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Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (July 18, 1918 - December 5, 2013) served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999, and was the first South African president to be elected in a fully representative democratic election.
Mandela has received more than 250 awards over four decades, including the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize. Nelson Mandela is one of the great moral and political leaders of our time: an international hero whose lifelong dedication to the fight against racial oppression in South Africa won him the Nobel Peace Prize and the presidency of his country.
Long Walk to Freedom is his moving and exhilarating autobiography, a book destined to take its place among the finest memoirs of history's greatest figures. The foster son of a Thembu chief, Mandela was raised in the traditional, tribal culture of his ancestors, but at an early age learned the modern, inescapable reality of what came to be called apartheid, one of the most powerful and effective systems of oppression ever conceived.
He brings vividly to life the escalating political warfare in the fifties between the ANC and the government, culminating in his dramatic escapades as an underground leader and the notorious Rivonia Trial of 1964, at which he was sentenced to life imprisonment. To millions of people around the world, Nelson Mandela stands, as no other living figure does, for the triumph of dignity and hope over despair and hatred, of self-discipline and love over persecution and evil.
Listen to his autobiography Audiobook: Long Walk to Freedom where Nelson Mandela describes his life.
Two biographical movies were made, and the latest, Mandela and de Klerk (1997) (TV), focused on his life's struggles. Interviews, archival footage, and filmed performances highlight the role of music in the South African struggle against apartheid. Nelson Mandela, in his first term as the South African President, initiates a unique venture to unite the apartheid-torn land: enlist the national rugby team on a mission to win the 1995 Rugby World Cup. 1918 - Born on 18 July 1918 in the little village of Mvezo, in Qunu in southern Transkei, into the royal family of the Tembu, a Xhosa-speaking tribe. When Mandela is nine his father dies and Mandela's uncle, the head of his tribe, becomes his guardian. Mandela is the first of his family to go to school, beginning his primary education when he is seven at a Methodist missionary school, where he is given the name Nelson. On his matriculation Mandela starts a bachelor of arts degree at the African Native College of Fort Hare but is expelled with Oliver Tambo for participating in a student strike.
1941 - When he is 23 Mandela moves to Soweto on the southwestern outskirts of Johannesburg to avoid an arranged marriage.
Mandela meets Walter Sisulu, an active member of the ANC whorecommends Mandela for employment with a lawyer in Johannesburg.
All South Africans are legally assigned to one racial group - white, African, coloured or Asian. Black Africans have no parliamentary representation outside of the supposedly independent homelands created by the state. During the 1950s there are approximately 500,000 pass law arrests annually, more than 600 individuals are listed as communists, nearly 350 are banned, and more than 150 are banished. 1949 - On 17 December the Youth League's 'Program of Action' to achieve full citizenship and direct parliamentary representation for all South Africans is adopted by the ANC at its annual conference. 1950 - Mandela is elected to the ANC National Executive Committee at the ANC's national conference. 1952 - In February the ANC calls on the government to repeal all unjust laws or face a 'Campaign for the Defiance of Unjust Laws'. While banned he formulates a plan to break down ANC branches into underground cells to enable greater contact with the African community, the so-called 'M-Plan' or Mandela plan. Meanwhile, the defiance campaign has helped build ANC membership from about 7,000 at the beginning of the year to more than 100,000 by the year's end.
1953 - A banning order forces Mandela to resign officially from the ANC and work underground. 1955 - The ANC writes a 'Freedom Charter' stating that South Africa belongs to all people living within it regardless of race, that all South Africans should be treated equally before the law, and that the country's wealth should be distributed equitably.
1956 - Mandela, Tambo, Sisulu and 153 others are arrested for high treason and charges under the Suppression of Communism Act. 1959 - A radical faction of the ANC splits from the parent body and forms the Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC).
The confrontation turns violent on 21 March when police open fire on a peaceful protest at Sharpeville, a black township near Johannesburg.
After the Sharpeville massacre Mandela and other ANC leaders make a public display of burning their passes and urge others to follow their example. 1961 - As international protests against apartheid mount, South Africa is expelled from the British Commonwealth.
On 31 May, after gaining approval in a referendum restricted to whites, the government declares South Africa a republic. Mandela and other ANC leaders form Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation), the military wing of the ANC, in November. Over the next two years 200 acts of sabotage will be carried out by Umkhonto, targeting power supplies, pass offices and other government buildings. 1962 - In January Mandela leaves South Africa illegally to attend a freedom conference in Algeria and to scout for military training facilities for Umkhonto members and raise funds from African states. While away he personally undertakes a course of military training and resolves that the funding drive should be extended to Western and socialist nations. Following his return in July he is arrested for leaving the country illegally and for incitement to strike.
1963 - In July, while Mandela is in prison, police raid an ANC safe house in Rivonia, a fashionable suburb on the northern outskirts Johannesburg and discover arms and equipment. As a result Mandela, Sisulu and other leaders of the ANC and Umkhonto are put on trial for sabotage and for plotting to overthrow the government by violence and then bring about a communist state.
Mandela's statement from the dock at the opening of the defence case on 20 April 1964 receives considerable international publicity.
He ends his statement by saying, "The ANC has spent half a century fighting against racialism. Meanwhile, the government acts to crush any further resistance to apartheid, introducing the General Law Amendment Act. 1964 - On 11 June eight of the Rivonia accused, including Mandela and Sisulu, are convicted. The prisoners are kept in tiny cells measuring about two square metres and with only one small barred window. Refusing to be bowed, Mandela continues his studies and encourages the other political detainees to exchange ideas and knowledge.
1975 - The withdrawal of the Portuguese colonial administration from Angola and Mozambique sees the installation in those countries of new independent governments hostile to South Africa's apartheid regime.
On 23 October, and with the blessing of United States President Gerald Ford and US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, South Africa invades Angola. 1976 - The Soweto uprising begins on 16 June when high school students protest against the enforced use of Afrikaans in schools.
The uprising leads to weeks of demonstrations, marches and boycotts throughout South Africa.
1979 - With capital leaving the country because of political instability, and with the economy beginning to slow, the government attempts to reduce industrial unrest by allowing black workers to form unions.
1980 - Opposition to South Africa on the African continent is further entrenched when Robert Mugabe's antiapartheid government takes power in Zimbabwe.
1982 - Mandela, along with Sisulu, is transferred from Robben Island to the maximum-security Pollsmoor Prison on the mainland. 1983 - The United Democratic Front (UDF), a coalition of nearly 600 organisations, is formed to persuade the government to abolish apartheid. Bishop Desmond Tutu emerges as one of the front's principal spokesmen.
The government declares states of emergency in various parts of the country; the first time the emergency laws have been used since the Sharpeville massacre of 1960. 1986 - In October the US Congress passes legislation implementing mandatory sanctions against South Africa. 1987 - While the union movement becomes increasingly militant, with the number of days lost to strikes reaching 5.8 million in 1987, armed members of the ANC and PAC stage raids on South Africa from their bases in Angola, Mozambique, and Zimbabwe. The regime responds by renewing a series of states of emergency, unleashing its police, and sending its military forces on counter-strike raids. Media restrictions are tightened and the UDF and other activist organisations are effectively banned.
On 7 July, at the first national conference of the ANC held inside South Africa since the organisation was banned in 1960, Mandela is elected president of the ANC.
Also in July, Mandela travels to Cuba to personally thank Cuban President Fidel Castro for assisting the fight against the apartheid regime. Over four days beginning on 26 April more than 22 million South Africans, or about 91% of registered voters, go to the polls. The ANC secures nearly 63% of the vote, missing the two-thirds majority needed to unilaterally change the constitution. The ministry of the new government includes blacks, whites, Afrikaners, Indians, coloureds, Muslims, Christians, communists, liberals and conservatives. In June the government announces that a Truth and Reconciliation Commission will investigate human rights abuses and political crimes committed by both supporters and opponents of apartheid between 1960 and 10 May 1994.

Meanwhile, Mandela pledges one-third of his salary for five years for the establishment of the Nelson Mandela Children's Fund. 1996 - A new South African constitution that bars discrimination against the country's minorities, including whites, is signed into law by Mandela on 10 December.
On 22-23 October he travels to Libya for talks with Libyan leader Colonel Muammar Gaddafi about ways to end UN sanctions imposed on the country in 1992 following its refusal to hand over two alleged intelligence agents indicted for the 1988 bombing of Pan Am flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland. Gaddafi had provided the South African resistance movement with ongoing support during the apartheid era, a stance for which Mandela feels a debt of gratitude. 1998 - On his 80th birthday Mandela marries Graca Machel, widow of Mozambican President Samora Machel, who was killed in a plane crash 12 years earlier.
Mandela bows out of politics, stepping down as president of South Africa and returning to live at his birthplace in Transkei. 2002 - Mandela reenters South African public life when he begins to question the government's approach to the HIV-AIDS crisis in the country. South Africa has the highest number of HIV infections in the world, with about 4.7 million people, or one in nine of the population, carrying the virus. In August Mandela reveals that one of his nieces and two sons of a nephew have died from AIDS. On 2 September Mandela joins the growing number of world figures critical of plans by the administrations of US President George W. Mandela believes that any action against Iraq should be implemented through the UN and calls on Iraq to allow the unconditional return of weapons inspectors. 2003 - On 30 April Mandela officiates at ceremony marking a transfer of power in Burundi agreed to during the negotiations he has mediated. On 21 September Mandela opens the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory and Commemoration, an archive of his papers and records.
2005 - On 6 January Mandela reveals that his only surviving son, Makgatho Mandela, has died of AIDS. The meeting of the G7 finance ministers agrees in principle to write off up to 100% of debts owed by 37 of the world's poorest nations. Back in South Africa, the National Party, which introduced the apartheid system after coming to government in 1948, officially disbands on 9 April. 2007 - Mandela celebrates his 89th birthday on 18 July, marking the occasion with the launch of a group of eminent world-leaders, to be known as the 'Elders'. Members of the group include Desmond Tutu, former US presidents Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton, former UN secretary-general Kofi Annan, former Irish president Mary Robinson, philanthropist Muhammad Yunas, Indian women's rights campaigner Ela Bhatt, and Mandela's wife Graca Machel. On 29 August a bronze statue of Mandela is unveiled outside the Houses of Parliament in London. 2008 - In June, Mandela comments on the turmoil in Zimbabwe, where long-term President Robert Mugabe is accused of using fear, violence and intimidation to stay in power.
Speaking in London on the eve of celebrations for his 90th birthday, Mandela says, "We look back at much human progress, but we sadly note so much failing as well.
2009 - In April, Mandela comes out of retirement to back the campaign of ANC presidential candidate Jacob Zuma. The South African statesman and former political prisoner bares his mind and soul in this inspiring collection of writings and interviews.
The riveting memoirs of the outstanding moral and political leader of our time, LONG WALK TO FREEDOM brilliantly recreates the drama of the experiences that helped shape Nelson Mandela's destiny.
This collection by former South African President Mandela presents the Nobel laureate's speeches on a wide variety of subjects. Like most graphic novels produced with educational intent, the art takes a far second to the didactic text in this graphic biography of the South African icon. Inspirational, informative and filled with meaningful lessons on how to live in a complex world, Nelson Mandela: The Authorized Comic Book is as much for adults as it is for children. During his imprisonment, violence between the minority white rulers and Blacks was rampant (e.g Soweto), until the 1994 elections. On 11 June 1988, while he was still imprisoned, actors and comedians joined many of the biggest names in music for a concert at Wembley Stadium, London, to celebrate his 70th birthday.
In the late 60s, while imprisoned at the South African prison, Robben Island, he volunteered, and was cast, to play the role of King Creon, in the prison's Christmas play selection, Antigone (by Sophocles). Has been portrayed by Sidney Poitier, Danny Glover, Dennis Haysbert, Phil LaMarr, George MacDowell, Willie Jonah, Dave Chappelle, Yaya Soumare, Lindani Nkosi, Simon Sabela and Morgan Freeman.
May 2004: Embarked on Unite Against Hunger, a two-day event in South Africa with Australian pop star Dannii Minogue. Father, with Evelyn, of two boys named Madiba Thembekile (1946-1969), Makgatho (1950-2005) and a girl named Makazime (1953). Co-founded, with Peter Gabriel and Richard Branson, world human rights advocacy group The Elders in July 2007.
His third wife, Graca Machel, holds the distinction of being the only woman in history to hold the title of first lady of two independent nations.
I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. Before his presidency, Mandela was an anti-apartheid activist, and the leader of Umkhonto we Sizwe, the armed wing of the African National Congress (ANC).
Since his triumphant release in 1990 from more than a quarter-century of imprisonment, Mandela has been at the center of the most compelling and inspiring political drama in the world. Here for the first time, Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela tells the extraordinary story of his life - an epic of struggle, setback, renewed hope, and ultimate triumph, which has, until now, been virtually unknown to most of the world. In classically elegant and engrossing prose, he tells of his early years as an impoverished student and law clerk in Johannesburg, of his slow political awakening, and of his pivotal role in the rebirth of a stagnant ANC and the formation of its Youth League in the 1950s. He recounts the surprisingly eventful twenty-seven years in prison and the complex, delicate negotiations that led both to his freedom and to the beginning of the end of apartheid. His education continues at the Clarkebury School and then the all-British Healdtown High School, a strict Methodist college.
All races have separate living areas and separate amenities (such as toilets, parks and beaches). Campaign leaders and opposition newspapers are banned and about 8,500 people are arrested, including Mandela. Mandela, who is both president of the Youth League and of the Transvaal region of the ANC, is now elected an ANC deputy national president. The charter is being discussed at the 'Congress of the People' held near Soweto on 25-26 June when police surround the meeting, announce that they suspect treason is being committed and take the names and addresses of all those present. Africans are asked to assemble outside police stations without their passes and challenge the police to arrest them. When demonstrations continue, the government declares a state of emergency and arrests about 18,000 protesters, including the leaders of the ANC and the PAC.
The South African press will dub Mandela the 'Black Pimpernel' because of the disguises he uses to avoid detection. Under Mandela's leadership it launches a campaign of sabotage against government and economic installations. He conducts his own defence but is convicted in November and jailed for five years with hard labour.
They plead not guilty, arguing that the government is responsible because it forced them into their actions. The act allows police to detain suspects for 90 days without charge or access to legal advice. The prison becomes known among the inmates as the 'Robben Island University' or the 'Nelson Mandela University'. He becomes a focus of world attention and a symbol for the struggle of black South Africans. The South African forces come within 100 km of the Angolan capital but are forced to pull back when Cuba sends 10,000 to 12,000 troops to assist the Angolan resistance.
After the police respond with tear gas and gunfire, demonstrators attack and burn down government buildings. Violent clashes with police leave more than 500 dead, several thousand arrested, and thousands more seeking refuge outside the country, many with the exiled forces of the ANC. However, the constitution, which establishes three racially segregated houses of parliament, for whites, Asians, and coloureds, but excludes blacks from full citizenship, has the opposite effect and is denounced as a continuation of apartheid. The laws allow police to arrest without warrant and to detain people indefinitely without charge and without notification to lawyers or next of kin. All new investments and bank loans are banned, air links between the US and South Africa are terminated and the importation of many South African products is stopped. More foreign investors withdraw, banks call in loans, the currency collapses, economic production declines and inflation becomes chronic. Botha, a National Party hardliner, directs the head of his intelligence service, Niel Barnard, to meet secretly with Mandela at Verster to discuss the possibility of a peace settlement. In the first public statement heard from him in 20 years, Mandela says, "I cannot and will not give any undertaking at a time when I and you, the people, are not free.
He also rescinds the orders banning the ANC, the PAC, the South African Communist Party (SACP) and other previously illegal organisations.

He is now faced with the difficult task of reconciling not only the black majority with the white oppressors but also the various factions within the antiapartheid movement. Sisulu is elected deputy president and Tambo is elected the organisation's national chairperson.
Cuban troops helped to drive South African forces from Angola in the 1970s and 1980s, an outcome that secured Angola's independence, paved the way for the independence of neighbouring Namibia and provided added impetus for the final downfall of apartheid in South Africa. It is agreed that a five-year 'Government of National Unity' with a majority-rule constitution will be formed following South Africa's first truly multiracial democratic election, scheduled for April 1994.
The National Party gets about 20% of the vote, becoming the second largest party in the parliament. In his inaugural address he stresses the need for reconciliation and once again quotes his own words from the Rivonia trial, reaffirming his determination to create a peaceful, nonracial society. Guidelines for the commission's operations are set and Archbishop Desmond Tutu is appointed as its chair. He will also found the Nelson Mandela Foundation and the Mandela Rhodes Scholarship Foundation. However, his retirement is short-lived and in December he is appointed by the UN to lead talks aimed at ending a six-year old civil war in the African state of Burundi. However, the government refuses to support the widespread use of retroviral drugs to treat the epidemic and suggests that poverty may be the real cause of AIDS. Bush and British Prime Minister Tony Blair to launch a preemptive, unilateral attack on Iraq. However, fighting between the government and rebel groups continues and it is generally considered that Burundi remains on the brink of civil war. Mandela says be will travel to London in February to lobby for the proposal at a meeting of G7 (Britain, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and US) finance ministers. The party had received less than two percent of the vote at general elections held in 2004.
The statue will remain in Parliament Square as a permanent tribute to Mandela, alongside status of Winston Churchill and Abraham Lincoln. Zuma wins the election and is confirmed as the third elected president of post-apartheid South Africa. Culled from Mandela's letters, notebooks, taped conversations, prison diaries, calendars, and an unfinished autobiography, the material includes reminiscences of the antiapartheid movement, lessons in revolutionary theory gleaned from his guerrilla training, vignettes of prison life, seething protests to authorities, tender missives to loved ones, canny political strategizing and quiet philosophical reflections. Stengel also explores Mandela's romantic relationships, including his three wives (the latest of whom, Graca Machel, he married at age 80). It also contains a substantial amount of text, making it a suitable introduction for those without the time to read the longer work. From his imprisonment on Robben Island to his remarkable journey to freedom and inauguration as President this book describes Mandela's frustrations and strength of heart as well as the overwhelming joy of freedom and power. While nearly half the selections have their origins in South Africa, the rest represent some of the continent's most cherished tales and come from Botswana, Swaziland, Malawi, Zimbabwe, and other sub-Saharan countries as well as a single selection from Morocco. It's tough to criticize a book created to contribute to the ongoing canonization of the still-living Mandela.
It should be required reading for any student of modern history or passionate believer in civil rights and the resilience of the human spirit. This event would make the African National Congress (banned since 1948) a part of the political forum. He is only the second person to receive this honour, the first being Raoul Wallenberg of Sweden who was awarded posthumously.
Unite Against Hunger is a food crisis relief program, headed by food and health care giant Tigar Brands.
She was first lady of Mozambique from June 25, 1975 to October 19, 1986 when her first husband, Samora Machel, served as president. In 1962 he was arrested and convicted of sabotage and other charges, and sentenced to life inprison. As president of the African National Congress and head of South Africa's antiapartheid movement, he was instrumental in moving the nation toward multiracial government and majority rule.
He describes the struggle to reconcile his political activity with his devotion to his family, the anguished breakup of his first marriage, and the painful separations from his children. Finally he provides the ultimate inside account of the unforgettable events since his release that produced at last a free, multiracial democracy in South Africa. After completing his BA by correspondence, he obtains his articles of clerkship and enrols for a degree in law at the University of South Africa. They dressed in beautiful suits, silk shirts and silk ties, but they were like a grave - beautiful outside and full of evil inside. Because of the disciplined and nonviolent nature of the campaign Mandela receives a suspended sentence, although a banning order confines him to Johannesburg for six months and prohibits him from attending gatherings. A subsequent petition by the Transvaal Law Society to take him off the roll of attorneys is refused by the Supreme Court.
When the government responds by introducing new and harsher laws, and by mobilising its armed forces to break up the strike, Mandela comes to the conclusion that the time has come for the ANC to move beyond nonviolent protest.
All eight are sentenced to life imprisonment and sent Robben Island Prison, a former leper colony 7 km off the coast from Cape Town.
However, despite growing international criticism of the apartheid regime, foreign investment continues to pour into the country and immigration rises. He immediately reaffirms his statement from the Rivonia trial but refuses to renounce the armed struggle, refuses to call for the lifting of international sanctions against South Africa until further progress is achieved, and refuses to accept an interim power-sharing arrangement proposed by the government.
On 5 June the government repeals the law making it illegal for Africans to own land in urban areas and the law segregating people by race. One of the two will be acquitted, the other, Abdel Baset al-Megrahi, is found guilty and sentenced to 20 years of solitary confinement in a prison in Glasgow, Scotland.
The entries recall moments of high drama, days of dreary routine and interludes of random strangeness, including a prison screening of Revenge of the Nerds. The photos, from a variety of archives and journalistic sources, ably illustrate Mandela and, even more so, the South Africa around him.
Each story is introduced with a short provenance or source note, and a frontispiece map matches each tale with its geographical area.
The intent is clear from the lack of individual creator credits, since who actually wrote these words and drew these pictures isn't important to the Mandela Foundation; what matters is that this is an authorized, approved biography created in a format to attract the attention of younger people, those who might not have been alive during the decade when Free Nelson Mandela was a politically important chant. The charity ensures that more than 10,000 children across South Africa get much needed food every month.
She became first lady of South Africa July 18, 1998 to June 14, 1999, when she married President Nelson Mandela.
He is revered everywhere as a vital force in the fight for human rights and racial equality. The couple will have two sons and two daughters, although their first daughter dies aged nine months in 1948 their eldest son is killed in a car crash in 1969. Mandela registers his anger at the humiliations and hardships imposed on him by apartheid, and his anguish over his long separation from his family (officials even denied his requests to attend his mother's and son's funerals).
While photos of protests and trials predominate, there are images of the rural areas of Mandela's youth, of the smoky segregated townships of his lawyer days in Johannesburg, and of Mandela's family and African National Congress comrades. Told by a variety of storytellers and folklorists, or gleaned from previously published sources, the tellings vary from literary to contemporary. Included is Mandela's famous speech to the Rivonia court before his sentencing on charges of insurrection, as well as his commentary on South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission.
The likenesses are adequate in standard poses, but wildly varying when the artists are called upon to deviate from reference, with faces appearing deformed. Following his release from prison on 11 February 1990, Mandela led his party in the negotiations that led to multi-racial democracy in 1994. It is a struggle of the African people, inspired by their own suffering and their own experience. The law assigning every resident of South Africa to a specific racial group is repealed on 17 June.
It is the protection of a fundamental human right, the right to dignity and a decent life," he says. The photos taken after Mandela's release from prison and South Africa's democratic election capture historic scenes. The book also provides a showcase for 18 illustrators, mostly from South Africa, who contributed one full-page illustration per story. This is a rich collection that would provide depth and breadth to any classroom study alongside the many single-tale picture-book editions readily found on library shelves.
That's an achievement to be congratulated, but this dull history comic should be far down the gift list. But because the writings included are predominantly public statements, speeches and proclamations, the book suffers from redundancy and a somewhat monotonous style.

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