A series of maps of one region, arranged in chronological order, can show vividly how it was discovered, explored by travelers and described in detail; this may be seen in facsimile atlases like those of America (K. Although cuneiform maps may not be forerunners from which later Western maps originate, they share characteristics with other cartographic traditions in their graphic imaging of territorial, social, and cosmological space. Notwithstanding this encroachment of the external ocean - encroachment which may have obliterated indications of a certain northern portion of Australia, and which certainly filled those regions with the great earth - surrounding river Okeanos - the traditions relating to the existence of an island, of immense extent, beyond the known world, were kept up, for they pervade the writings of many of the authors of antiquity.
The side of the boat curves inwards, so that when reversed the figure of it would be like an orange with a slice taken off the top, and then set on its flat side.
Comparing these early notions, as to the shape and extent of the habitable world, with the later ideas which limited the habitable portion of the globe to the equatorial regions, we may surmise how it came to pass that islands--to say nothing of continents which could not be represented for want of space - belonging to the southern hemisphere were set down as belonging to the northern hemisphere. Early maps of the world, as distinguished from globes, take us back to a somewhat more remote period; they all bear most of the disproportions of the Ptolemaic geography, for none belonging to the pre-Ptolemaic period are known to exist. Our modern notions and our way of looking at a terrestrial globe or map with the north at the top, would lead us to conclude that the abyss or bottomless pit of the inverted Chaldean boat, the Hades and Tartaros of the Greek conception, should be situated to the south, somewhere in the Antarctic regions.
During the middle ages, we shall see a reversion take place, and the terrestrial paradise and heavenly paradise placed according to the earlier Chaldean notions; and on maps of this epoch, encircling the known world from the North Pole to the equator, flows the antic Ocean, which in days of yore encircled the infernal regions. Now as the above articles of commerce, mentioned by Strabo and Pliny, after leaving their original ports in Asia and Austral-Asia, were conveyed from one island to another, any information, when sought for, concerning the location of the islands from which the spices came, must necessarily have been of a very unreliable character, for the different islands at which any stay was made were invariably confounded with those from which the spices originally came. It is in the Classical Period of Greek cartography that we can start to trace a continuous tradition of theoretical concepts about the size and shape of the earth. In spite of these speculations, however, Greek cartography might have remained largely the province of philosophy had it not been for a vigorous and parallel growth of empirical knowledge.
The importance of the Hellenistic Period in the history of ancient world cartography, however, has been clearly established.
Upon reaching Crystal, which consists of an Indian School and Trading Post, we had not the least idea where to inquire or who to ask for, but happened to stop at the very house where hospitable friends said, "We have been looking for you.
Friday evening for Farmington to take a sister of theirs who had been visiting them for a week or two. Christmas 1945 It has been a long time since I wrote in this little book, (my main companion when I am alone) and great many things have happened. Friday evening for Farmington to take a sister of theirs who had been visiting them for a week or two.  This lady, Mrs.
A knowledge of maps and their contents is not automatic - it has to be learned; and it is important for educated people to know about maps even though they may not be called upon to make them.
We are now learning that those centuries were not entirely barren of a certain interest in sciences other than theological.
There are reasons to believe however, apart from the evidence we gather in the Poems, that these abyssal regions were supposed or believed to be situated around the North Pole.
The Phoenician reports referred to came most likely therefore, not so much from the north, as from these regions which, tradition tells us (Fra Mauro’s mappamundi #249), were situated propinqua ale tenebre.
These winds covered the arcs intervening between our four cardinal points of the compass, which points were not located exactly as with us; but the north leaning to the east, the east to the south, the south to the west and the west to the north (see Beatus’ Turin map, Book II, #207). This is all the more strange when we take into consideration that, in the light of his context, the fact is apparent and of great importance as coinciding with other European views concerning the location of the north on terrestrial globes and maps. That he appears to be perpetuating an ancient tradition when he supposes the existence of a vast continent or antichthonos in the southern hemisphere to counterbalance the weight of the northern continents.
To appreciate how this period laid the foundations for the developments of the ensuing Hellenistic Period, it is necessary to draw on a wide range of Greek writings containing references to maps. With respect to the latter, we can see how Greek cartography started to be influenced by a new infrastructure for learning that had a profound effect on the growth of formalized knowledge in general. A modern analysis of Ptolemaic scholarship offers nothing to revise the long-held consensus that he is a key figure in the long term development of scientific mapping. 20 Worked most of the day putting up curtains and making other arrangements for housekeeping, also wrote some letters to the children. 4 Independence Day, but how different from what I have known since a little girl when I used to love so much to see the old red white and blue unfurled. 30 It was decided at the end of a hard day that I would get in the Wilkin's car and go on to conference. 12 Wash day, and what a merry time we have, poking, sizzling, then letting them drip dry. 25 How I wish I could have my dear little twins where I could spend their birthday with them. 4 July Not a note of music, not even a firecracker, Dad says, to remind us of Independence Day. 7 Next comes packing our duds, food and dishes and leaving for our camping grounds (for a Church Conference). 20       Worked most of the day putting up curtains and making other arrangements for housekeeping, also wrote some letters to the children. 2      How terrible, they continue to fight.  The allies continue to make successful advances on all fronts but the Germans also send out destructive bombs over England.
In the present work, reconstruction of maps no longer extant are used in place of originals or assumed originals.


We find allusions to celestial globes in the days of Eudoxus and Archimedes, to terrestrial globes in the days of Crates and Hipparchus. In Justinian’s day, or near it, one Leontius Mechanicus busied himself in Constantinople with globe construction, and we have left to us his brief descriptive reference to his work. Of particular importance for the history of the map was the growth of Alexandria as a major center of learning, far surpassing in this respect the Macedonian court at Pella. To Rome, Hellenistic Greece left a seminal cartographic heritage - one that, in the first instance at least, was barely challenged in the intellectual centers of Roman society.
Certainly the political expansion of Rome, whose domination was rapidly extending over the Mediterranean, did not lead to an eclipse of Greek influence. The Romans were indifferent to mathematical geography, with its system of latitudes and longitudes, its astronomical measurements, and its problem of projections. Yet Ptolemy, as much through the accidental survival and transmission of his texts when so many others perished as through his comprehensive approach to mapping, does nevertheless stride like a colossus over the cartographic knowledge of the later Greco-Roman world and the Renaissance. Francisco and boys were here, wanted gas stamps to take them to see their brother & son who is over the mountain. 1945 Marva was taken to the hospital where a little boy baby was born at 3:30 PM (Richard Lee Kinatedar).
Moreover, there is sufficient evidence for the use of cartographic signs from at least the post-Paleolithic period. Critical cartographic history, however, has laid aside such ideas, and we no longer look to (in the words of Denis Wood), “a hero saga involving such men as Eratosthenes, Ptolemy, Mercator, and the Cassinis, that tracked cartographic progress from humble origins in Mesopotamia to the putative accomplishments of the Greeks and Romans”.
We find that the Greek geographer Strabo gives us quite a definite word concerning their value and their construction, and that Ptolemy is so definite in his references to them as to lead to a belief that globes were by no means uncommon instruments in his day, and that they were regarded of much value in the study of geography and astronomy, particularly of the latter science.
With stress laid, during the many centuries succeeding, upon matters pertaining to the religious life, there naturally was less concern than there had been in the humanistic days of classical antiquity as to whether the earth is spherical in form, or flat like a circular disc, nor was it thought to matter much as to the form of the heavens. However, the measurement of circular and triangular plots was envisaged: advice on this, and plans, are given in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus of ca.
There is, however, but one example known, which has come down to us from that ancient day, this a celestial globe, briefly described as the Farnese globe. Yet there was no century, not even in those ages we happily are learning to call no longer “dark”, that geography and astronomy were not studied and taught, and globes celestial as well as armillary spheres, if not terrestrial globes, were constructed.
Here however he makes his hero confess that he is wholly out of his bearings, and cannot well say where the sun is to set or to rise (Od. Again, if we consider the Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans as devoid of the American Continent, and the Atlantic Ocean as stretching to the shores of Asia, as Strabo did, the parallel of Iberia (Spain) would have taken Columbus’ ships to the north of Japan--i.e.
90-168), Greek and Roman influences in cartography had been fused to a considerable extent into one tradition. Francisco says if we leave he will give his three sons, belonging to the Church, back to the Catholics. UPON LEAVING COLLEGE, I RELOCATED TO OKLAHOMA CITY, OKLAHOMA WHERE I WORKED FOR HERTZ DATA CENTER CORPORATION AND LIBERTY NATIONAL. With translation of the text of the Geography into Latin in the early 15th century, however, the influence of Ptolemy was to structure European cartography directly for over a century. It would be wrong to over emphasize, as so much of the topographical literature has tended to do, a catalog of Ptolemy’s “errors”: what is vital for the cartographic historian is that his texts were the carriers of the idea of celestial and terrestrial mapping long after the factual content of the coordinates had been made obsolete through new discoveries and exploration. Nevertheless, reconstructions of maps which are known to have existed, and which have been made a long time after the missing originals, can be of great interest and utility to scholars. It has been shown how these could have appealed to the imagination not only of an educated minority, for whom they sometimes became the subject of careful scholarly commentary, but also of a wider Greek public that was already learning to think about the world in a physical and social sense through the medium of maps. Indeed, we can see how the conditions of Roman expansion positively favored the growth and applications of cartography in both a theoretical and a practical sense. Here, however, though such a unity existed, the discussion is focused primarily on the cartographic contributions of Ptolemy, writing in Greek within the institutions of Roman society. Finally, the interpretation of modem scholars has progressively come down on the side of the opinion that Ptolemy or a contemporary probably did make at least some of the maps so clearly specified in his texts. Some saw in the ‘hill country’ Hebron, a place that had for a long time been a leading Levitical city, while others held that Juda was the Levitical city concerned.
It had been the subject of comment by Plato, while Aristotle had quoted a figure for the circumference of the earth from “the mathematicians” at 400,000 stades; he does not explain how he arrived at this figure, which may have been Eudoxus’ estimate.
Ptolemy owed much to Roman sources of information and to the extension of geographical knowledge under this growing empire: yet he represents a culmination as well as a final synthesis of the scientific tradition in Greek cartography that has been highlighted in this introduction. Later we encounter itineraries, referring either to military or to trading expeditions and provide an indication of the extent of Babylonian geographical knowledge at an early date. The celestial globe had reinforced the belief in a spherical and finite universe such as Aristotle had described; the drawing of a circular horizon, however, from a point of observation, might have perpetuated the idea that the inhabited world was circular, as might also the drawing of a sphere on a flat surface. There was, however, evidently no consensus between cartographic theorists, and there seems in particular to have been a gap between the acceptance of the most advanced scientific theories and their translation into map form. It was not until the 18th century, however, that maps were gradually stripped of their artistic decoration and transformed into plain, specialist sources of information based upon measurement.
ULTIMATELY, MY MAXIM WOULD PROVE TO BE BLAMEWORTHY FOR I BROKE THAT VOW, NAY, MANY OTHERS WHILE LIVING A DOUBLE LIFE: PROFESSING TO BE ONE THING (STRAIGHT)DURING THE DAY AND ENGAGING IN THE OPPOSITE (GAY) DURING THE NIGHT.


MY PARENTS DIVORCED WHEN I WAS AROUND FOUR OR FIVE YEARS OLD AND, CONSEQUENTLY, THAT WAS THE DAY WHEN SIN ENTERED MY HOME. NO LONGER DID I HAVE THE EMOTIONAL AND PHYSICAL SECURITY THAT WAS DEVOTED AND COMMITTED UNTO ME BY MY PARENTS.INDEED, THAT WAS THE END OFINNOCENCEFOR ME. NO LONGER DID I SEE MY FATHER DURING BEDTIMEAND AGAIN AT THE BREAKFAST TABLE EVERY MORNING; NORWOULD IEVER GET THE CHANCE TO INTERRUPT MY BROTHER'S HOMEWORK SESSIONS WITH MY PARENTS EVERYEVENINGBY INCESSANTLY TRYING TO ARRANGE MEANINGLESS CHARACTERS ONA PIECE OF PAPERDESPERATELY HOPING,JUST ONCE, I WOULD BE TOLD THAT I ACTUALLY COMPOSED A REAL WORD. I WAS NO LONGER A CHILDWITHIN A NUCLEAR FAMILY AND I FOUND MY LIFE TO BE DIFFICULT AND FRUSTRATING. IN RETROSPECT, I'MCERTAIN I WOULD HAVE FARED MUCH BETTER, ACADEMICALLY, AT AMUCH SMALLER UNIVERSITY HADI TAKEN THE FULL SCHOLARSHIP I WAS OFFERED AT ST.
HOWEVER, THE LATTER WOULD PROVE TO BECOME MUCH MORE EXACTING THAN I COULD HAVE EVER IMAGINED.
HOWEVER, AFTER A FEW YEARS, EVEN ON A CAMPUS OF MORE THAN 40,000 STUDENTS, MY WORLDSBEGAN TO OVERLAP, AND ULTIMATELY COLLIDE: I WAS ABOUT TO BE OUTED ONE WAY OR ANOTHER. I CAN REMEMBER ONE SUMMER DAY I WAS WORKING AT THE COLLEGE MALL, FOR SEARS PARTS AND SERVICE, AND ONE OF MY FRIENDS SHOWED UP ON MY JOB WITH A DOZEN ROSES IN RECOGNITION OF MY BIRTHDAY. I WOULDN'T HAVE KNOWN HOW TO HANDLE SUCH A BENEVOLENT GESTURE IN PRIVATE LET ALONE ASTORE FULL OF ONLOOKERS. THE GENESIS OF AMERICAN HISTORY CANNOT BEGIN WITHOUT THE RECITAL OF HOW THE NEGROES COLOR WAS THEIR BADGE OF SERVITUDE TO BE USED, BURNED,LYNCHED, AND RECYCLEDAT THE WILL OF THE ENGLISH IMPERIALISTSAND THE AMERICAN COLONIALISTS. TO HELP ANSWER THAT QUESTION, ONE WOULD ONLY NEED TO TAKE INTO CONSIDERATION THE POLITICAL CLIMATE THAT IS STILL PREVALENT AND PERMEATES THROUGHOUT AND WITHIN AMERICAN REPUBLICANSOCIETY: THE PATERNAL ORDER OF INDIVIDUALISM AND ENTITLEMENTS BY VIRTUE OF A SEPARATIST MENTALITY WITH REGARD TO THE UNEQUALDISTRIBUTION OF WEALTH AND CAPITAL. NOW IF YOU ARE LIKE ME WHEN I WAS COMING OF AGE, YOU PROBABLY FEEL THAT, IN LIGHT OF YOURCIRCUMSTANCES,GOD DOESN'T WANT YOU TO SUFFER ALL OF YOUR LIFE AND ESPECIALLY NOT AS A RESULT OF THE WAY YOU WERE BORN. I MEAN, EVERYRATIONAL HUMAN BEING KNOWS, FOOL OR OTHERWISE, THAT GOD DOES NOT MAKE ANYTHING WITHOUT A PURPOSE.
GOD REVEALS THROUGH HIS HOLY WORD IN THE BOOK OF MATTHEW 25:31-46 (KJV) THATALL NATIONSWILL STAND BEFORE HIM ON JUDGEMENT DAY. I AM HAPPY TO SHARE WITH YOU THAT GOD DOES NOT WANT YOU TO PERISH FOR SOMETHING YOU DO NOTKNOW! HOWEVER, WHEN ADAM AND EVE WERE INTRODUCED TO DEATH, WHICHCAME BY WAY OF SEDUCTION EMPLOYED BY THE SERPENT, THEY NO LONGER HAD THE POWER TO ENDUREAN ENTITY THAT WAS DETERMINED TO KILL, STEAL, AND DESTROY: SATAN, THE DEVIL.
HOWEVER, BEFORE I BROACH THAT SUBJECT, I THINK IT IS EVEN MORE IMPRESSIVETO REVEAL HOW GOD MADE IT POSSIBLE AGAINFOR US TO BE ABLE TO APPROACH HIM. AS WELL, I WOULD LIKE TOREFLECT, FOR A MOMENT, ON THE POSSIBILITY OF WHAT LIFE WOULD HAVE BEEN LIKE FOR ADAM, EVE, AND THEIR OFFSPRING HAD THEY NOT BEEN DEBAUCHED.WE KNOW FROM THE THIRD CHAPTERINTHE BOOK OF GENESIS THAT THEY WERE NO LONGER ALLOWED TO EAT OFTHE SPIRITUAL FOOD PROVIDEDIN THE GARDEN OF EDEN. SIMPLY PUT, WHAT WAS CONSIDERED THE NORM IN THE OLD TESTAMENT NO LONGER APPLIES TO US TODAY AND, IN CASE YOU HAVEN'T BEEN TOLD, IT'S BEEN THAT WAY FOR THE PAST TWO-THOUSAND YEARS!
HE COULD NOT USE ADAM AS AN APPROPRIATE PROPITIATION BECAUSE ADAM WAS NO LONGER PURE AND WITHOUT GUILE. IT DOESN'T MATTER WHAT SOMEONE ELSE SAYS ABOUT YOU, GOD DOES NOT FEEL THAT WAY AND HE HAS NEVER FELT THAT WAY. REMEMBER, IT WAS NOT GOD WHO HARMED ADAM AND EVE BUT SATAN, DISGUISED AS A SERPENT, WHO SEDUCED THEM WITHOUT THEM EVEN KNOWING THEY WERE BEING TAKEN TO THE CLEANERS. AND WHILE MANY OF US MAY KNOW HOW MUCH GOD LOVEDAND PROTECTED THE ISRAELITES THROUGHOUT HISTORY, NOT MANY OF US SEEM TO KNOW THAT HE HAS MADE A NEW COVENANT WITH ALL MANKIND, THROUGH HIS SON, JESUS CHRIST.THERE ARE MANY PEOPLE WHO DO NOT BELIEVE IN GOD AND, FURTHER, MANY MORE WHO DEFINITELY CONSIDER THE CRUCIFIXION OF THE CHRIST AS JUST ANOTHER FABLE. MOREOVER, IT HAS BEEN MY EXPERIENCE THAT THERE AREN'T ENOUGH SINNERS SAVED BY GRACE WHO ARE FORTHRIGHT AND WILLING TO NOT BE ASHAMED TO STAND UP AND TELL SINNERS HOW THEY CAME TO RECEIVE GOD'S GRACE.
THIS IS WHY IT IS MY FERVENT PRAYERTHAT YOU TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THISOPPORTUNITY TO LEARN OF GOD'S GOODNESS AND HIS GRACE, MERCY, AND THEREDEMPTIVE BLOOD OF HIS SON, JESUS CHRIST, THAT WAS SHED FOR SOMEONE LIKE YOU TOO! BY SWEARING,AND LYING, AND KILLING, AND STEALING, AND COMMITTING ADULTERY, THEY BREAKOUT, AND BLOOD TOUCHETH BLOOD." IT WAS A PERILOUS TIME IN THE LAND AS MAYHEM AND FOOLISHNESS WAS RUNNING AMUCK:FOR EXAMPLE, ISREAL FAILED TO OBEY, THE NATIONAL LEADERS FAILED TO TEACH GOD'S LAW TO THE PEOPLE, AND MANY OF GOD'S CHOSEN PEOPLE BEGAN SELLING THEIR BODIES IN PROSTITUTION!
UNFORTUNATELY, I ALSO KNOW THAT MANY OF YOU HAVE TRIED TO TAKE YOUR OWN LIVES AS A RESULT OF THE GUILT, SHAME, AND TURMOIL YOUR SEXUALITY OR HIV STATUS MAY HAVE CAUSED YOU. IF YOU HAVE NOT CONFESSED JESUS AS YOUR LORD AND SAVIOR, THEN YOU ARE A SINNER.THUS, YOU ARE NOT A SINNER BECAUSE OF WHAT YOU'VE DONE OR WHO YOU ARE NOW, YOU ARE A SINNER BECAUSE THAT'S HOW YOU ANDIWERE BORN!
IT DOESN'T MATTER WHO IS RIGHT AND WHO ISWRONG, WE ARE ALL BORN INTO SIN AND, MORE IMPORTANTLY, WE ARE ALL REDEEMABLE IN GOD'S EYES, THROUGH HIS SON THE CHRIST.
TAKE MY YOKE UPON YOU, AND LEARN OF ME,FOR I AM MEEK AND LOWLY IN HEART: ANDYE SHALL FIND REST UNTO YOUR SOULS.
IN RETROSPECT, I'MCERTAIN I WOULD HAVE FARED MUCH BETTER, ACADEMICALLY, AT AMUCH SMALLER UNIVERSITY HADI TAKEN THE FULL SCHOLARSHIP I WAS OFFERED AT ST.
I WOULDN'T HAVE KNOWN HOW TO HANDLE SUCH A BENEVOLENT GESTURE IN PRIVATE LET ALONE ASTORE FULL OF ONLOOKERS.



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