Fifth Column, as the city was being bombarded. The last time that Hemingway saw Martha was in March 1945 as he was preparing to return to Cuba, and their divorce was finalized later that same year. As soon as he arrived, however, Lanham handed him to the doctors, who hospitalized him with pneumonia; by the time that he recovered a week later, most of the fighting in this battle was over. The next day, attempting to reach medical care in Entebbe, they boarded a second plane that exploded at take-off, with Hemingway suffering burns and another concussion, this one serious enough to cause leaking of cerebral fluid. The last three were stored in a safe deposit box in Havana, as he focused on the finishing touches for A Moveable Feast. After the 1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Finca Vigia was expropriated by the Cuban government, complete with Hemingway's collection of "four to six thousand books".
Love Papa." However, he was seriously ill, and believed himself to be on the verge of a breakdown.
He had unlocked the basement storeroom where his guns were kept, gone upstairs to the front entrance foyer of their Ketchum home, and according to Mellow, with the "double-barreled shotgun that he had used so often it might have been a friend", he shot himself. Strangle them." However, Hemingway's intent was not to eliminate emotion, but to portray it more scientifically. According to Stoltzfus and Fiedler, Hemingway's nature is a place for rebirth, for therapy, and the hunter or fisherman has a moment of transcendence when the prey is killed. Young believes "Indian Camp" holds the "master key" to "what its author was up to for some thirty-five years of his writing career". The family eventually moved into a seven-bedroom home in a respectable neighborhood with a music studio for Grace and a medical office for Clarence.
His early experiences in nature instilled a passion for outdoor adventure and living in remote or isolated areas. He continued to contribute to and to edit the Trapeze and the Tabula (the school's newspaper and yearbook), for which he imitated the language of sportswriters, and used the pen name Ring Lardner, Jr.--a nod to Ring Lardner of the Chicago Tribune whose byline was "Line O'Type". He described the incident in his non-fiction book Death in the Afternoon: "I remember that after we searched quite thoroughly for the complete dead we collected fragments". He spent six months at the hospital, where he met and formed a strong friendship with "Chink" Dorman-Smith that lasted for decades and shared a room with future American foreign service officer, ambassador, and author Henry Serrano Villard. Bernice Kert, author of The Hemingway Women, claims Hadley was "evocative" of Agnes, but that Hadley had a childishness that Agnes lacked. He eventually withdrew from Stein's influence and their relationship deteriorated into a literary quarrel that spanned decades.
Two of the stories it contained were all that remained after the loss of the suitcase, and the third had been written the previous spring in Italy.
He left Austria for a quick trip to New York to meet with the publishers, and on his return, during a stop in Paris, began an affair with Pfeiffer, before returning to Schruns to finish the revisions in March. In Spain during the summer of 1929, Hemingway researched his next work, Death in the Afternoon. Meanwhile, he continued to travel to Europe and to Cuba, and--although in 1933 he wrote of Key West, "We have a fine house here, and kids are all well"--Mellow believes he "was plainly restless". On Hemingway's return to Key West in early 1934, he began work on Green Hills of Africa, which he published in 1935 to mixed reviews. He returned to Key West for a few months, then back to Spain twice in 1938, where he was present at the Battle of the Ebro, the last republican stand, and he was among the British and American journalists who were some of the last to leave the battle as they crossed the river. During this period, he suffered from severe headaches, high blood pressure, weight problems, and eventually diabetes--much of which was the result of previous accidents and many years of heavy drinking.
They eventually arrived in Entebbe to find reporters covering the story of Hemingway's death.
Author Michael Reynolds claims it was during this period that Hemingway slid into depression, from which he was unable to recover. He was lonely and took to his bed for days, retreating into silence, despite having had the first installments of The Dangerous Summer published in Life in September 1960 to good reviews. By the end of November, Mary was at wits' end, and Saviers suggested Hemingway go to the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota, where he may have believed he was to be treated for hypertension.
Hemingway thought it would be easy, and pointless, to describe emotions; he sculpted collages of images in order to grasp "the real thing, the sequence of motion and fact which made the emotion and which would be as valid in a year or in ten years or, with luck and if you stated it purely enough, always". Stoltzfus considers Hemingway's work to be more complex with a representation of the truth inherent in existentialism: if "nothingness" is embraced, then redemption is achieved at the moment of death. In "Alpine Idyll" the "unnaturalness" of skiing in the high country late spring snow is juxtaposed against the "unnaturalness" of the peasant who allowed his wife's dead body to linger too long in the shed during the winter. Like Mark Twain, Stephen Crane, Theodore Dreiser and Sinclair Lewis, Hemingway was a journalist before becoming a novelist; after leaving high school he went to work for The Kansas City Star as a cub reporter. Late that year he began as a freelancer, staff writer, and foreign correspondent for the Toronto Star Weekly. The American poet Ezra Pound met Hemingway by chance at Sylvia Beach's bookshop Shakespeare and Company in 1922. Fitzgerald had published The Great Gatsby the same year: Hemingway read it, liked it, and decided his next work had to be a novel. The manuscript arrived in New York in April; he corrected the final proof in Paris in August 1926, and Scribner's published the novel in October. Nonetheless, in January 1946, he began work on The Garden of Eden, finishing 800 pages by June. He briefed the reporters and spent the next few weeks recuperating and reading his erroneous obituaries. In October, he left Spain for New York, where he refused to leave Mary's apartment on the pretext that he was being watched. The FBI knew Hemingway was at the Mayo Clinic, as an agent later documented in a letter written in January 1961.
Despite his finding that Hemingway "had died of a self-inflicted wound to the head", the initial story told to the press was that the death had been "accidental". Many types of internal punctuation (colons, semicolons, dashes, parentheses) are omitted in favor of short declarative sentences. Although Hemingway writes about sports, Carlos Baker believes the emphasis is more on the athlete than the sport, while Beegel sees the essence of Hemingway as an American naturalist, as reflected in such detailed descriptions as can be found in "Big Two-Hearted River". Although he stayed there for only six months, he relied on the Star's style guide as a foundation for his writing: "Use short sentences.
He returned to Michigan the following June and then moved to Chicago in September 1920 to live with friends, while still filing stories for the Toronto Star. They wanted to visit Rome, but Sherwood Anderson convinced them to visit Paris instead, writing letters of introduction for the young couple.
The small volume included six vignettes and a dozen stories Hemingway had written the previous summer during his first visit to Spain, where he discovered the thrill of the corrida. During the post-war years, he also began work on a trilogy tentatively titled "The Land", "The Sea" and "The Air", which he wanted to combine in one novel titled The Sea Book. Despite his injuries, Hemingway accompanied Patrick and his wife on a planned fishing expedition in February, but pain caused him to be irascible and difficult to get along with.
She quickly took him to Idaho, where George Saviers (a Sun Valley physician) met them at the train.
In an attempt at anonymity, Hemingway was checked in at the Mayo Clinic under Saviers' name. Francis Macomber dies happy because the last hours of his life are authentic; the bullfighter in the corrida represents the pinnacle of a life lived with authenticity.
They were married on September 3, 1921; two months later, Hemingway was hired as foreign correspondent for the Toronto Star, and the couple left for Paris.
They forged a strong friendship, and in Hemingway, Pound recognized and fostered a young talent. He missed Paris, considered Toronto boring, and wanted to return to the life of a writer, rather than live the life of a journalist.
However, both projects stalled, and Mellow says that Hemingway's inability to continue was "a symptom of his troubles" during these years.
When a bushfire broke out, he was again injured, sustaining second degree burns on his legs, front torso, lips, left hand and right forearm.
Meyers writes that "an aura of secrecy surrounds Hemingway's treatment at the Mayo", but confirms he was treated with electroconvulsive therapy as many as 15 times in December 1960, and in January 1961 was "released in ruins". In his paper The Uses of Authenticity: Hemingway and the Literary Field, Timo MA?ller writes that Hemingway's fiction is successful because the characters live an "authentic life", and the "soldiers, fishers, boxers and backwoodsmen are among the archetypes of authenticity in modern literature".
Pound introduced Hemingway to the Irish writer James Joyce, with whom Hemingway frequently embarked on "alcoholic sprees". Months later in Venice, Mary reported to friends the full extent of Hemingway's injuries: two cracked discs, a kidney and liver rupture, a dislocated shoulder and a broken skull. Reynolds was able to access Hemingway's records at the Mayo, which indicated that the combination of medications given Hemingway may have created the depressive state for which he was treated.
He also uses other cinematic techniques of "cutting" quickly from one scene to the next; or of "splicing" a scene into another. Hemingway's letters refer to Proust's Remembrance of Things Past several times over the years, and indicate he read the book at least twice. Intentional omissions allow the reader to fill the gap, as though responding to instructions from the author, and create three-dimensional prose.



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