The examples and screen shots used in this guide are based on a student version the 2008 General Social Survey (GSS) data set, which contains information on 50 variables for a sample of 1500 U.S. Columns: Width of Column in Data View refers to the number of letters in the variable name.
Outline panel: provides a complete listing of everything that SPSS has done in that session. Genuinely collaborative research invites participants to contribute to all stages of research, including conducting the research, considering its real-life implications, and figuring out where it can be applied. Below you will find links to descriptions of the research methods, how we are using them, how we share these methods with community partners, and the unfolding story about how Foodways & Foodscapes continues to evolve as a living example of community based participatory research.
We can help you demonstrate your social value through making use of research techniques and applying the principles of social return on investment as part of a wider evaluation. Using these techniques we can also help you to identify areas or best practice, that require improvement, and also the intended and unintended consequences of the work that you do.
Work-life balance is no longer only a management buzzword, and it has become one of the most pressing HR issues globally. First of all, it needs to be specified that “work-life balance can be seen as the reconciliation between paid work and life, or the balance that needs to be orchestrated between work and non work demands” (Al-Araimi, 2011, p.119).
Organisations differ in terms of their approach and the level of their involvement in achieving work-life balance for employees. At the same time, the numbers of alternative working patterns are increasing as a response and partial solution to this issue. Moreover, the results of the same survey indicate that 43 per cent of respondents consider that their employer is not doing enough to address work-life balance issue and 38 per cent of employees stated that the recent global economic crisis had detrimental effects on their work-life balance. The issue of maintaining work-life balance is even starker for young professionals in emerging markets, and there are even cases with fatal outcomes. China, as an emerging superpower has been traditionally notorious for the lack of work-life balance in local organisations, both public and private. However, there are evidences that the situation with work-life balance in Chinese organisations is changing for the good. Among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD) countries South Korea is the one that has the longest working hours negatively affecting work-life balance of its citizens. Interestingly, it can be observed that there is a positive correlation between work-life balance of employees and a standard of living within a country. In summary it is faire to state that although the issue of maintaining work-life balance presents considerable HRM challenges for UK organisations, the situation associated with work-life balance is even more detrimental in many other countries in general, and developing and newly emerging economies in particular. Suggestions and recommendations can be made to organisations, as well as, employees in terms of achieving a better work-life balance.
Moreover, initiating discussions regarding work-life balance issues with employees in an informal environment can play an instrumental role in dealing with the issue.


Arranging the employment on a flexitime basis whenever possible can be optimal solutions for organisations. Organisations are also recommended to consider the option of offering compressed workweek for suitable positions. Employees can also take specific measures and initiatives in order to improve their work-life balance on a personal level. It has been confirmed that “in today’s corporate culture, many people feel that they are not allowed to say no when asked to take on extra assignments” (LaRock, 2010, p.88). Moreover, explained as “ranking responsibilities and tasks in their order of importance” (Seaward and Seaward, 2011, p.331), prioritising is another technique that can individuals in achieve more efficient levels of their work-life balance. Summarising this point, it can be stated that although the issue of work-life balance is a significant HR problem with potential negative impacts on personal and professional levels, the issue can be successfully dealt with if both, employees, as well as, employers actively engage by adopting a proactive approach towards the issue by applying a range of available technique and methods discussed in this essay. For example, if you had 15 possible responses, you would need to have a width of 2 (one for the tens’ place and another for the ones’ place).
Be aware: the default is ‘Scale’ so if you have ordinal or nominal variables you will need to change these. We make use of quantitative and qualitative research techniques to investigate and evaluate your service on your behalf and assess the value in monetary terms that your service users and stakeholders give to your business or project. It can also help you with future funding opportunities and business development by demonstrating your added value to the wider local area including economic, social or heath and wellbeing benefits. This is because intensifying level of competition has increased the amount of demand and pressure for organisations and their individual members.
Specifically, it has to be noted that “in the UK, around 3.5 million people are working full-time or part-time from home. According to the results of the survey conducted by Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) involving 1,043 US citizens, 89 per cent of respondents specified work-life balance to be a problem with 54 specifying the issue as a significant problem (Gurchiek, 2010, online).
Giving priority to their assigned responsibilities over their personal lives is closely associated with a local culture in China that has been cultivated over a long period of time (Chan et al., 2008). Specifically, it has been noted that “Chinese workers have begun to discover the joys of sloth. Namely, it has been established that the average South Korean works 2,390 hours per year which is “over 400 hours longer than the next longest-working country and 34% more hours than the average in the United States” (Sajja, 2011).
In other words, the higher standard of living within a country from an economic perspective, the better work-life balance employees enjoy. Firstly, organisational managers at all levels need to adopt a proactive approach towards the issue by expressing sincere interest on work-life balance issues of their subordinates.
Specific tools and methods available to employers include arranging alternative working patterns such as flexitime, telecommuting, job sharing, and compressed workweek patterns to be discussed below in a greater detail. Flexitime can be explained as “variable schedule that allow employees to vary the start and end times of their workdays while still working a standard number of hours within a given workweek” (Smith and Mazin, 2011, p.84).


Telecommuting involves organisations allowing employees working from their homes or other locations outside of office.
This type of employment involves two or more employees sharing the responsibilities of a single position, and thus, the best qualified employees can be retained through assisting them to pursue their lifestyle choices. Compressed workweek allows employees to complete their workweek in less than typical working week – five days.
Specifying personal health and related activities such as exercising and having appropriate amount of rest as their top priority would be a great step for employees at all levels in the way of achieving better work-life balance. Therefore, the courage and ability of employees to say no when they are requested to take on extra tasks at the expense of their outside of office hours is another way of improving work-life balance to a significant extent. Specifically, prioritising involves understanding that all of the tasks and demands cannot be addressed at once, and accordingly, engaging in responsibilities and tasks according to their importance and urgency.
At the same time, it is understood that “for many employees throughout the world, balancing their work and personal lives is a significant concern” (Mathis and Jackson, 2011, p.67). Moreover, according to a research conducted by Bupa, a leading international healthcare group, more than six million UK employees are chained to their desks, and only thirty per cent take a lunch hour (Bupa, 2012, online). Leisure – which has had a bad rap on the mainland – is making a comeback” (Waldmeir, 2012). This can be done through tete-a-tete consultations, devising relevant questionnaires and simple observations. Apart from contributing to achieving work-life balance for employees, telecommuting also provides the opportunities for cost-saving for organisations i.e. However, the implementation of this recommendation needs to be undertaken with a great care taking into account the specific traits of relevant employees because, “compressed workweek tends to lead to diminished work performance owing to longer hours during the days being worked” (Cameron, 2012, p.119). In the research phase, a field study was carried out to gather the relevant information, which was processed to generate quantitative and qualitative results. For instance, there is a highly negative work-life balance situation in South Korea even when employees have high standard of life economically possibly due to the cultural differences associated with the country. In this phase, 25 households were interviewed and approximately 60 farmers and local leaders participated in the mapping exercise. But what happens when you go up to really big numbers, like numbers that have 17 million digits?



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