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The show, divided into two phases, displayed 283 classical Chinese paintings and calligraphy pieces once cataloged in the Precious Collection of the Stone Moat, an inventory of the royal collection of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). Most visitors had to wait for long hours to get a glimpse of the Qingming Shanghe Tu, one of the best-known pieces on display, which is a scroll that shows scenes along the river during the Qingming Festival. However, because of the huge crowds, each visitor got only a few minutes to have a look at the painting whose colors have faded. The exhibition is believed to have reignited people's interest in classical Chinese painting and calligraphy. Over the years, there has been a growing interest in the Precious Collection of the Stone Moat among collectors of Chinese antiques.
Many items cataloged in the inventory were taken out of the Forbidden City (Palace Museum), and some even transported abroad, following the decline of the Qing Dynasty, social chaos, wars and other reasons. Paintings and calligraphy scrolls listed in the catalog's three volumes are still sought after by potential buyers since the mainland art market started to boom in the 1990s. In auction catalogs, a note saying "formally cataloged in the Precious Collection of the Stone Moat" is a strong indication of the work's authenticity and significance. Another bible for collectors is the Catalog of Classical Chinese Paintings and Calligraphy compiled by a team of prominent connoisseurs, such as Xie Zhiliu, Qi Gong and Xu Bangda, in the early 1980s.
They examined hundreds of collections in both private hands and public institutions, and the catalog records their judgments, including their different opinions on the genuineness of particular works. These catalogs are typically used when collectors need to identify a featured artist's other works. The Precious Collection of the Stone Moat exhibition at the Palace Museum last year helps improve knowledge of classical Chinese painting and Emperor Qianlong's collecting philosophy. On May 15, the Grand View night sale of Chinese paintings and calligraphy, staged twice a year by Beijing-based China Guardian Auctions, saw a packed salesroom.
The second section, comprising classical works, typically referring to pieces produced during and before the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), generated three big transactions that night. In the classical art section - where 15 of the total of 45 pieces remained unsold - the total takings were 667 million yuan, exceeding the modern art takings for the first time since the Grand View sale was launched in 2011.
The results of the Grand View sale reinforce the impression that the market for classical Chinese art, which has been stable over the past decade, is growing. The classical Chinese art market is becoming bigger slowly even as other categories, including contemporary art and modern Chinese paintings and ceramics that used to produce record prices in the boom years around 2008, have continued to slide. This is because of sluggishness in the Chinese art market since 2014 as the country's economy cools, driving away buyers looking for quick profits. Jushi Tie was sold to Chinese media mogul Wang Zhongjun and the buyer of Song Ke's album is Zhang Xiaojun from Shanxi province.
But Beijing-based art market expert Ji Tao said in a recent blog that collectors are diversifying their purchases, and the successful bids by Wang and Zhang indicate that due to a shortage of quality contemporary works, they are now looking at other genres such as classical pieces that are rarely seen on the market yet boast a sound provenance and are cataloged in important inventories compiled by academic authorities. The sale also showed a steady market for Chinese calligraphy works, especially those from the Tang, Song and Yuan (1271-1368) dynasties.
Ren Wen from the Beijing-based Art Market Monitor of Artron says few works of these three periods exist and even fewer come on sale as most of them are in either public museums or the hands of top private collectors who are not very likely to sell. So, when a piece like this appears in sales rooms, it inevitably sparks a bidding war, pushing up the price. Market watchers also say that the sale of Jushi Tie could be considered a one-off and one should not expect the classical Chinese art market to erupt based on this one transaction. They also need to invest a lot of time researching the subject so that they are less likely to be cheated. Zhu Shaoliang, a collector of Chinese paintings, says that the classical artwork market is meant to be a niche one. He also says modern ink art attracts a bigger group of potential buyers because it deals with more everyday subjects and is thus easier for people to appreciate. Typically, a robust art market also relies on potential buyers being educated about the subject to better recognize the value of China's artistic legacy, and not be focused on just one or two iconic works. A good example of the obsession with iconic pieces was seen when the Palace Museum held the Precious Collection of the Stone Moat exhibition last year. At that time, visitors endured hours of waiting just to see the Qingming Shanghe Tu, a 12th-century painting known as one of the top treasures collected by the museum. But after the work was replaced with other equally important but lesser-known works at the exhibition, the number of visitors to the exhibition dropped noticeably. Explaining the decline in the visitor numbers, Yu Hui, a researcher with the Palace Museum, says the Qingming Shanghe Tu attracts a lot of viewers because it is an iconic work, but the other works, largely literati paintings, require an understanding of Chinese art history. To counter this phenomenon, he suggests that more study material on classical Chinese paintings and calligraphy be included in school texts so that the younger generation get a complete picture of how Chinese ink art has evolved. Above left: Essays on Baita Mountain, written by Qing Dynasty (16441911)emperor Qianlong, sold for 116 million yuan ($19 million) in 2014. Almost 80 years ago, Chinese writer Lin Yutang wrote in his book The Importance of Living, that: "The wisdom of life consists in the elimination of non-essentials," a line which resonates with British writer Greg McKeown, as both of them advocate a life of focus.
McKeown is a Young Global Leader of the World Economic Forum, a columnist for Harvard Business Review, a public speaker and the CEO of his company, which provides leadership training for companies such as Apple, Google and Facebook. Asked to describe himself in one word, McKeown says he's an "essentialist", and all that he does is to share "essentialism", a term he coined, which he says refers to a systematic discipline for discerning what is essential in people's work and lives, and then eliminating everything that is not, so that people can focus on things that really matter. In late May, McKeown was in Beijing to promote his book Essentialism: The Disciplined Pursuit of Less, which was published in 2014 in the United States, and then translated and published in China in April.
The book was the result of a question - "Why is it that otherwise successful people and companies don't break through to the next level?" McKeown tells China Daily. McKeown says the question was on his mind since he left England to study communications in the US, and also as he co-authored an earlier book Multiplier, in which he analyzed more than 150 leaders to find out how the best leaders make everyone around them smarter. Instead of the commonly accepted wisdom that if one works hard enough, you can have it all, his philosophy of essentialism proposes that the pursuit of "less but better".
Using examples of successful companies and personal anecdotes, the book shows three stages - explore, eliminate and execute - to live out the essentialist way of life. McKeown says he can't forget how seven years ago when his daughter was about to be born, he was asked to attend a meeting with a client.
However, simply being at the meeting in an anxious mood didn't help, and although his colleague said that the clients would respect him for being there, McKeown said the looks on the clients' faces didn't portray respect. He says: "In the same way that our closets get cluttered with clothes we never wear, but accumulate, so do our lives get cluttered as well-intentioned commitments and activities we've said yes to pile up. McKeown suggests that one should ask oneself the question and, "If the answer isn't a clear yes, then it's a clear no". McKeown, who has visited China twice before, says that the country, on the development fast-track for the past two decades, is seeing a lot of opportunities but also a lot of restlessness in society. And although he didn't understand what they were saying, there was something in that moment that he recognized that comes out of non-essentialists.
Lu Wei, 35, a Guangzhou-based interior designer with a leading property developer for the past 13 years, who has developed more than 2,000 home layouts, and worked on more than 15,000 apartments, says: "One of the biggest issues is where to store things, which is understandable as most Chinese have been exposed to residential buildings for not more than 20 years.
Lu believes the key to living elegantly and smartly is not using a designer, but focusing on "living quotient" (LQ) - a term she coined based on IQ and EQ in her new book A Growing Space from Small Houses, which has been published by China Citic Press. Together with illustrations, Lu has for the past year been posting her ideas on the social media platform to help people improve their LQ.
Last week, as her fully illustrated book was launched in Beijing, there were fans at the event hoping to meet her and get an opinion on their draft layouts. Lu, who has wanted to become a cartoonist or manga creator since the age of 9, found her calling drawing blueprints for home design. She says that while she has over the years seen many trends and developments in the home design and storage market in the country, it is only recently that Chinese tastes and their LQ are improving.
The Japanese storage master's books, which have been translated into Chinese, are very popular with Chinese readers.
But Lu has used Kondo's wisdom and developed more localized options for Chinese households. Meanwhile, Wang Shi, the chairman of Vanke, a leading Chinese real estate company, says Lu understands the origin of the problem and understands the kinds of solutions the Chinese need to resolve their living space issues.
She also says that skill is the least important when it comes to home decoration and storage. Summertime paints much the Inner Mongolia autonomous region its true hue - green - in its greatest array of shades.
But there's more to the palette that colors the region during the season, such as blanched deserts and cerulean lakes. That's not to mention human elements that tint its cultural tapestry, such as archery, horse racing and wrestling.
Hulun Buir's grassland is among the country's best preserved and is best to visit between June and September.
Tourism authorities are working to let people know that, while the region has become synonymous with grasslands, it offers much more. A road-trip itinerary that traces the region's north from Hulun Buir to Alxa connects Inner Mongolia's main attractions. It covers Xanadu, the fabled summer palace of Genghis Khan's grandson and the Yuan Dynasty's (1271-1368) founder, Kublai Khan. An eco tour across Hulun Buir, Manzhouli and Arxan Mountain offers grasslands, wetlands, water and Russian culture. Visitors can engage Mongolian tribes, explore the Argun River and experience Russian influences at Shiwei town, Inner Mongolia's northernmost point.
A Xilingol and Chifeng tour features Mongolian tribes and historical sites - plus grasslands.
Another tour across Erdos, Bayannur, Wuhai and Alxa features prairies plus the Yellow River, red-sandstone formations and deserts.
Cities will also stage Nadam activities, including the autonomous region's capital, Hohhot, which will also host an art festival dedicated to Mongolian attire. Family tours offer chances for parents and children to bond while milking cows and shaping sand sculptures.
Routes for the elderly offer blood-glucose and fat monitoring while visiting Yulong Sand Lake and practicing tai chi. Ma enjoyed the cooler weather while exploring Gonger's grassland and Chifeng city's Yulong Sand Lake, set in tremendous terrains studded with yurts and livestock. These are the charms Sichuan province's Hailuogou hopes will coax college students to visit.
The scenic spot's administration signed a memorandum with Beijing International Studies University on the exhibition's opening day. It will arrange for students to engage in service learning at the site and will set up a fund for students majoring in ethnic tourism.
Geothermal springs steam in places hidden in ancient forests in the shadows of snowy mounts and glaciers. Officials expect over 1 million arrivals by the end of 2017, when the expressway connecting Ya'an to Kangding is completed. Tibetan women dance on an outdoor stage in front of the snow mountains in the Hailuogou scenic area. The premiere for the film, also known as Warcraft: The Beginning, is around two weeks later than in some European countries and two days ahead of the United States.
But apparently pleasing diehard fans isn't the only ambition of the film's British director, Duncan Jones, who is also a big gaming fan.
Jones replaced American director Sam Raimito to helm the film for Legendary Pictures in 2013. He changed the script to pitch the storyline on conflicts between humans and orcs - or "the first invasion", as he defined it. Blizzard developed the game into a decadeslong franchise, including five core games and dozens of novels. If the film was made complex by too many characters, it would have to spend a lot of time explaining things to audiences, he says. Facing colonization from the orcs fleeing their degenerating land, humans on Azeroth stand up to fight for their home. Jones says he has immersed his personal emotions and life into the characters and storyline. And more than relating to emotions, fans of the game will also likely be impressed by the film's vivid sets and stunning battle scenes. About 2,000 scenes were made with special effects by Industrial Light and Magic, the well-known studio founded by George Lucas in 1975. Chinese moviegoers had lined up in 2009 in large numbers to watch James Cameron's Avatar and its 1,600 special-effects scenes. And Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings trilogy has drawn multitudes for all three installments of the series since 2010. Game fans will also be delighted to find that the language spoken by the orcs has a complete grammar system. An American linguist, who creates languages for fantasy films and such TV series as Game of Thrones, was recruited to work on Warcraft. Wu, a heartthrob of many Chinese women, hid his good looks behind an ugly, slouching appearance - the villain Gul'dan.
He has never acted like that before - wearing tights and clothes attached to motion-capture chips. The presale box office has raked in up to 100 million yuan ($15.15 million), almost double that of Fast and Furious 7, Hollywood's highest-grossing film in China of all time. Despite poor reviews on foreign websites, most Chinese fans say they'll go to the cinemas to watch Warcraft. Warcraft will be screened in China on June 8, which the director says will draw both gamers and moviegoers. The orchestra was playing at the Hong Kong Cultural Center, where it started its China tour of the year. Vulgamore joined the orchestra in Shanghai for two concerts and then another two in Beijing, finally wrapping up the residency program with two more in Macao on May 29.
It is the last year of a five-year residency program that the orchestra signed with the NCPA. What's more, she has returned with a new deal signed with the NCPA, prolonging the residency for the next five years in Beijing. The residency is also special to Ryan Fleur, executive vice-president for orchestra advancement, since he joined the Philadelphia Orchestra in 2012, when it started the China program.
The orchestra also performed in Changsha, Hunan province, and Hangzhou, Zhejiang province - Chinese cities they hadn't visited before.
He says that the residency provided an annual reunion for the orchestra's old musicians who performed in the historic 1973 tour of China. In September that year, the Philadelphia Orchestra toured the country as the first US orchestra to perform here after the founding of New China in 1949. A year before the concert, then US President Richard Nixon had visited Beijing, signaling the resumption of relations between China and the United States. In addition to their four concerts in Beijing, the orchestra watched a rehearsal of the National Symphony Orchestra, which was then called the Central Philharmonic Society, with Philadelphia Orchestra's music director Eugene Ormandy conducting the Chinese orchestra to play the second movement of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony.
The musicians from both countries exchanged gifts, and it was the start of a long-lasting friendship. In 2012, Nicholas Platt from the US liaison office in Beijing that helped to realize the orchestra's 1973 trip asked Vulgamore to launch a long-term program in China. Platt is still a consultant for the orchestra and accompanies members in China on their tours. The NCPA orchestra made a successful US debut in 2014, with help from Philadelphia Orchestra, he says. Musicians with the Philadelphia Orchestra take part in a master class in Beijing during their recent China tour. Taiwan's cellist-actress Ouyang Nana, 16, will start her first tour on the Chinese mainland this month. Finnish singer-songwriter Tarja Turunen, who's best-known as the former lead vocalist of the Finnish symphonic metal band Nightwish, will perform in Beijing. Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels will be staged as a children's play by the French company Skappa & Associes. French accordion virtuoso Richard Galliano will give a concert with Geneva Camerata, an innovative chamber ensemble consisting of young soloists.
Artist Xu Bing's multi-media installation of a utopian world - inspired by an ancient Chinese fable - is on display for the first time in China.
The circular installation, which was earlier exhibited in London's Victoria and Albert Museum and in Chatsworth House in England, comprises nine landscapes made up of stones, plants and ceramics. For instance, black stones and red plum flowers represent the northern part of China, while white stones, bamboo and pavilions represent South China's landscapes. The stones are from five provinces and the ceramics are from Jiangxi province's Jingdezhen, which is nicknamed China's "capital of ceramics".
The installation is inspired by the Chinese fable, Peach Blossom Spring, written by poet Tao Yuanming (AD 365-427), who depicts an ideal world where man and nature live in harmony. Xu Bing, 61, who acknowledges that the name of the work, The Dream of Traveling to The Wonderland Must Be Realized, is contradictory, justifies the title, saying: "The tension between nature and man is increasing.
In the fable, the fisherman who finds the wonderland by accident, can't go back to it again after he returns to his village.
Expanding on his work, Xu says: "Men seem to be on an endless pursuit of such a wonderland in their minds. The installation, which was created for the Victoria and Albert Museum's large-scale Chinese painting exhibition in 2013, gave Xu the chance to bring Chinese landscape paintings to life using stones and ceramics. In 2014, the installation moved to Chatsworth Garden, a house built in the 15th century in Derbyshire in England. Xu says he loves the contrast between his work and the environment where it was displayed in Britain.
In the V&A Museum, while his wonderland was displayed inside, outside was the city of London. In Beijing, the pond in the circular installation is replaced with fields of vegetables, rice and corn. Explaining the modification of his installation, Xu says he did this "because for thousands of years, China was an agrarian society.
Commenting on the work, Dong Yi, president of the Beautiful Asset Company, the organizer of the show, says: "That's my wonderland, a Chinese-style wonderland. Dong says she is a fan of Xu, whom she calls a master with a good understanding of the East and West, who knows how to express this through contemporary art. Xu, who was born in Chongqing, moved to New York in 1990, but has been in Beijing since 2007. The artist, who gained fame in the global in the 1990s art world with his printmaking and large installations of hand-carved characters, has had his works displayed at museums across the world, including MoMA, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the British Museum and the National Gallery of Canada. Artist Xu Bing displays in Beijing his multimedia installation featuring a utopian world inspired by the Chinese fable, Peach Blossom Spring. Through his pictures, in which reality and dreamlike scenes mingle, Xu persuades people to always seek the warmth of life even when going through bad times. He stresses this in one of his recent poems, Warm Sun, in which he writes: "Doubts and anxieties of the past no longer exist.
The poem is an introduction to Xu's ongoing Inner World exhibition in Beijing's Songzhuang art district. On show are dozens of landscapes and paintings from his three series: Forbidden City, Countryside and Sketch Classes. In his works, he captures "inconspicuous corners that people simply overlook" or just have a quick look at for photos - red walls, yellow tiled roofs and corner towers. Through the paintings, he gives a sense of serenity to the Forbidden City, which is typically filled with the noise of tourists. Further, he connects the grand architecture of the Forbidden City with China's modern history. Xu's early exposure to painting came from his father, Xu Yong, a retired professor of Chinese painting at the Luxun Academy of Fine Arts in Shenyang. During his childhood, he often traveled with his father who did a lot of sketching across the country. Xu was impressed by the intricately painted frescoes at the Yongle Temple in Shanxi province. He moved to the United States in 1996 where he was nurtured by Western art over a period of six years. Xu returned to Shenyang in 2002, believing that its "familiar soil" would let him devote himself to painting. In the series Countryside and Sketch Classes, he demonstrates what it means to be restless and hopeful at the same time. Commenting on his work, Zhang Hui, a professor of the Luxun Academy of Fine Arts, says: "Xu's works show his power of observation when it comes to changing surroundings and people's struggles. He has written around 300 poems since 2006, when he produced his first work aboard a plane.
A painting of the Forbidden City by Xu Shendong is part of one of the three series of his ongoing show. Fast-forward to last month, when two years of cosseting in six different French oak barrels was complete, and deft blending by in-house winemaker Fan Xi had produced the 2013 Chateau Changyu Moser XV. By the time you read this, five different premium wines - 65,000 bottles - will be on their way to the finest restaurant tables in Europe.
Changyu was founded in 1892 in Yantai, Shandong province, by a veteran Chinese diplomat named Zhang Bishi. Zhang, a vineyard enthusiast from his wide travels, had big ideas for what was a novelty business in China.


Despite a slump in 2014, China continues to be a fast-growing market for wine, with consumption per capita doubling between 1995 and 2010 to 1.2 liters. For most of its short life, the Chinese wine market has grown faster than producers could keep up. However, China's biggest companies took notice when boutique wineries sprang up in Ningxia and created what has become a Napa Valley wannabe, a wine zone that would feed a thirst for quality instead of quantity.
Convincing French people to drink Chinese wine might sound like the punchline of a joke, Moser acknowledges with a smile.
But in the 1960s, California wines were shrugged off as "mouthwash", until a pioneer named Robert Mondavi changed perceptions by developing Opus One and other vintages with some French collaboration. Li notes that there is a government push to integrate tourism into every level of its wine industry.
Putting Changyu Moser XV on dining tables in the finest hotels in Europe will open a lot of eyes on both sides of the world. The chateau and its wines are named after the company's Austrian winemaking consultant Laurenz "Lenz" Moser and his family: the Moser lineage can be traced back 15 generations, but it was Lenz Moser's grandfather, Lenz Moser III, who became an icon in the industry for growing grapes horizontally on wires, producing a more uniform and quality harvest, instead of letting vines race for the sky.
Lenz Moser has been a consultant and winemaking adviser to Changyu since 2005, has been coming to China "in spurts" for most of that decade, but last fall - on his 28th trip to the country, he camped out in Ningxia for a solid three months.
The Chinese corporation unveiled Chateau Changyu Moser XV in Ningxia in 2013, a more than 500-million-yuan ($77-million) project that took two years to build.
Today Moser is playing proud papa, alongside "my good friend Mr Fan", as the bottles bearing Moser's family name chug along an assembly line.
But while savoring the winery's five current export offerings, ranging from the white Italian riesling (150 yuan or $23) to the top red - 2013 Chateau Changyu Moser XV (750 yuan) - he's already looking ahead.
His culinary chutzpah, and the long waiting list for a seat at one of his unorthodox dinners, earned him write ups in newspapers and magazines and even an appearance on The Late Show with Stephen Colbert.
But after graduating recently, the 22-year-old whiz chef from Newton, Massachusetts, is facing the same reality as a lot of other new college grads.
Four months after leaving his dorm, Reider has been booted from the Columbia owned apartment where he hosted the latest incarnation of his supper club. His goal is to earn a living staging "wild, crazy events" for companies including, perhaps, fashion houses and hotels. Just a day before he graduated last month, the economics and sociology major cooked up his "experimental cuisine" for 90 guests who gathered at a Fifth Avenue mansion for an evening of music with Grammy-nominated conductor Andrew Cyr and the Metropolis Ensemble.
He's also lined up to filman online series, appear at a Chicago cooking conference and prepare a series of meals at a Manhattan art gallery, with visitors helping to choose and mix ingredients amid artful ceramics and furniture. Reider's cooking career started when he and his friends at Newton South High School formed a grilling club.
With a mere four seats around one table and reservations available only online, Pith had no choice but to start small.
The Wall Street Journal reported that the school had started getting heat from the Health Department-something about how, apparently, dorm kitchens can't be used to conduct commercial restaurant activity. Billed as Australia's finest dining, award-winning Wagyu by Mayura Station comes to China for two wine-pairing dinners hosted by Penfolds and Melbourne wine guru Kyla Kirkpatrick, also known as The Champagne Dame. To celebrate the 25th anniversary of the establishment of China-ASEAN relations, ASEAN-China Centre and Beijing Minzu Hotel are hosting the First ASEAN Food Festival - Splendid Indonesia Month through June 24. Celebrating the expansion of its phase 2 development to a whopping 1.1 million square meters, Galaxy Macao is hosting a month-long Best of Asian Dining event for June.
Wherever Chinese ink painter Li Jin goes - be it a museum or an awards ceremony - he carries a basket with him that contains items of daily use and subjects that his art focuses on.
The art professor at the Tianjin Academy of Fine Arts also takes the basket to the market to buy meat, vegetables, fish and shrimp.
But for his latest show, the colorful food inside Li's basket has become black-and-white on rice paper - the original colors of Chinese ink-and-water painting. Li has drawn cabbages, meat, fish, men and women, and self portraits in the traditional style. He says he wants to open the next chapter of his career by going deep into his spiritual world after having lived and recorded a colorful life for years.
In recent years, Li has formed the habit of spending a few days alone in the mountains, where he can escape city life and explore his "inner world". Reflecting that change in his life, his paintings have moved from colored ink to monochromatic ink.
Li sees the change both as a challenge and a new stage in his career since most masterpieces of Chinese painting often reflect the artists' spiritual worlds. Britta Erickson, curator of Li's show and his longtime friend, says having been a master of all things to do with color, the painter seems to be empowered to work with shades of ink.
She says traditional Chinese painting masters often made big accomplishments on turning 50. Just like the show's name, Being, Li says he is following his heart to return to the point when he began painting in the Tibet autonomous region in the 1990s. After graduating from the Chinese painting department of the Tianjin Academy of Fine Arts in 1984, he spent a year in Tibet. Furniture, artwork, jewelry and collectible objects that once graced the Los Angeles home of former US President Ronald Reagan and his wife, Nancy, are headed for the auction block, Christie's said recently. The landmark sale, a series of live and online auctions scheduled for September, also encompasses decorative pieces of art, books, ephemera, sculpture, drawings and prints from the Reagans' home in the affluent Bel Air neighborhood of Los Angeles.
Proceeds will benefit the Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation and Institute, in line with the Reagans' wishes. Reagan, a former Hollywood actor and California governor, was elected the 40th US president in 1980. The couple presided over a glamorous White House, where bold-faced names from the Reagans' years before the cameras as actors injected a glitzy element into Washington's traditionally staid social scene. The auction house says the collection was noteworthy for reflecting the simple and elegant private life the Reagans enjoyed together in Bel Air, where they often entertained.
The 2-meter-high piece, which together has 1,000 arms and eyes, was made using liuli, a kind of ancient glass. The exquisite craft at the Festival Walk mall is the artistic interpretation of life and goodness, Yang says. Guanyin is also an inner strength that people can experience when faced with difficulties or while helping others in need, Yang says, describing the concept in Chinese culture. She believes if everyone puts self-interest aside, people will become more generous and society will be more united. The whole creation process - from crafting the model, covering it with a silicon mold, filling a wax mold, releasing the wax, casting fire-resistant gypsum, baking it in the kiln, cooling and polishing - was full of challenges.
They chose the mall as the setting for the exhibition with the intention of exposing as many people as possible to the mindset that "doing somebody a favor with no conditions attached" is a good thing, as Buddhism teaches. The couple wanted the sculpture to be viewed widely by the public rather than restrict it to an exhibition for connoisseurs.
Yang discovered her bond with Guanyin and Buddhism in 1996 when she embarked on a journey along the ancient Silk Road.
Marveling at the exquisite portrayal while regretting the peeling paint that blurred the image of Guanyin over time, Yang resolved to re-create the painting in a three-dimensional form.
In May 2000, a 1.6-meter-tall sculpture of Guanyin was completed and transferred to the Dunhuang Research Academy.
Six years later, the 1-meter-tall liuli sculpture of Thousand Arms, Thousand Eyes, Possessing the Knowledge of Sorrow was completed, which marked the first liuli-made 3-D rendition of the Guanyin mural. Yang's work has been collected by more than 20 internationally renowned museums, including the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, the Corning Museum of Glass in New York and Bower's Museum in California.
A racially insensitive Chinese advertisement pokes open the gaping hole of ignorance and class-based bigotry, which is a growing challenge in our age of globalization. The controversy surrounding an advertisement for a Chinese detergent is the latest in cultural mismatch in the progress for globalization. Qiaobi, the detergent brand, posted a video commercial that portrays a young black man being thrust into a washer.
Suffice to say, this ad would never be able to pass the marketing department let alone the broadcast platform had it been in a Western country. While the racial insensitivity was outrageous, the underlying forces for this advert could be much more complicated.
If you put yourself into the shoes of the Qiaobi advertiser, you would probably be bursting with pride when first hit by the concept. Most detergent commercials would show a piece of dirty laundry and how it turns clean after a spin in the washing machine. Sure, everyone could see the skin-whitening idea was an exaggeration, but wasn't it more fun - and effective in getting across the marketing message? For good or bad, blacks as a race are used for dramatization when appearing in Chinese imagery. Even today, in an age of fitness mania, the joke is still around when a young man in China has skin darker than the average. I've seen healthily tanned Chinese-American girls who came back to China to find their Chinese relatives responding in horror. Many Chinese have never come into contact with people of other races, especially blacks, and they may not know whether or how the issue of skin color could be addressed properly.
That said, I would not justify the simmering racial discrimination that exists among some of my compatriots. Years ago, I heard a story of a Chinese language school that refused to hire English teachers who are blacks. The school authorities defended themselves by saying the parents insisted on a white-teachers-only policy. Whoever made the initial decision could be thinking that Chinese moviegoers would not be drawn by an unknown black man, to put it mildly. That is why symbols like the first black American president and Hollywood luminaries like Denzel Washington and Morgan Freeman are so important in shaping public perception. Although China is also an ethnically diverse country, most of our minorities do not have distinct facial features.
I once debated the issue of "yellow-face" with a Chinese-American dramatist who is a kind of vigilante against the outmoded casting practice.
Just as early Hollywood portrayals of Asians tended to be caricatures, white or black characters on Chinese screens are rarely three-dimensional.
Until you have mingled with a fair number of regular people of other races, you tend to form premature opinions that are basically prejudices and, if you're a filmmaker, you might reinforce it by presenting crude replicas on the screen. In 2011, CNN posted on its website an article listing "the most revolting food" in the world.
After causing a controversy, it apologized "reservedly for any offense the article has inadvertently caused". Had it labeled the article "some of the revolting food in the eyes of most Westerners" and changed the tone from authoritative to humorous, it might have flown by without any controversy. But I guess the editors had forgotten that CNN is a global news operation rather than an Atlanta local paper. So, they should have vetted the ad concept with cross-cultural experts, or at least with a few blacks, since they are the subject of the misplaced humor here. After experiments with mixing traditional music with rock since the early 1980s, he brought his music to the West in 1993, performing at various festivals and forums in Berlin and Potsdam. Much of what we know about early Italy come from the Histora Naturalis by Pliny the Elder which was published around 77-79 A.D.
Many people groups possess mythological descriptions of their origins, often contained in the form of totems -- ancient heroes, animals, or even plants and trees, from which that group of people emerged at first on earth. According to legend, the king of a small community in Italy ordered his twin sons to be thrown into the Tiber River. Romulus (hence the name a€?Romea€?) forged numerous alliances with neighboring peoples in order to fortify and protect a€?for eternitya€? the city which eventually gained the name, a€?The Eternal City.a€? The time period for this story is not ancient. They established an absolute monarchy with a Senate, a constitution, and a popular assembly.
It was early Rome and not Athens that was to lay the greatest amount of groundwork for later democracies. To ensure that a dictatorship or absolute ruler could not emerge, the Republic developed a series of assemblies, assuring that every class within society would have representation. The Senate, however, endured through the several sacks of Rome by the barbarians, and even functioned under several Germanic emperors. Plebian Council: each of the 35 tribes selected representative to the Council, which passed most laws, and served as a court of appeals. Magistrates: served as judges, overseers of legal affairs, enforces of an early form of habeas corpus (an accused persona€™s right to be heard and not held without sufficient evidence) were selected by the Assembly of the Centuries. Consuls: were elected by the populace annually from among the magistrates, presided over the Senate and the Assemblies, had supreme civil and military powers, were heads of the Roman government, and when outside of Rome commanded an army.
Roman society in the Republic developed a hierarchical format, dividing the people into two classes: the patricians (land-owning aristocracy) and plebians (eveyone else -- until slavery developed). As the Republic took on a more military-expansionist quality, success in warfare became connected with advancement in politics. Rome was originally a land army, but copied the ships of the Carthaginians, who at the time were masters of the Mediterranean Ocean. In addition, Antiochus ordered all Jewish worship to cease, killed those who disobeyed, and profaned the temple by offering pigs on the holy altar. The unrest in Rome due to massive unemployment and the influx of new people led to the rise of radical rivalries. The appointment of Julius Caesar as dictator for life for all practical purposes marked the end of the Republic.
Having arrived in Rome Octavian, aided by Marc Antony, then pursued Julius Brutus the assassin of his uncle to Greece, where two battles at Philippi in northern Greece took place, Octavian defeated and killed Brutus. The three members of the second triumvirate agreed to divide the Republic among themselves -- Octavian took the West, Antony took the East, including Egypt, and Lepidus took Spain and North Africa.
Marc Antony, now residing in Egypt, soon made a romantic friendship with Cleopatra with whom he produced several children.
Octavian and Anthony despised each other and Lepidus, the third member of the triumvirate, was too weak a character to stand up to either. Following the death of Julius, six emperors from his family line ruled successively from 27 B. Claudius was a respected older Senator leader when he succeeded Caligula, his nephew, in 47 A.D.
For instance, during one part of the siege laid by the Romans, the Zealots destroyed food supplies that were stored in the city in order to gain an advantage over their rival factions. Vespasian gained control of the Roman wheat supply in Egypt and North Africa and thereby announced his intentions.
When Vespasian left with his troops to go north, the Jews, and especially the Zealots, saw this as a sign of weakness.
Prior to the arrival of Vespasian, civil war was taking place inside of Jerusalem The Hellenized Jews, the Pharisees, the Zealots, and the ordinary people were locked in a chaos of robbery, intrigue, murder, and assassination. For three generations the high priest selected to lead temple worship did not come from the line of Aaron, as prescribed in Scripture. These high priests were rejected by the conservative, religious party as political stooges of the Romans and certainly not lawfully selected high priests. Things became so desperate in the city that people resorted eating animal manure, and there is even a reported case of cannibalism.
Finally, after months of siege, the Romans managed to scale the walls, burn the temple and burn the city. Jesus instructed his disciples and they in turn the other Christians in Jerusalem about this impending terror. The Christians were warned by the prophecy of Jesus to flee the city when they saw wars, rumors of wars, earthquakes and the other accompanying events. The temple worship in Jerusalem came to an end, as did the priesthood and the sacrificial system.
It was Goda€™s final statement in the destroying of Jerusalem that the new Sacrifice had come, Jesus, the Lamb of God, He was now the High Priest.
This dynasty brought excellent administrative leadership to the Empire through the absolute rule of Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius.
A large system of aqueducts, sewer systems, and medicine improved the health of the empire.
Julius Caesar developed a calendar containing 12 months and 365 days which was universally adopted in the domains of the Empire. The Gregorian calendar has four months with a length of 30 days and seven months that are 31 days long.
Central heating in homes was developed in construction methods that allowed for air spaces under houses through which hot air from furnaces could circulate. Concrete was invented by the Romans, making possible the large construction projects--stadiums, theaters, basilicas, aqueducts, basilicas. Roman architecture first used domes in constructing temples, which made possible larger unsupported ceilings in public buildings.
Latin became the a€?lingua francaa€? throughout the empire and produced the foundation for the a€?Romance languagesa€? -- Italian, Spanish, French, Romanian. A successive line of emperors ruled absolutely from Rome over an empire that covered most of the known world. The Christian Church grew rapidly throughout the empire and very little opposition to the Church was experienced after the time of Trajan.
The elevation of Constantine marked the beginning of a new Empire, an Empire to be greatly impacted by the Christian Church. There will certainly be emperors who would be disappointed that they are not included in the chart below. Due to a variety of factors, including geography, military strength, and leadership, the city of Rome was over time able to gain control over central and southern Italy.
Rome was first governed by a monarchy which was replaced by a Republic -- the Republic provided a separation of powers and responsibilities, primarily concentrated in the Senate and among several important assemblies. Tensions and conflict between the Patricians and the Plebeians escalated and broke out into hostilities which threatened the peace and security of Rome.
A first triumvirate was formed (Julius, Pompey, Crassus), seeking leadership and resolution to the conflict and granting authority.
Juliusa€™ assassination on the floor of the Senate by Brutus resulted in the formation of the second triumvirate composed of Octavian, Marc Anthony, and Lepidus. Although married to Octaviana€™s sister, Marc Anthony lived openly with Cleopatra in Alexandria, Egypt. The clash between Octavian and Anthony was settled at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, with Anthony and Cleopatra driven back to Alexandria where both committed suicide. The last of the Julian line, Nero, was emperor who killed the two apostles, Peter and Paul, in Rome in 67 AD. Rome grew to a huge empire that controlled almost all of the lands bordering the Mediterranean Sea from the Euphrates on the East to the Atlantic Ocean on the west, as well as Gaul (France), Spain, and England.
Most roots of Western civilization can be traced to elements that existed in the Roman Empire from about 27 B.C.
Rome contributed roads, bridges, architecture, citizenship, language, republicanism, and culture to Europe -- producing the famed Pax Romana. The rise of the Roman Empire was foretold in the dream of the Persian king, Nebuchadnezzar, as interpreted by Daniel in his prophecy 2:1-45.
The Roman Empire provided the environment (language, roads) that enabled the Christian Church to grow throughout the known world. Ultimately, the Christian Church conquered the Roman Empire through the faithful witness of Christians throughout the empire and with the conversion of the Emperor Constantine to the Christian faith. Describe the interaction between the Goths and the Romans, resulting ultimately in the sacking of Rome in 476 A.D. The small town was established on the banks of the Tiber River on an elevated site to give protection. Jerusalem had been under Seleucid control for many years.A  When they heard a false rumor in 167 BC that Antiochus Epiphanes IV, king of the Seleucids, had been killed in battle in Egypt, a rebellion broke out in the city. While in Egypt Julius developed a relationship with Cleopatra, teenage ruler of Egypt, who subsequently bore him a son. Octavian, nephew of Julius, was appointed by the Senate to a new triumvirate togetherA  with Marc Antony and Lepidus in 43 B.C. Having arrived in Rome Octavian, aided by Marc Antony, then pursued Julius Brutus the assassin of his uncleA  to Greece, where two battles at Philippi in northern Greece took place, Octavian defeated and killed Brutus. It was compiled under orders of Emperor Qianlong to record some 11,000 artworks that were considered excellent among his immense collection.
Both are avid collectors of contemporary art, and hence their successful bids were seen as surprising. In this genre, buyers need to be knowledgeable about Chinese history and its cultural traditions, which helps them cultivate a discerning taste. Especially when compared with 30 years ago, as people these days find they have more money to spend and it is easier to buy goods online.
And I remember in one case that we worked for six months to create a space for entrances," she says.
In some spots, Earth's crust is torn to make volcanoes bleed to shape scabs and scars on our planet's skin. It tacks on the Hinggan League and Erdos - a Mongolian border city built on one of China's most important dinosaur fossil-excavation sites.
The picture is among the exhibits of the ongoing photo exhibition that's touring Beijing's universities.


My change was to rebalance the film," explains Jones, who was in Beijing alongside actor Daniel Wu and actress Paula Patton. But unlike typical good-versus-evil stories, the film has two heroes - Sir Anduin Lothar and Durotan - in opposite camps to protect their lands and people.
His father, pop star David Bowie, died in January and his wife has recently been diagnosed with cancer.
In Beijing, in addition to two concerts at the National Center for the Performing Arts conducted by its music director Yannick Nezet-Seguin, members of Philadelphia Orchestra visited a few local schools to coach students. Petersburg Philharmonic Orchestra will perform in Beijing under the baton of its artistic director and principal conductor, Yuri Temirkanov, as part of the international cultural series celebrating Russian Day in the World 2016. Forbidden City Concert Hall, inside Zhongshan Park, west of Tian'anmen Square, Xicheng district. She will perform pieces from her 2015 debut album, titled 15, which includes Mendelssohn's cello sonatas, Songs Without Words and William Henry Squire's Tarantella Op 23 for Cello and Piano.
Programs include Holberg's Time from Holberg Suite by Edvard Grieg, and Bachianas Brasileiras No 1 and 5 by Heitor Villa-Lobos. We often complain about our lives in the modern world as well as the environment we inhabit. Hence the artist wanted to create a two-and-a-half dimensional effect to remind people that utopia does not exist. And in Chatsworth Garden, the Chinese painting-like wonderland was placed inside an ancient European house.
The expressiveness of his oil and ink works remind one of such Western master artists as Vincent van Gogh, Henri Matisse and Pablo Picasso, whose styles influence the creations of the 44-year-old painter from Shenyang, capital of Northeast China's Liaoning province. But the longer I gazed at the palaces, the extensive walls and roofs, the more I felt that they were like solid barriers to keep the country from connecting with the world at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries," he says. He was then impressed by the grandeur of the Helan Mountain in the Ningxia Hui autonomous region.
Barrel No 2 is more macho, the flavor long and spicy.]]> China's giant Changyu winery is ready to change the glo bal reputation of Chinese wines, making a big splash in Europe with vintages from its Ningxia chateau, Mike Peters reports.
One of Europe's top distributors has signed on after a barrel tasting, and hopes to make deals with two other Ningxia wineries. The company's name is formed from his surname Zhang (Chang) and the Chinese character that means prosperity. By 2011, Changyu Pioneer Wine Company was among the 10 largest wine companies in the world, producing more than 90,000 tons of wine that year.
That is still 40 times less than consumption in France, where wine drinking is actually declining, so the potential in China is huge. Commercial giants like Changyu had little need to produce vintages of superior quality when making wine fast and cheap generated quick sales. When labels like Jia Bei Lan (made by Helan Qingxue) and Pretty Pony (Kanaan) started scooping up international awards and tributes, the value of that effort became plain. In an area still dominated by coal, Ningxia's 184 wineries now represent 20 billion yuan in annual revenue from plantings on 610,000 mu (40,666 hectares). In the cellar here in Ningxia, there is a barrel signed with the big black scrawl of Jasper Morris of Berry Bros & Rudd, a big buyer in Europe and holder of a royal warrant in Britain's capital.
The winemaking family has since also helped popularize aging in barrique, 225-liter barrels as opposed to commonly used barrels of 400- to 700-liter capacity.
It houses an 800-barrique cellar, a high-tech bottling line and a museum illustrating the history of the company and of winemaking in China. Besides export orders for major European distributors, made their way to the recent London Wine Week and the Vinexpo 2016 in Hong Kong. His eviction comes amid pressure from the university and city health officials, who said he was operating a restaurant under the radar of food inspectors. He had no formal training in cooking last September when he started his Columbia dorm supper club, which he called Pith, for the white outer part of an orange or lemon.
But after one news outlet dubbed it "New York's hottest new restaurant", the waiting list quickly grew to thousands of wanna be guests. In addition to a special menu prepared by chefs from Indonesia, each week features different displays of fashion, tourism, music or art. More than 120 restaurants, including several Michelin-award winners in 2015, will allow guests to have a taste of 5,500 types of Asian dishes from 56 cuisines from 19 Chinese provinces and cities plus another 12 countries.
Sourced from Moya Spring at Changbai Mountain in Jilin province, which is known for its unusually low-sodium light-mineral waters, both the still and sparkling water of the new Nongfu Spring Natural Mineral Water range feature a refreshing and "unaggressive" flavor, ideal for cleansing the palate between dishes. Without it, I'm not Li Jin," says the 58-year-old at Beijing's Ink Studio, where his latest show, Being, is underway. He calls each day a "festival", full of friends, food, alcohol, laughter and conversations.
After years of experience, I reached a point where I had to be brave enough to look inside to find myself," Li says. Now, it's perhaps time for him to go deeper instead of staying on the surface of "food and color". But estimates are based on the items' market value, and the possessions of celebrated figures offered at auction typically have soared to many times their estimates.
Christie's says the collection includes American, English and Chinese furnishings, many evoking the "Hollywood Regency" style, and many personal objects. Yang picked up the skill in France before it dawned on her that the technique has its roots in China, dating back to the Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 220). During her stay in Dunhuang, Yang was deeply touched by the murals - A Thousand Hands and A Thousand Eyes Bodhisattva (Guanyin) - in the Mogao Caves. Unfortunately, the disastrous earthquake in Taiwan in September that year turned her clay model into rubble. Yang and her husband, Chang Yi, are displaying a sculpture of the Guanyin bodhisattva in a shopping mall in Hong Kong.
Out comes a fair-skinned Asian, the kind of androgynous pop idol that represents the trend for male beauty in China. Leishang Cosmetics, the company that owns the brand, issued an apology to those who may have felt offended. They would rather get Russians who speak English with an accent than native English speakers who are more qualified in every other way. The lead actor, who is black, mysteriously disappeared from the group image until he was reinserted as a result of protests. Instead, it could have been helpful by alerting some Chinese not to serve these local favorites to foreign guests. Its detergent may not be targeting Africans per se, but they are not selling to a landlocked market either.
According to such mythologies the Germans emerged suddenly from a crack in the eartha€™s surface. As with the story of Cronos and his son Zeus, the king feared that when they reached adulthood the twins would seize his position. Natural resources in the area provided timber, clay, straw, and abundant fish for the construction of houses and protective walls and for food. They migrated into northern Italy and in the 6th century moved south from Tuscany northern Italy to the Tiber.
The Senate functioned as an advisory council to the king, and the assembly had matters referred to it for popular input, which the king could accept or ignore. The citizens were divided into centuries (100 citizens) and 35 tribes, 4 major tribes in the city of Rome (urban dwellers) and 31 rural tribes (farmers, landowners).
The Senate began during the Roman monarchy, then gained additional power in the Republic, but with the advent of the Empire, declined in its power and influence. In two months they amazingly built over 300 war ships and trained 10,000 marines to combat Carthage. A series of heartless and corrupt kings led to a social and political chaos so bad that in 64 BC Rome had to step in and conquer the area in order to quell the confusion. A series of assassinations, grabs for power, and appointments of individuals by the Senate outside the normal rules of the constitution, caused a crisis. When Pompey landed in Alexandria, he was killed by Egyptians who thought they were being loyal to Julius and would find favor with him.
Cleopatra presumed that after Julius returned to Rome he would call for her and her son to join him there.
This action by the Senate and the perceived arrogance of Julius greatly alarmed a group in the Senate led by Julius Brutus. It was not simply because of his personal attributes or that he was the nephew of Julius that caused the Senate to include Octavian. Perhaps the geographic separation would enable the second triumvirate succeed where the first had failed.
To make matters worse, Antony was married to the sister of Octavian and Octavian, in turn, was married to the sister of Marc Antony!
The countryside was divided between several factions.The Hellenized Jews had become European in their dress, language, and culture. The Zealots also dressed as women to disguise themselves and plunged daggers into rivals on the streets of Jerusalem.
Furthermore, Jewish worship had so declined that prostitutes, according to Josephus the Jewish historian of the Roman Empire and school mate of Titus, were plying their trade inside the temple walls! He placed three legions around the western sides of the city and a fourth on the east on i??the Mount of Olives.
Josephus states that the stench of the dead on crosses was so great that legionnaires became sick at the odor.
This was Goda€™s judgement upon a people who rejected him, although he presented himself to them as their Messiah. The Julian Calendar provided the names of the months used world-wide and served as Europea€™s unified calendar until 1582 when Pope Gregory XIII developed the Gregorian Calendar. February is the only month that is 28 days long in common years and 29 days long in leap years. Public restrooms and public baths were also introduced by the Romans, although public toilets were present earlier in Greece, also.
Arches could support heavier loads than columns and flat roofs by distributing the weight downward through each segment of the archa€™s construction. Most famous of Roman domed buildings was the Pantheon in Rome, the temple dedicated to the worship and honoring of a€?all the gods,a€? which is what the word a€?pantheona€? means in Greek. After Trajan, Christians became progressively accepted and many were appointed to positions in government and the military, and many others held important positions as teachers and professors.
Marc Anthony despised Octavian and spent most of his time in Egypt with the Eastern troops. He became the first bona fide Emperor and the second of six in the Julian line to rule Rome. When Pompey landed in Alexandria, he was killed by Egyptians who thought they were being loyal to Julius and would find favor with him.A  However, Julius had a personal rule -- no leader defeated by Julius would be put to death. Actium was a naval battle, pitting the forces of Octavian and Rome against those of Marc Antony and the Egyptian forces of Cleopatra. When the first part of the sales event - comprising modern works - ended, many walked out of the room, leaving dozens of empty seats.]]> The Grand View sale of old Chinese artworks made 667 million yuan, exceeding the modern art total for the first time since the sale's launch. But soaring house prices have meant that people can afford only small living spaces in cities.
The film Warcraft, based on Blizzard Entertainment's game franchise World of Warcraft, will be released in mainland theaters on June 8. The programs will include Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov's Scheherazade and Dmitri Shostakovich's Symphony No 5. She will also adapt hit songs by her aunt, Ouyang Feifei, who is a veteran pop singer in Taiwan.
Meanwhile, thousands of carefully selected corks arrive from France, and an eager parade of glass bottles sails along a Changyu conveyor belt. Now a stock-listed corporate giant, the company has holdings in France and Spain, with eyes on other acquisitions. Graced with European-style chateaux, Changyu vineyards now sprawl across millions of hectares in the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region (its biggest operation), Liaoning (where it makes a lauded ice wine) and Shaanxi (with what may be the largest wine cellar in Asia) provinces.
China's latest Five-Year Plan calls for growth to 300 wineries generating 50 billion yuan from 1 million mu planted. The relatively smaller barrels allow more of the wine to be in direct contact with the wood. The event includes a lobster festival, featuring 37 lobster dishes prepared by both Cantonese chefs from restaurants like Lai Heen and Western chefs.
Yang, an award-winning Taiwan actress who founded Liuli Gongfang, a contemporary glass studio, along with her husband, Chang Yi, a former film director. You only need to do your bit within your ability to help anyone who is in trouble," says Yang.
So, the more sun-tanned the skin, the less shelter and comfort one is presumed to have enjoyed. Many primitive tribes believe that a totem animal was their ancient ancestor, hence the totem poles among the Alaskan tribes. When they arrived at the Tiber and the early settlements around present-day Rome, they cleared the mud huts of the original inhabitants, dug canals for irrigation and draining of swamps, and organized cattle herding into a sustainable industry.
Rome with its navy invaded Carthage, burned it to the ground, and poured salt onto the soil so that a city could never again be built there. To the south in Attica and the Peloponnese the Attican League rose in rebellion against the Roman invaders, but were quickly defeated.
This is but one of several times that God used pagan armies as his tool to bring justice to evil kings and kingdoms.
Brutus was a close friend of Julius and had fought with him at Pharsalus against Pompey, but he was alarmed at the power grab by Julius To protect the Republic against a dictatorship, Brutus and others in the Senate made a bloody plan. Roman culture had so idealized the military that it was inconceivable for anyone but military leaders to be appointed to the triumvirate.
The fact was that Octavian had marched on Rome and demanded that the Senate appoint him as one of the consuls! He was a well-qualified leader and was the emperor who ordered the census which caused Joseph and Mary to travel to Bethlehem.
He was then succeeded by his brother, Domitian, who many saw as a weaker candidate because he lacked the military zeal of his father and brother. Vespasian with 60,000 Roman legionnaires worked his way south through Syria, Samaria, and northern Judah, systematically wiping out all resistance to Romea€™s authority. In protest, many of the faithful, a probably led by the men who should legally have become high priest, left Jerusalem for Masada in the south east. When the Passover season arrived, Titus a€?politelya€? allowed the thousands of pilgrims to enter the city, but then refused to allow them to leave. When it was discovered that some attempted to escape after having swallowed the gold jewelry and coins, the Romans hired Arabs to slit the stomachs of those who attempted to flee in order to seek for the hidden gold. But it was a further evidence of the truthfulness of the message of Jesus, that in him alone is found the forgiveness of sins and the free gift of eternal life. Some were fed by manmade reservoirs, one of the earliest, large scale attempts to manage natural resources. There are at least 333 terms that are literally the same in spelling and meaning in both Latin and English.
He placed two other men under Maximian and himself as junior partners, so-to-speak -- Constantius in Gaul as a junior partner under Maximian, and Galerius in the east under Diocletian, giving to them the title Augustus.
But for this study, the following are listed as emperors and lines of emperors that are worth remembering.
Lepidus foolishly attempted to take authority over Octaviana€™s troops and was expelled by Octavian from the triumvirate. The leading city of the rebellious Attican League, Corinth, was burned to the ground by the Romans.
For many years the plebians, out of loyalty to the Republic, overlooked the need for social reforms, but with the influx of slaves things were about to change. The three arbitrarily chose themselves to take the power in what was basically a military coup. Hence, Julius, the last man standing of the three, returned to Rome and was declared a€?Perpetual Dictatora€? by the Senate in 44 B.C. Second, he secretly stole the private will of Anthony and made its terms known to the Senate. They secured Roman control of Britain and strengthened the borders with the Germanic tribes.
The Zealots tended to be hot-headed nationalists bent on independence, not only from Rome, but also from what was perceived to me a corrupt priesthood.
Many citizens fled in front of the troops to the south, leaving behind burning towns and cities, and seeking the safety of the high-walled Jerusalem.
Some believe these were the Essenes who kept the Dead Sea Scrolls along the shores of the Dead Sea. This put enormous strains on the food and water supplies and virtually broke down all health and sanitation systems.
Expansion into the Balkans, Spain, Britain, Gaul, Persia, and North Africa produced the greatest era of Romanization. The road networks were built throughout Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, including the famed Apian Way that connected major cities and military bases in Italy with Rome. The idea was that when either Diocletian or Maximian would die or retire, the junior partners would become the next emperors. Upon arriving in Egypt and learning about Pompeya€™s death, Julius put to death the assassins of Pompey.
Hence, Julius, the last man standing of the three, returned to Rome and was declared a€?Perpetual Dictatora€?A  by the Senate in 44 B.C. Many citizens fled in front of the troops to the south, leaving behind burning towns and cities,A  and seeking the safety of the high-walled Jerusalem. When they reached maturity, Romulus murdered Remus (a memory of Cain and Abel?) and formed the community of Rome.
The three were Julius Caesar from his assignment in England, Pompey from his station in Spain, and Crassus in his station from Syria.
In order to prevent armed revolutions in Rome, generals returning to Rome were forbidden to allow their troops to cross the Rubicon en mass. Antonya€™s will provided for large land grants in Italy for the children he had sired with Cleopatra.
The dating of the writing of the Book of Revelation by John while on Patmos determines whether the book was written prior to the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. They passed new tax codes to restore the Roman treasury and increased the silver base for the Roman currency.
The civil war was directed not only at Rome, but was conducted within Jerusalem by one faction against the other.
The goal was to prevent chaos at the death of an emperor and to provide orderly succession of leadership.
Christians were required to make sacrifices to the gods or face imprisonment, exile, or death.
Cleopatra, according to legend used a poisonous snake in her bed to inflict the fatal wound. The king was replaced by two consuls who were elected by the populace annually (the idea was you cana€™t trust one ruler or hea€™ll attempt to rule absolutely, and cana€™t allow him to serve for long periods of time or he will rule forever!), and the Senate was given expanded powers (rather than being merely an advisory group as they were under the former monarchy). General Hannibal of Carthage, during the second of the three Punic Wars invaded Italy, crossing the Alps with his troops, including a unit of 37 elephants.
Crassus had earlier gained fame for having defeated the slave revolt in Italy led by the slave Spartacus. I tell you the truth, this generation will certainly not pass away until all these things have happened. Her death placed the vast wealth of Egypt at Romea€™s disposal and Egypt voluntarily became a province of the Roman Empire. First, it filled the tribes and Council with newcomers who were not content to allow the status quo to continue. Those who accept the early date under Nero interpret Revelation to apply primarily to the destruction of Jerusalem, the temple and sacrificial system, and ultimately the downfall of the Roman Empire, and do not see the book addressing primarily things which are to happen wo thousand or more years in the future. All officials served one-year terms, except during times of emergency, so that no one person could gain power over his fellow citizens. So angered were they that they declared war on Cleopatra -- knowing that this would bring Antony into the conflict also, but avoiding, technically at least, a Roman civil war. Some believe also that Nero was the emperor who sent John the Apostle to exile on the island of Patmos where he composed the Book of Revelation. Those who accept the late date for the book view it as a prophecy about things to happen at the end of the age. So angered were they that they declared war on Cleopatra -- knowing that this would bringA  Antony into the conflict also, but avoiding, technically at least, a Roman civil war.
Over time a constitution was adopted that featured an early form of separation of powers and a system of checks and balances.



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