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Counsel submits that there are implied conditions which must be satisfied by the issuing authority for the proper exercise of powers under decree No.2 of 1984. The Walsh Family of Bantry Bay - The Reese River Water DisputesWe will try to give you an understanding of the conflict from the point of view of the Walsh Family, via the notes of Patrick Walsh Jr., since we cannot speak for the others involved in this case. DESCRIPTION: This is the largest map of its kind to have survived in tact and in good condition from such an early period of cartography. These place names are in Lincolnshire (Holdingham and Sleaford are the modern forms), and this Richard has been identified as one Richard de Bello, prebend of Lafford in Lincoln Cathedral about the year 1283, who later became an official of the Bishop of Hereford, and in 1305 was appointed prebend of Norton in Hereford Cathedral. While the map was compiled in England, names and descriptions were written in Latin, with the Norman dialect of old French used for special entries. Here, my dear Son, my bosom is whence you took flesh Here are my breasts from which you sought a Virgina€™s milk. The other three figures consist of a woman placing a crown on the Virgin Mary and two angels on their knees in supplication. Still within this decorative border, in the left-hand bottom corner, the Roman Emperor Caesar Augustus is enthroned and crowned with a papal triple tiara and delivers a mandate with his seal attached, to three named commissioners. In the right-hand bottom corner an unidentified rider parades with a following forester holding a pair of greyhounds on a leash. The geographical form and content of the Hereford map is derived from the writings of Pliny, Solinus, Augustine, Strabo, Jerome, the Antonine Itinerary, St. As is traditional with the T-O design, there is the tripartite division of the known world into three continents: Europe, Asia, and Africa. EUROPE: When we turn to this area of the Hereford map we would expect to find some evidence of more contemporary 13th century knowledge and geographic accuracy than was seen in Africa or Asia, and, to some limited extent, this theory is true. France, with the bordering regions of Holland and Belgium is called Gallia, and includes all of the land between the Rhine and the Pyrenees. Norway and Sweden are shown as a peninsula, divided by an arm of the sea, though their size and position are misrepresented.
On the other side of Europe, Iceland, the Faeroes, and Ultima Tile are shown grouped together north of Norway, perhaps because the restricting circular limits of the map did not permit them to be shown at a more correct distance. The British Isles are drawn on a larger scale than the neighboring parts of the continent, and this representation is of special interest on account of its early date. On the Hereford map, the areas retain their Latin names, Britannia insula and Hibernia, Scotia, Wallia, and Cornubia, and are neatly divided, usually by rivers, into compartments, North and South Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, England, and Scotland.
THE MEDITERRANEAN: The Mediterranean, conveniently separating the three continents of Asia, Africa and Europe, teems with islands associated with legends of Greece and Rome. Mythical fire-breathing creature with wings, scales and claws; malevolent in west, benevolent in east. 4.A A  For bibliographical information on these and other (including lost) cartographical exemplars, see Westrem, The Hereford Map, p. 10.A A  For bibliographical information for editions and translations of the source texts, see Westrem, The Hereford Map, p. 11.A A  More detailed analysis of these data can be found in my a€?Lessons from Legends on the Hereford Mappa Mundi,a€? Hereford Mappa Mundi Conference proceedings volume being edited by Barber and Harvey (see n.
16.A A  Danubius oritur ab orientali parte Reni fluminis sub quadam ecclesia, et progressus ad orientem, . 23.A A  The a€?standarda€? Latin forms of these place-names and the modern English equivalents are those recorded in the Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, ed. From the time when it was first mentioned as being in Hereford Cathedral in 1682, until a relatively short time ago, the Hereford Mappamundi was almost entirely the preserve of antiquaries, clergymen with an interest in the middle ages and some historians of cartography.
FROM THE TIME when it was first mentioned as being in Hereford Cathedral in 1682, until a relatively short time ago, the Hereford Mappamundi was almost entirely the preserve of antiquaries, clergymen with an interest in the middle ages and some historians of cartography.
Details from the Hereford map of the Blemyae and the Psilli.a€? Typical of the strange creatures or 'Wonders of the East' derived by Richard of Haldingham from classical sources and placed in Ethiopia.
Equally important work was also being done on medieval and Renaissance world maps as a genre, particularly by medievalists such as Anna-Dorothee von den Brincken and Jorg-Geerd Arentzen in Germany and by Juergen Schulz, primarily an art historian, and David Woodward, a leading historian of cartography, in the United States.
The Hereford World Map is the only complete surviving English example of a type of map which was primarily a visualization of all branches of knowledge in a Christian framework and only secondly a geographical object. After the fall of the Roman empire in the 5th century, monks and scholars struggled desperately to preserve from destruction by pagan barbarians the flotsam and jetsam of classical history and learning; to consolidate them and to reconcile them with Christian teaching and biblical history.
There would have been several models to choose from, corresponding to the widely differing cartographic traditions inside the Roman Empire, but it seems that the commonest image descended from a large map of the known world that was created for a portico lining the Via Flaminia near the Capitol in Rome during Christ's lifetime. Recent writers such as Arentzen have suggested that, simply because of their sheer availability, from an early date different versions of this map may have been used to illustrate texts by scholars such as St.
Eventually some of the information from the texts became incorporated into the maps themselves, though only sparingly at first. A broad similarity in coastlines with the Hereford map is clear in the Anglo-Saxon [Cottonian] World Map, c.1000 (#210), but there are no illustrations of animals other than the lion (top left).
The resulting maps ranged widely in shape and appearance, some being circular, others square.
A few maps of the inhabited world were much more detailed, though keeping to the same broad structure and symbolism.
Most of these earlier maps were book illustrations, none were particularly big and the maps were always considered to need textual amplification. From about 1100, however, we know from contemporary descriptions in chronicles and from the few surviving inventories that larger world maps were produced on parchment, cloth and as wall paintings for the adornment of audience chambers in palaces and castles as well as, probably, of altars in the side chapels of religious buildings. A separate written text of an encyclopedic nature, probably written by the map's intellectual creator, however, was still intended to accompany many if not all these large maps and one may originally have accompanied the Hereford world map. These maps seem largely to have been inspired by English scholars working at home or in Europe.
The most striking novelty, however, was the vastly increased number of depictions of peoples, animals, and plants of the world copied from illustrations in contemporary handbooks on wildlife, commonly called bestiaries and herbals. Mentions in contemporary records and chronicles, such as those of Matthew Paris, make it plain that these large world maps were once relatively common.
At about the same time that this map was being created, Henry III, perhaps after consultation with Gervase, who had visited him in 1229, commissioned wall maps to hang in the audience chambers of his palaces in Winchester and Westminster. The Hereford Mappamundi is the only full size survivor of these magnificent, encyclopedic English-inspired maps. An inscription in Norman-French at the bottom left attributes the map to Richard of Haldingham and Sleaford. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website.
Our story for this Buck family begins with the marriage of Davida€™s parents, Thomas Buck and Elizabeth Scott, on 4 May 1738 in Glastonbury, Connecticut [see Glastonbury Vital Records by Barbour, available on the Internet.] The record of this marriage does not provide any additional information about the ancestry of Thomas Buck, but it does tell us that Elizabeth was the daughter of Thomas Scott.
We know that these were the parents of our David Buck as his daughter, Elizabeth Buck Garlick (who we will frequently refer to as a€?EBGa€?) left a record in 1841 (in Nauvoo, Illinois) and again in 1872 (in Salt Lake City in the Endowment House). Following their wedding in 1738, Thomas and Elizabeth Buck completely disappear from the local records. Fortunately their grand-daughter, Elizabeth Buck Garlick (EBG), lived long enough to be listed in the 1880 US Federal census for Springville, Utah. The birth-dates are unknown for several of these children, but since there was such a large gap between Thomas, Jr. There was also a John Buck and a Joseph Buck who were closely associated with this family in Bedford County, but we have no document that establishes their relationship to the rest of this family. With all of the above as foundation for our story we will now present the documented history for our David Buck, Sr. The very first item we can find for our Bucks in Bedford County is in the 1775 tax list where a Thomas Buck was listed as paying 7 pounds, 6, as a resident of Colerain Township in Bedford Co., PA.
In the next yeara€™s tax recorda€”1776, we again find Thomas Buck, along with Jonathan Buck listed in Colerain Township of Bedford County. We have no tax records for 1777 & 1778, but in 1779 there was no Thomas Buck in Colerain Township. In 1780 we still find David Buck and John Buck paying taxes in Colerain Twp., and Davida€™s brother, Thomas Buck, Jr. The 6th Company, 1st Battalion of the PA militia was formed from the men of Providence Township in 1781, with George Enslow as Captain. We do not know any details about Davida€™s military service but we do know there were many British inspired Indian-attacks within the county where settlers were killed and their homes burned.
By 1784 both David and Jonathan were located in Providence Township in Bedford Co., PA, and their brother Thomas was still in Hopewell, just a few miles north of Providence. In 1789 Jonathan Buck sold his land in Providence Township and moved to the western side of the County, and from there (in 1793) he moved to Tennessee.
Note that most of the purchases above naming Thomas Buck were surely for the Captain Thomas Buck of Hopewell Twp., the brother of our David, Sr. David Buck, land deeded to him by Benjamin Ferguson and Zilah, his wife, for 45 pounds, that tract of land called Oxford Situate on the waters of Brush Creek also running by the land of Thomas Buck, Esq.
Thomas Buck and wife Margaret, sold to George Myers, land in Providence Twp being rented by William Conners for $2,400., on Brush Creek joining John Allisona€™s survey and running by David Bucka€™s property.
This is a very interesting entry as we know that the Captain, Thomas Buck (brother of our David Sr.) was the man who was married to Mrs.
Before we continue with the Buck family, we need to take a sideways step to briefly discuss the Cashman family, as that brings in the wife of David Buck, Sr.
This family lived for many years in Berks County, PA, and then in York Co., PA, before moving to Washington County, Maryland in 1777.
We should mention here that by this time the old Germanic family name had seen a number of changes that show up in many of the documents. Martina€™s oldest daughter, Catherine grew up in Pennsylvania and moved with her parents to Maryland when she was about 25 years old. David returned to his farm in Bedford County, PA with a new wife and four little step-children. While we are talking about close family members showing up in the temple records, there is one more that we should discuss at this point.
The 1800 federal census is also a bit bewildering (but then census records are not known for their accuracy). This entry make sense if there was only one Bumgardner boy still living in Davida€™s home and if he was between the ages of 10-16a€”which would be about right.
In 1808 there was another tax list which shows David with 247 acres in Providence Twp, with 1 horse and 2 cows. His oldest son, Thomas, was already married and had been out of the house for about seven years before his father died. We dona€™t know how long Catherine Cashman Buck lived after the death of her husband but it appears she was still alive during the 1820 census as discussed above.
The oldest child of our David Buck and Catherine Cashman (after her Bumgardner children) was Thomas Buck.
Very nearby lived the family of Michael Blue, who had a daughter, Elizabeth Blue, born 30 March 1788, in Providence Twp, making her just about two years older than Thomas. Shortly after the birth of their youngest child the family moved to Van Buren, Pulaski Co., Indiana, where they were living in the 1860 census, and where Thomas died on 27 Feb. A number of local residents joined the Church at that same time which resulted in a backlash of hard feelings and persecution ensued, inducing many of them to sell their homes and move to Nauvoo, Illinois where the a€?Saintsa€? were gathering.
With the other Saints, the Garlicks were forced to evacuate Nauvoo in 1846 and make their way across the state of Iowa to Council Bluffs. We are not sure when Susannah was born, but her fathera€™s will makes it clear that she was younger than Elizabeth (who was born in 1795a€”according to her own record) and older than Mary, who was born in 1800 (as found in several census records).
50 years old (making him about 12-13 years younger than Susannah, and his wife, a€?Susana€? was five years younger than Solomona€”born about 1815. Whether Susannah died young, or married and changed her last name, is unknown to us at this time. With a large gap between the first two children there could, and probably were, other children unknown to us at this time. In the 1870 census we do find David Jr.a€™s daughter, Catherine Buck living in Providence with her Aunt Mary Buck (both of her parents had died prior to that year).
After the birth of this last child the family moved to Columbus, Franklin Co., Ohio where we find them in the 1880 censusa€”except for their son, George, who would have been 13 in that census but does not appear with the family at that time. This Jonathan Buck remained close to his extended family and traveled back and forth between Pennsylvania and Ohio on various occasions.
Note that this particular record does not say that Sarah was the daughter of Mary, but we learn that later on.
In the Ancestral File (LDS FHC) Mary has been sealed numerous times to a man by the name of Amos Jones. In the 1860 census, we find Saraha€™s mother, Mary Buck, living with her son-in-law and his two little girlsa€”Marya€™s grand-daughters. Within the next decade (per the 1870 census) Jacob Foore had remarried and begun an additional family, so Mary moved into a home of her own and also took in her niece, Catherine Buck, with her little daughter, Amanda, who we have discussed above. This concludes the presentation of the documented life of David Buck, Sr., his wife, Catherine Cashman, and their family. Aunt Mary Buck is well, Catharine too, neather one of them lives with me now since last spring.
Yours truly, write to me again and tell me all the news and I will give you all the news then.
It is with pleasure that I drop you a few lines to inform you we are all well at the present time and hope and trust these few lines may find you the same. I must tell you where we live, we live near Gapsvill and I thought I would write a few lines to you all. Times is very dull here now all though there is plenty of everything but fruit, there is none at tale, only what is shipped here. I can't tell how Aunt or Catharine is gitting along for I have not had a letter from either one for five months or more, I can't tell why it is as I have written to both of them and got no answer.
One of my boys married a girl here and they have gone to keeping house here, so if my letter does not come to hand in time he can lift it and remail.


I am boarding, I don't keep house anymore and I received your picture and I thought I had thanked you for it in my letter long ago, if not I am very much obliged to you for it.
I did not see Dasey Garlick when I was East, she was away from home the day I went to see her and I had so many places t go I did not get around again. I seen Telitha (Catharine) Garlick two but only to speak to her as met her on the road one day she is married to Wesley Clark, one of Elias Clark's boys. It appears that there is going to be plenty work to do this summer, lots of large buildings to go up this summer. Temple there was completed, an Endowment House was erected in which sacred ordinances could be performed.
The a€?Joseph Garlica€? listed as a€?heira€? and proxy for the males above, was EBGa€™s son. Abigail Jones 2nd cousin {Daughter of Capt.
Thomas Buck nephew {EBGa€™s brother, Thomas, md. David Buck nephew {EBGa€™s brother, David, Jr. John Buck cousin {Son Thomas Buck & ELiz. These conditions include well-settled rules of natural justice in exercising the power to issue detention order. Start of Pat Jr.'s notes In order to give a more complete picture of the early use of water in the large valleys of Nevada, I will go back to the days of the earliest settlers. The circle of the world is set in a somewhat rectangular frame background with a pointed top, and an ornamented border of a zig-zag pattern often found in psalter-maps of the period (#223).
Show pity, as you said you would, on all Who their devotion paid to me for you made me Savioress. Olympus and such cities as Athens and Corinth; the Delphic oracle, misnamed Delos, is represented by a hideous head.
James (Roxburghe Club) 1929, with representations from manuscripts in the British Library and the Bodleian Library, and a€?Marvels of the Easta€?, by R. The upper-left corner of the Hereford Map, showing north and east Asia (compare to the contents on Chart 3). 1), however, call attention to a remarkable degree of accuracy in the relationship of toponymsa€”for cities, rivers, and mountainsa€”both in EMM and in Hereford Map legends.A  On the Asia Minor littoral, for example, one passage in EMM links 39 place-names in a running series, 23 of which are found in Chart 4 (and visible, in almost exactly parallel order, on Fig. 5, above).A  Treating islands separately from the eartha€™s three a€?partsa€? follows the organizational style adopted by Isidore of Seville, Honorius Augustodunensis, and other medieval geographical authorities. Note Lincoln on its hill and Snowdon ('Snawdon'), Caernarvon and Conway in Wales, referring to the castles Edward I was building there when the map was being created. In England, a detailed study of its less obvious features, such as the sequences of its place names and some of its coastal outlines by G.
The Psilli reputedly tested the virtue of their wives by exposing their children to serpents.
The cumulative effect has been to enable us at last to evaluate the map in terms of its actual (largely non-geographical and not exclusively religious) purpose, the age in which it was created and in the context of the general development of European cartography.
The Old and New Testaments contained few doctrinal implications for geography, other than a bias in favor of an inhabited world consisting of three interlinked continents containing descendants of Noah's three sons. This now-lost map was referred to in some detail by a number of classical writers and it seems to have been created under the direction of Emperor Augustus's son-in-law, Vipsanius Agrippa (63-12 BC) for official purposes. As the centuries went by, more and more was included with references to places associated with events in classical history and legend (particularly fictionalized tales about Alexander the Great) and from biblical history with brief notes on and the very occasional illustration of natural history.
Note also the Roman provincial boundaries, the relative accuracy of the British coastlines (lower left) and the attention paid to the Balkans and Denmark, with which Saxon England had close contacts. Some, often oriented to the north, attempted to show the whole world in zones, with the inhabited earth occupying the zone between the equator and the frozen north.
They were never intended to convey purely geographical information or to stand alone without explanatory text.
Often a 'context' for them would have been provided by the other secular as well as religious surrounding decorations. For many maps continued to be used primarily for educational, including theological, purposes. They reached their fullest development in the thirteenth century when Englishmen like Roger Bacon, John of Holywood (Sacrobosco), Robert Grosseteste and Matthew Paris were playing an inordinately large part in creative geographical thinking in Europe. In most, if not all of these maps, the strange peoples or 'Marvels of the East' are shown occupying Ethiopia on the right (southern) edge, as on the Hereford map. Exposure to light, fire, water, and religious bigotry or indifference over the centuries has, however, led to the destruction of most of them. Both are now lost but it seems quite likely that the so-called 'Psalter Map', produced in London in the early 1260s and now owned by the British Library, is a much reduced copy of the map that hung in Westminster Palace. Despite some broad similarities in arrangement and content, however, there are very considerable differences from the Ebstorf and the 'Westminster Palace' maps in details - like the precise location of wildlife, the portrayal of some coastlines and islands, or in the recent information incorporated.
1787 a€“ Thomas Buck applied for 400 acres including an improvement (house or barn) on the south side of Raystown Branch of the Juniata River on both sides of Brush Creek, adjoining Alisona€™s Survey, in Providence.
1789 a€“ Thomas Buck applied for 100 acres on the southeast side of Warrior Ridge, adjoining a survey of James Hunter on the north and by a survey of Barnard Dougherty esq. And since the times have got so hard in the West I am glad I did not go, but I will come and see you all yet if all goes right but I can't say when. John Buck told me I could write a piece in his letter and I am very thankful to write with him as we have not your address.
I would have answered before now but was still thinking of being closer to you before this time but am about fixing to move back again to the old home place in Pennsylvania. I have had work all winter in a wholesale house where it is heated with gas, as warm as wood care.
These people when first coming to this country found vast expances of land that were level or nearly level, and invariably were to be found on a stream system that as a matter of course overflowed it's banks or spread where the natural channels leveled out on flat land.
In Phrygia there is born an animal called bonnacon; it has a bulla€™s head, horsea€™s mane and curling horns, when chased it discharges dung over an extent of three acres which burns whatever it touches. India also has the largest elephants, whose teeth are supposed to be of ivory; the Indians use them in war with turrets (howdahs) set on them. The linx sees through walls and produces a black stonea€” a valuable carbuncle in its secret parts. A tiger when it sees its cub has been stolen chases the thief at full speed; the thief in full flight on a fast horse drops a mirror in the track of the tiger and so escapes unharmed. Agriophani Ethiopes eat only the flesh of panthers and lions they have a king with only one eye in his forehead. Men with doga€™s heads in Norway; perhaps heads protected with furs made them resemble dogs.
Essendones live in Scythia it is their custom to carry out the funeral of their parents with singing and collecting a company of friends to devour the actual corpses with their teeth and make a banquet mingled with the flesh of animals counting it more glorious to be consumed by them than by worms. Solinus: they occupy the source of the Ganges and live only on the scent of apples of the forest if they should perceive any smell they die instantly. Himantopodes; they creep with crawling legs rather than walk they try to proceed by sliding rather than by taking steps. The Monocoli in India are one-legged and swift when they want to be protected from the heat of the sun they are shaded by the size of their foot. Flint, a€?The Hereford Map:A  Its Author(s), Two Scenes and a Border,a€? Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th ser. Nevertheless, it placed a somewhat misleading emphasis on the map's geographical 'inaccuracies', its depiction of fabulous creatures and supposedly religious purpose, all clothed in what for the layman must have seemed an air of wildly esoteric learning and near-impenetrable medieval mystery.
Recent research suggests this is a reference to African traders in medicinal drugs who visited ancient Rome.
Today, with the map in the headlines of the popular press, it may be time to give a brief resume of what is currently known about it and to attempt to explain some of its more important features in the light of recent research. In the eyes of some (but by no means all) theologians, a fourth inhabited continent, the Antipodes, would implicitly have denied the descent of mankind from Noah, and the depiction of such a continent was deemed to be heretical by them. It was based on survey and on military itineraries and reflected the political and administrative realities of the time. Where space allowed, reference was also made to important contemporary towns, regions, and geographical features such as freshly-opened mountain passes.
Most of the maps, however, like the Hereford Mappamundi, depicted only that part of the world that was known in classical times to be inhabited and they were oriented with east at the top.
Traces of the maps' classical origins could regularly be seen in, for instance, the continued depiction of the provincial boundaries of the Roman Empire (which are partly visible on the Hereford map) and for many centuries by the island of Delos which had been sacred to the early Greeks being the centre of the inhabited world. They and the texts that they adorned continued to be copied by hand until late in the 15th century and are to be found in early printed books. God dominates the world and the 'Marvels of the East' occupy the lower right edge of the map, as they do on the Hereford map. Together they would have provided a propaganda backdrop for the public appearances of the ruler, ruling body, noble or cleric who had commissioned them, and some may have been able to stand alone as visual histories. The Hereford map, as an inscription at the lower left corner tells us, was certainly intended for use as a visual encyclopedia, to be 'heard, read and seen' by onlookers. Because of the maps' size, they were able to include far more information and illustration than their predecessors. More space was also found for current political references and information derived from contemporary military, religious and commercial itineraries. Today, the earliest survivor, dating from the beginning of the thirteenth century, is a badly damaged example now in Vercelli Cathedral, probably having been brought to Italy in about 1219 by a papal legate returning from England. We know from Matthew Paris that the Westminster map was copied by others, and it is likely to have had a lasting influence even though the original was destroyed in 1265.
A Latin legend in the bottom right corner of the Hereford map refers to the 5th century Christian propagandist Orosius as the main source for the map, but as we have already seen, it incorporates information from numerous ancient and thirteenth century sources and adds its own interpretations of them. The map is an outstanding example of a map type that had evolved over the preceding eight centuries. The reason is that the man that was to buy my farm, backed out and I had made sale on the 27th day of March and sold everything to come and then after that man backed out I was to sell to another man and his wife died just two days before the time was for us to start and that knocked me all wrong all that I had and the balance of the company before I could rent again. My wife has been sick nearly ever since we have been in Ohio and is not sadis ficte [sic satisfied] to go any farther west and she now has the agure [ague] and two of my children has got it and I have concluded to take them where the Agure seldom comes any more, that is in Pennsylvania where they was born.
The themometer was at one time 14 degrees below zero, that was perty cold, but they have had two feet of snow on the level back at our old home place this winter. These natural meadows were very valuable to the stockman and farmer since they not only provided hay to stack for winter feed but also supplied a great deal of pasture that was good at any time of year, providing it was not covered with snow. From its literal meaning in Greek it also signifies the plant ox-tongue, so called from its shape and roughness of its leaves.
Conventionally holds a mirror in one hand, combing lovely hair with the other According to myth created by Ea, Babylonian water god. The large city at the top edge is Babylon (its description is the map's longest legend [A§181). 12-30.A  The conservator Christopher Clarkson drew my attention to the gouge in the Mapa€™s former frame. Talbert (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), which I employ throughout my book, but with the caution that in dealing with the manuscript culture of medieval Europe, it is misleading and anachronistic to speak of a€?standarda€? or a€?correcta€? spellings, especially of geographical words.
Casual visitors to the dark aisle where it hung could see only a dark, dirty image which they were encouraged to view in a pious, but also rather condescending manner. Crone of the Royal Geographical Society, revealed that despite the antiquity of many of the map's sources much was almost contemporary with the map's creation and was secular. Much of the text that follows is an amplification of information panels and leaflets prepared for the British Library's current display of the map. Most medieval mapmakers seem to have accepted this constraint, but world maps showing four continents are not uncommon: notably the world maps created by Beatus of Liebana (#207) in the late 8th century to illustrate his Commentary on the Apocalypse of St. It may have incorporated information from an earlier survey commissioned by Julius Caesar and, to judge from some early references, it may originally have shown four continents. These texts owed much to classical writers, particularly Pliny the Elder (23-79), who himself derived much of his information from still earlier writers such as the fifth century BC Greek historian Herodotus. As befitted the encyclopedic texts that they illustrated, the maps became visual encyclopedias of human and divine knowledge and not mere geographical maps. Many were purely schematic and symbolic, showing a T, representing the Mediterranean, the Don and the Nile, surrounded by an 0, for the great ocean encircling the world, sometimes with a fourth continent being added. It was only from about 1120 that Jerusalem took Oclos' place as the focal point of the map, as it does on the Hereford Mappamundi.
They retained and expanded the geographical and historical elements of the older maps - coastlines, layout and place names on the maps frequently reveal their ancestry - but to them they added several novel features.
Inscriptions of varying lengths amplified the pictures and sometimes contained references to their sources. Much better preserved, until its destruction in 1943, was the famous Ebstorf world map of about 1235. It is difficult to account otherwise for the striking similarities in detailed arrangement and content between the Psalter world map, the recently discovered 'Duchy of Cornwall' fragment (probably commissioned in about 1285 by a cousin of Edward I for his foundation, Ashridge College in Hertfordshire) and the Aslake world map fragments of about 1360. In many of its details it particularly resembles the Anglo-Saxon World Map of about 1000 and the twelfth century Henry of Mainz world map in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. Buck a visit now, so must bring these few lines to a close by asking you to please write soon as this reaches you.
206 as an example where the court declined jurisdiction to question the exercise of discretionary and subjective power such as the one exercisable by the inspector general of police. There was also an entirely different type of early settler, usually of foreign birth and more often, Italian.
Crone points out that this reference has special significance because Augustus had also entrusted his son-in-law, M. Sometimes identified with Sirens, the mythical enchantresses along coasts of the Mediterranean, who lured sailors to destruction by their singing.


Amazon means a€?without a breast,a€? according to tradition these women removed the right breast to use the bow.
At the right edge, a looping line shows the route of the wandering Israelites in their Exodus from Egypt; it crosses the Jordan to the left of a naked woman who looks over her shoulder at the sinking cities of Sodom and Gomorrah in the Dead Sea (she is Lot's wife, turned into a pillar of salt [A§254].
400), a text that was often attended during the Middle Ages by diagrammatic a€?mapsa€? illustrating the concept.A  See also David Woodward. Others delved into the question of its authorship, which had previously been assumed to be obvious from the wording on the map itself. The medievalized depiction on the bottom left corner of the Hereford world map of 'Caesar Augustus' commissioning a survey of the world from three surveyors representing the three corners of the world may be based on a muddled - and religiously acceptable - memory of these classical events.
Even though the inscriptions on the maps gradually became more and more garbled and the information more and more embellished, distorted, and misunderstood, they nevertheless retained their tenuous links with ancient learning.
More than simple geographical shorthand, such maps were also meant to symbolize the crucifixion, the descent of man from Noah's three sons and the ultimate triumph of Christianity. Palestine itself was usually enlarged far beyond what, on a modern map, would have been its actual proportions. A note on one of the most famous of them, the Ebstorf, says that it could be used for route planning. Although the maps were still dominated by biblical and classical history and legend, most other information seems to have been acceptable and was accommodated within the traditional framework.
Far larger than the Hereford Word Map and much more colorful, it was probably created under the guidance of the itinerant English lawyer, teacher and diplomat, Gervase of Tilbury. In transmission some facts and text became garbled and some inscriptions are gobbled gook or wrong. 1843, David Garlick also passed away at the age of 63 and was buried in the old Pioneer Cemetery on the SE corner of that city. Corn up here, the folks that has corn is just pulling the ears off leaving the foder so that stops the work from off the farms hands so there is no work to do. William is clerking in a grocery store and drives a delivery wagon for the store part of his time.
Maybe you can mind old Peter Weaverling that used to live east of my father, it is one of his boys she married, sister to Daisy Garlick. Liversidge case was followed in Nigeria by Wang Ching - Yao & Ors v Chief of Staff (unreported) Appeal No. People who were accustomed to small plots of land or garden spots in their native land and in coming to this country, as a usual thing, sought out small plots of land in more sheltered places such as in the canyons of the great mountain ranges of the west and at places where the mountain streams were more constant over the entire summer period. The circle one-third of the way from the bottom is Jerusalem, the Map's central point, with a crucifixion scene above it ([A§387-89]). Its images and decoration have been examined from a stylistic standpoint by Nigel Morgan and put into the context of their time, while the late Wilma George examined the animals in the light of her own zoological knowledge [2] The chance discoveries of fragments of other English medieval world maps in recent years [3] have expanded the context within which the Hereford World Map can be examined, and the Royal Academy exhibition, 'The Age of Chivalry' of 1987 enabled the map to be displayed in the company of other non-cartographic artifacts of its own time. Generally, though, it was not difficult to adapt surviving copies of existing, secular world maps to suit the purposes of Christian writers from the 5th century onwards.
This was in order to match its historical importance and to accommodate all the information that had to be conveyed.
Christ would, for instance, be shown dominating the world, or the world might even be depicted as the actual body of Christ. The world was shown as the body of Christ and much space was devoted to the political situation in northern Germany: an area of particular concern to the Duke who may have commissioned it.
These truck farmers, or raisers of garden produce did not to any great extent reduce the normal flow of mountain streams, but from the produce they raised and sold to the mining camps, they obtained a comfortable living and in most cases were able to build up a substantial savings account.The foregoing paragraph is, I am sure a concise statement of facts regarding the situation that once existed throughout the most of the new west. Carte marine et portulan au XIIe siA?cle:A  Le Liber de existencia riveriarum et forma maris nostri Mediterranei.
The amount of space dedicated to the other parts of the world varied according to their traditional historical or biblical importance and the preoccupations of the author of the text that the map illustrated. But counsel urges us to depart from the approach under Liversidge case, having regard to modern judicial developments. As was previously stated in this story, my father had acquired through purchase, a considerable area of natural meadow land and this was during normal years, sufficiently irrigated from the stream system called the Reese River. Behind the blue band of the river is a grim array of grotesque figures to indicate the existence of primitive peoples. There may be significance in the soulless mermaid placed in the map close to the unattainable Holy Land, or she may be a possible temptation to sea-faring pilgrims. Phillott, wrote that it shows a a€?rejection of all that savoured of scientific geography, . Because of this, space devoted to the author or patron's homeland was often much exaggerated when judged by modern standards, as in the case of England, Wales and Ireland on the Hereford Mappa Mundi. Crone demonstrated, the Hereford also contains sequences of the more important place names along some major thirteenth century commercial and pilgrimage routes. Garlick was then baptized for John and Jacob Bumgardner and the record calls him a a€?half nephewa€? of those two men. Finally, he submits that Liversidge case is no longer the law having regard to Nakkuda Ali v Jayaratine (1951) A.C 66 at pp 76-77. Ordinarily, this river flowed a considerable volume of water during the spring months of the year.This water accumulating from a vast water shed of great area and consisting of many mountain canyons of comparatively high elevation. On a world map, though, as opposed to the strip itinerary maps produced by Matthew Paris in about 1250, the route planning could only have been very approximate and very much incidental to the main purposes. During years following winters of normal precipitation in the form of snow, the waters of Reese River were fully ample to supply the needs of what was then a limited number of settlers, such was the situation during the period of time preceeding the hard winter of 1890, and for a few years following it.As time went on, new settlers acquired lands above the holdings of my father, the land they possessed was very rich soil and especially adapted to the raising of alfalfa and hardy grains.
As a consequence of this new cultivation and the appropriation of water from the rivers and mountain creeks to irrigate the new farm lands, the old holdings such as the natural meadows gradually began to dry up.This state of affairs continued to get worse, as the new settlers from year to year put more land into cultivation and thereby absorbing more water.
14), which may have resulted from the survey of the provinces ascribed by tradition to Julius Caesar.
In the Hereford map they could revel in this pictorial description of the outside world, which taught natural history, classical legends, explained the winds and reinforced their religious beliefs.
46) 1007 at 102 and, urges that the court should have the power to ascertain whether in the exercise of the discretion to issue out a detention order against a citizen, such as the cross-appellant, the detaining authority ought not to have good reasons in fact to claim satisfaction that the cross-appellant, at the time of his arrest, constituted a threat to state security. The contestants held the empty sacks and the attorneys representing the clients were considerably enrichened by the whole procedure. The two upright fingers branching up from the Mediterranean are the Aegean and the Black Sea with the Golden Fleece at its extremity. Later settlers physically diverted the waters of the Reese to irrigate their lands, and in doing so reduced the amount of waters accessible to ranches & farms down stream.
Nevertheless, the inquiry in this regard is whether, directly or by implication, the above provisions place an obligation on the authority issuing detention order to disclose the reasons behind his satisfaction to issue a detention order.
This set up the conflict between residents of the Reese River Valley.The words below are the legal reasons that set in motion the reversal of a lower court case decision in favor of Patrick Walsh.
It is indisputable that the issuing authority is by the tenor of the Decree, vested with expensive power which is both discretionary and subjective. I am unable to discover from close reading of section 1 (1) of Decree No.11 of 1994 any obligation in the authority issuing detention orders to disclose reasons in the way and manner he exercises his subjective discretion. Contrary to the submission by learned cross-appellant's counsel that the Decree, as amended, has spelt out conditions or circumstances which must exist before the Inspector-General of Police can issue a detention order, I have searched, in vain, to discover the said conditions-precedent. Wallace ( daniel tuttle wallace )  " For the reasons given, the order denying the motion for a new trial will be reversed, and the cause remanded for further action in accordance herewith "Walsh  v. Clearly, learned counsel is reading implied conditions into the lucid and unambiguous provisions of section 1 (1) of Decree No.11 of 1994.
Laws, 3292), after the filing of the notice of intention, was not changed by the stipulation, and therefore, the statement not having been filed within five days after filing and serving the notice of intention, it should be disregarded and stricken out.It is a general rule that stipulations between parties should receive a fair and liberal construction, in harmony with the apparent intention of the parties and the spirit of justice, and in the furtherance of fair trials upon the merits, rather than a narrow and technical one, calculated to defeat the purposes of their execution, and, in all cases of doubt, that construction should be adopted which is favorable to the party in whose favor it is made.
No reasons are given by the detaining authority to anyone as to how a detainee is or constitutes himself in acts detrimental to state security. Put tersely but frankly, it is manifest that the power vested in the detaining authority can be wielded arbitrarily and capriciously without any remedy or right to seek a review of the decision of the detaining authority.
With utmost respect to counsel, I am unable to accept this; it is an unwarranted encrustment on the plain and ambiguous provisions of the statute. In any event, the inbuilt ouster clause under section 4, as it were, shields the arbitrariness in which the power of the relevant time of the operations of these Decrees was during the military regime, a time that provisions of the 1979 Constitution had been substantially suspended and when judicial powers of the state had been radically eroded and inclusion of ouster of the jurisdiction of courts of law in statutes became the rule rather than the exception.
It is against this background that the platitude of subjective discretionary power conferred on the detaining authority could be better appreciated. 657, et seq.)Under this rule it is clear to us that the construction contended for by respondents is too narrow and technical.
The appellants were not bound to perform any one or all of the acts covered by the stipulation at any specified time. They could, we believe, under a liberal construction in the order named, perform any or all of the acts at any date within the time limited. To hold as contended by respondents would, it seems to us, necessitate the interpolation of language not found in the stipulation; and, if such had been the intention of the parties, it was useless and absurd to have included in the stipulation any matter relating to the time of filing and serving the statement on motion for a new trial.
The intention of the parties, manifest from the language used, was that the stipulation should stand in lieu of the provisions of the statute regulating these matters.The case of State v. It was common ground that learned counsel for the cross-appellant not only read it, like the respondents' counsel, but relied on it to show the illegality of the arrest and detention of the cross-appellant for a few days. Not having properly admitted the detention order in evidence, cross- appellant's counsel then submitted that the court was in error to have taken judicial notice of the existence of the detention order unless one was produced from the custody of the detention centre where the detainee was being kept or a certified true copy hereof was tendered in evidence.
Maestretti and his predecessors in interest were, and had been since said date, the owners and in the possession of certain tracts of land containing 800 acres; that the respondent Mrs. A motion for a new trial was interposed and denied, and this appeal is taken from the order denying the motion.The court found, among other matters, that Reese river had from time immemorial, and until the diversions by appellants, flowed over, through, and across the lands of respondents; that on the 15th day of March, 1863, the respondents and their predecessors in interest had appropriated and used the waters of Reese river ?in sufficient quantity? The court did not find the quantity of water appropriated by any or all of the respondents, or that respondents had appropriated all the waters of the river. Clearly, it is not open to the court to take judicial notice of such a document in the absence of any law authorising such approach. There is no gainsaying the fact that the copy of the detention ordzer was a material document to both parties as well as the court. The cross-appellant needed it to establish the illegality of the detention, on the one hand, while the cross-respondents can only properly establish the legality of the detention, on the other hand, by the same document. The respondents' lands lie along or upon the East and West Forks of the river, and the lands of the appellants are several miles south and above the lands of respondents, and along the channel of the river above and near where it divides into two forks.The appellants and their predecessors in interest settled upon the lands mentioned in their complaint in 1862 and 1863. Although in the absence of the detention order itself, a certified copy thereof ought to have been produced. The predecessors in interest of some of the respondents settled on lands along the river a little later, but about the same time that the lands of appellants were settled.
The settlers upon the lands claimed by respondents had their several holdings surveyed, marked the boundaries thereof, and protected the same to some extent by making so-called ditch fences.The ditches thus made were not for the purpose of irrigation, and were not so used for many years after and until other rights of both respondents and appellants had been acquired to the waters. The settlers upon respondents' land found wild grasses growing thereon at the time of their settlement, suitable for hay and grazing, and cut and grazed the same for a number of years.
Up to 1869 whatever hay and grass grew upon these lands was produced by the natural overflow of the waters of Reese river, and waters flowing from springs upon part of the holdings.No attempt was made to divert any of the waters of Reese river for the purpose of irrigation until 1869, when the ditch marked on respondents' map by the figures 1, 2, and 3, taken from the so-called West Fork, above the lands now held by Ryan and Maestretti, was commenced.
This ditch was not completed until many years after its commencement, and it appears from the evidence that no water has run through a part of this ditch since 1891.As to the Walsh lands, it appears from the testimony of the respondent, Walsh, that no diversions were either made or attempted until 1870, and that the diversions made for the purposes of irrigating his lands cover the period from 1870 to 1884. Wallace, the former owner of this tract, after he and Bircham had divided their holdings, in 1869, constructed two dams and turned water onto his meadow land, but it is uncertain whether this water had its source in the river or in certain springs.
Wallace purchased the so-called McQuitty place, above respondents' lands, in 1870, and by means of dams and ditches diverted water for irrigation. Whether these dams and ditches had been made and so used before his purchase of the land is uncertain.In 1873 Wallace located another ranch higher up on the river, and started to construct a ditch for the purpose of irrigating this ranch. In 1877 he transferred his diversion of water, under the advice of counsel, from the McQuitty place to his upper ranch, as it appears that the amount of water used on the McQuitty ranch would irrigate much more land upon the upper ranch.Fred Ahlers, whose administrator is one of the appellants, settled upon Reese river in 1864, and commenced farming that year. He made diversions of the water of the river for the purpose of irrigation, but the dates of such diversions and the amounts of water so diverted are not shown by the testimony. McMahon started farming on Reese river in 1864, and that year put under cultivation eight acres, but the dates and amounts of diversions made by him are not shown by the testimony.The above facts are sufficient, as above stated, to illustrate the question considered and determined by this court, and furnish a sufficient basis for its conclusion. It is well to note here that the record does not disclose the quantity of water diverted at any time, by any means, by any one or all of the parties to this action.
Neither does it show the quantity sufficient or necessary to irrigate the lands, or any part of the lands, of respondents, as found by the court. Although the Court of Appeal disapproved of this informal procedure, nevertheless it held that it was of no moment to now argue at the appeal stage that the detention order was not formally admitted in evidence, bearing in mind the access both parties had to the order and the use of which it was put by them, more so as it did not occasion any miscarriage of justice. While endorsing the lower court's conclusion on the informal way the detention order was introduced at the trial, it must be strongly denounced and much to be discouraged. In future, such issue should be thoroughly tested and thrashed out at the court of trial under the strict rules of admissibility of documentary evidence and not postponed to postmortem consideration when the case is on appeal. Their rights were not initiated by settlement upon the land, by having the same surveyed, or by marking the boundaries thereof. No actual diversion was made on that date, or attempted on that date, and for a period of several years after, as appears from the facts stated. Cutting wild grass produced by the overflow of the river, or, as expressed by the witnesses, by the water of Reese river coming down and spreading over the land, was not an appropriation of that water, within the meaning of that term.Neither was the grazing of the land an appropriation of the water, under the facts. Other diversion made by himself and Crowley after his purchase of Crowley's rights, if he purchased those rights, were made at intervals from 1870 to 1884.As early as 1870 the appellant D. It did not determine all the rights of either of the respondents, or any of the rights of the appellants. It left undetermined the quantity of water sufficient to irrigate respondents' lands, and to that extent it left undetermined respondents' rights, and thereby all the rights of the appellants.
Wallace ) had won the court case, sold his holdings to Patrick Walsh after finding that the Walsh land was better than his for ranching.   After Reese River, Dan Wallace moved to ranch near Bishop, California. 21, 1917 in Bishop and is buried in the West Line Cemetery in Bishop " The Wallace FamilyLeft to Rightdella - daughter, george - son, emma - wife, daniel - husband, arthur - son, emma - daughter--------------------------Damiel had a younger brother ( John ) who ran a Livery Stable in Austin, Nev.



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