You are probably accustomed to using what is called decimal- the numbering system you’ve been learning since kindergarten. The premise of binary is simple: we arrange 1’s and 0’s in a row to make any number we please.
Now that you know how to convert decimal to binary (and binary to decimal), we can move on to the wonderful world of hexadecimal!
Whereas decimal is a base 10 numbering system (since it has 10 total numbers 0-9), and binary is base 2, hexadecimal is base 16. To convert a hexadecimal value to binary, remember that we are dealing with nibbles, not bytes. Consider each 0 as a “no” and each 1 as a “yes.” For every binary 1 (or yes) you get, you write down the corresponding decimal number.

The phrase “There are only 10 kinds of people in the world; those who understand binary and those who don’t” confuses the reader with a decimal 10, only it is actually a binary 2.
If you wanted to know the function to find the value in decimal, with the given position in the byte, you can use 2^n (where n is the position). It’s actually the beginning of the hex value of 12, which is the equivalent of 18 in decimal. A binary 1 (usually) indicates that there is a high voltage level, and a binary 0 (usually) indicates a low voltage level. Now add up all the decimal numbers you got, and you have the decimal equivalent of a binary number. The result, in binary, would be 1010 1111 (consult the diagram above).Now we can finally convert the byte into a decimal number.

The binary number 1111 0001, for instance, would be the equivalent of F1 in hex (or otherwise known as 0xF1).
Note that since hexadecimal numbers can easily be confused with decimal numbers, you will more than likely see a 0x before a hex number.

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