Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research. Heat Treatment in Molecular Precursor Method for Fabricating Metal Oxide Thin FilmsHiroki Nagai and Mitsunobu Sato[1] Research Institute of Science and Technology, Kogakuin University, Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo,, Japan1. Statements about products on this website have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. HELLO EVERY ONE , BELOW YOU WILL FIND A SUMMARY OF MY FIRST MONTH AFTER MY JOURNEY TO WEST VIRGINIA FOR MY MICRO ACUPUNCTURE NEEDLE TREATMENT WITH DOCTOR PER OTTE ( OTTA ). Colorectal cancer, commonly known as bowel cancer, is a cancer caused by uncontrolled cell growth (neoplasia), in the colon, rectum, or vermiform appendix.[citation needed] Colorectal cancer is clinically distinct from anal cancer, which affects the anus. Invasive cancers that are confined within the wall of the colon (T stages I and II) are often curable with surgery, For example, in England over 90% of patients diagnosed at this stage will survive the disease beyond 5 years.[1] However, if left untreated, the cancer can spread to regional lymph nodes (stage III). The symptoms of colorectal cancer depend on the location of tumor in the bowel, and whether it has spread elsewhere in the body (metastasis).
A tumor that is large enough to fill the entire lumen of the bowel may cause bowel obstruction. Certain local effects of colorectal cancer occur when the disease has become more advanced. If a tumor has caused chronic bleeding in the bowel, iron deficiency anemia may occur, causing a range of symptoms that may include fatigue, palpitations and pale skin (pallor).
There may be rarer symptoms including unexplained fever or thrombosis, usually deep vein thrombosis. Micrograph of a tubular adenoma (left of image), a type of colonic polyp and a precursor of colorectal cancer. Diet: Studies show that a diet high in red meat[10] and low in fresh fruit, vegetables, poultry and fish increases the risk of colorectal cancer. Lithocholic acid: Lithocholic acid is a bile acid that acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption. Physical inactivity: People who are physically active are at lower risk of developing colorectal cancer. Inflammatory bowel disease:[16][17] About one percent of colorectal cancer patients have a history of chronic ulcerative colitis. One study found "While there was a more than twofold increased risk of significant colorectal neoplasia in people who drink spirits and beer, people who drank wine had a lower risk. Colorectal cancer is a disease originating from the epithelial cells lining the colon or rectum of the gastrointestinal tract, most frequently as a result of mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway that artificially increase signaling activity. Beyond the defects in the Wnt-APC-beta-catenin signaling pathway, other mutations must occur for the cell to become cancerous. Other apoptotic proteins commonly deactivated in colorectal cancers are TGF-? and DCC (Deleted in Colorectal Cancer). Endoscopic image of colon cancer identified in sigmoid colon on screening colonoscopy in the setting of Crohn's disease. Colorectal cancer can take many years to develop and early detection of colorectal cancer greatly improves the chances of a cure.
Digital rectal exam (DRE): The doctor inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum to feel for abnormal areas. M2-PK: a CE marked stool test which indicates colorectal polyps, colorectal cancer, acute and chronic inflammatory bowel disease and other diseases of the digestive tract. Sigmoidoscopy: A lighted probe (sigmoidoscope) is inserted into the rectum and lower colon to check for polyps and other abnormalities. Colonoscopy: A lighted probe called a colonoscope is inserted into the rectum and the entire colon to look for polyps and other abnormalities that may be caused by cancer.
In the United States, colonoscopy or FOBT plus sigmoidoscopy are the preferred screening options. Double contrast barium enema (DCBE): First, an overnight preparation is taken to cleanse the colon.
Virtual colonoscopy replaces X-ray films in the double contrast barium enema (above) with a special computed tomography scan and requires special workstation software in order for the radiologist to interpret. Standard computed axial tomography is an x-ray method that can be used to determine the degree of spread of cancer, but is not sensitive enough to use for screening. Blood tests: Measurement of the patient's blood for elevated levels of certain proteins can give an indication of tumor load.
Genetic counseling and genetic testing for families who may have a hereditary form of colon cancer, such as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) or familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Positron emission tomography (PET) is a 3-dimensional scanning technology where a radioactive sugar is injected into the patient, the sugar collects in tissues with high metabolic activity, and an image is formed by measuring the emission of radiation from the sugar.
Whole-body PET imaging is the most accurate diagnostic test for detection of recurrent colorectal cancer, and is a cost-effective way to differentiate resectable from nonresectable disease. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP1) is also possible to be used as a monitor and assess response to treatment of coloreactal cancer. Gross appearance of a colectomy specimen containing two adenomatous polyps (the brownish oval tumors above the labels, attached to the normal beige lining by a stalk) and one invasive colorectal carcinoma (the crater-like, reddish, irregularly shaped tumor located above the label). Gross appearance of a colectomy specimen containing one invasive colorectal carcinoma (the crater-like, reddish, irregularly shaped tumor). The pathology of the tumor is usually reported from the analysis of tissue taken from a biopsy or surgery. Cancers on the right side (ascending colon and cecum) tend to be exophytic, that is, the tumour grows outwards from one location in the bowel wall.
Adenocarcinoma is a malignant epithelial tumor, originating from glandular epithelium of the colorectal mucosa.
Definitive staging can only be done after surgery has been performed and pathology reports reviewed.
The Dukes classification is an older and less complicated staging system, that predates the TNM system. Most colorectal cancers should be preventable, through increased surveillance, improved lifestyle, and, probably, the use of dietary chemopreventative agents. As per current guidelines under National Comprehensive Cancer Network, in average risk individuals with negative family history of colon cancer and personal history negative for adenomas or inflammatory bowel diseases, flexible sigmoidoscopy every 5 years with fecal occult blood testing annually or double contrast barium enema are other options acceptable for screening rather than colonoscopy every 10 years (which is currently the "gold standard" of care).
A high intake of dietary fiber (from eating fruits, vegetables, cereals, and other high fiber food products) has, until recently, been thought to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer and adenoma. The evidence supporting physical activity as prevention for colorectal cancer is deemed “surprisingly consistent” by the AICR.
More than 200 agents, including the above cited phytochemicals, and other food components like calcium or folic acid (a B vitamin), and NSAIDs like aspirin, are able to decrease carcinogenesis in pre-clinical development models: Some studies show full inhibition of carcinogen-induced tumours in the colon of rats.
Because colon cancer primarily affects the elderly, it can be a challenge to determine how aggressively to treat a particular patient, especially after surgery.
Surgeries can be categorised into curative, palliative, bypass, fecal diversion, or open-and-close. Curative surgery on rectal cancer includes total mesorectal excision (lower anterior resection) or abdominoperineal excision. In case of multiple metastases, palliative (noncurative) resection of the primary tumor is still offered to reduce further morbidity caused by tumor bleeding, invasion, and its catabolic effect. If the tumor invaded into adjacent vital structures, which makes excision technically difficult, the surgeons may prefer to bypass the tumor (ileotransverse bypass) or to do a proximal fecal diversion through a stoma. Laparoscopic-assisted colectomy is a minimally invasive technique that can reduce the size of the incision and may reduce postoperative pain. Chemotherapy is used to reduce the likelihood of metastasis developing, shrink tumor size, or slow tumor growth. The cost benefit of testing patients for the KRAS gene could potentially save about $740 million a year by not providing EGFR-inhibiting drugs to patients who would not benefit from the drugs.
Radiotherapy is not used routinely in colon cancer, as normal cells in the bowel lining are also rapidly reproducing and can thus have their vitality and reproduction affected by the radiation just as the cancer cells are, a condition called radiation enteritis.[85] It is also difficult to target specific portions of the colon. Sometimes chemotherapy agents are used to increase the effectiveness of radiation by sensitizing tumor cells, if present. Plausible schematic diagrams for the oxide nucleation process of (A) intra-chain and (B) inter-chain condensation of the metalloxane polymers formed at the early stage in the sol-gel method.3. An ORTEP view of the precursor complex having the EDTA and peroxo ligands linked to the central Ti4+ ion.
Depth profile of the amount of components in the 3-layer thin film (A) OX-OX-OX and (B) OX-ED-OX.
Plausible route of the O-deficient anatase lattice formation from the precursor complex skeleton through the heat treatment in an Ar gas flow and the sequential post-anneal [6].Table 2. The photoluminescence emission spectra of the thin films, O-deficient rutile R and post annealed R-PAn (n = 15, 30, 60). Proposed schematic diagrams for the (110) plane orientated O-deficient rutile R (left) and post annealed R-PA60 (right) thin films are shown.
IntroductionIndustrial processes must minimize heat-treatment to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions during the manufacture of products. If left untreated, it can grow into the muscle layers underneath, and then through the bowel wall. There may be a change in bowel habit (such as unusual and unexplained constipation or diarrhea), and a feeling of incomplete defecation (rectal tenesmus).
This situation is characterized by constipation, abdominal pain, abdominal distension and vomiting.
A large tumor is more likely to be noticed on feeling the abdomen, and it may be noticed by a doctor on physical examination. Colorectal cancer may also lead to weight loss, generally due to a decreased appetite[citation needed].
Such symptoms, known as paraneoplastic syndrome, are due to the body's immune response to the cancer, rather than the tumor itself. The removal of colon polyps at the time of colonoscopy reduces the subsequent risk of colon cancer.
Individuals who have previously been diagnosed and treated for colon cancer are at risk for developing colon cancer in the future. An American Cancer Society study found "Women who smoked were more than 40% more likely to die from colorectal cancer than women who never had smoked. In June 2005, a study by the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition suggested that diets high in red and processed meat, as well as those low in fiber, are associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. The risk of developing colorectal cancer varies inversely with the age of onset of the colitis and directly with the extent of colonic involvement and the duration of active disease. Studies of migrant populations have revealed a role for environmental factors, particularly dietary, in the etiology of colorectal cancers.
The mutations can be inherited or are acquired, and must probably occur in the intestinal crypt stem cell.[35][36] The most commonly mutated gene in all colorectal cancer is the APC gene, which produces the APC protein. The p53 protein, produced by the TP53 gene, normally monitors cell division and kills cells if they have Wnt pathway defects. For example, genes encoding the proteins KRAS, RAF,[disambiguation needed ] and PI3K, which normally stimulate the cell to divide in response to growth factors, can acquire mutations that result in over-activation of cell proliferation. The National Cancer Policy Board of the Institute of Medicine estimated in 2003 that even modest efforts to implement colorectal cancer screening methods would result in a 29 percent drop in cancer deaths in 20 years. It only detects tumors large enough to be felt in the distal part of the rectum but is useful as an initial screening test. The test result is not affected by any foods, so no dietary restrictions are necessary before taking the stool sample. A colonoscopy has the advantage that if polyps are found during the procedure they can be removed immediately.
An enema containing barium sulfate is administered, then air is insufflated into the colon, distending it.
In particular, high levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in the blood can indicate metastasis of adenocarcinoma. Because cancer cells often have very high metabolic rates, this can be used to differentiate benign and malignant tumors.
A PET scan is indicated whenever a major management decision depends upon accurate evaluation of tumour presence and extent. Premalignant adenomas and cancers shed DNA markers from their cells which are not degraded during the digestive process and remain stable in the stool.
CEA may be used to monitor and assess response to treatment in patients with metastatic disease. It invades the wall, infiltrating the muscularis mucosae, the submucosa and thence the muscularis propria. This enzyme is generally not found in healthy colon tissue, but is thought to fuel abnormal cell growth. It is performed for diagnostic and research purposes, and to determine the best method of treatment. An exception to this principle would be after a colonoscopic polypectomy of a malignant pedunculated polyp with minimal invasion. In contrast, a healthy body weight, physical fitness, and good nutrition decreases cancer risk in general. The American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) classifies the evidence for the role of physical activity in reducing the risk of developing colorectal cancer as “convincing.” [23] The report goes on to recommend that people be physically active everyday and strive for attaining at least 30 minutes of physical activity with a recommendation of 30-60 minutes of moderate to vigorous activity daily.
A meta-analysis of 19 cohort studies published in 2004 showed a statistically significant reduction in risk for physical activity and colon cancer.
Other studies show strong inhibition of spontaneous intestinal polyps in mutated mice (Min mice).
Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended against taking aspirin (grade D recommendation).[70] The Task Force acknowledged that aspirin may reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer, but "concluded that harms outweigh the benefits of aspirin and NSAID use for the prevention of colorectal cancer".
Surgical removal of isolated liver metastases is, however, common and may be curative in selected patients; improved chemotherapy has increased the number of patients who are offered surgical removal of isolated liver metastases. Chemotherapy is often applied after surgery (adjuvant), before surgery (neoadjuvant), or as the primary therapy (palliative). It is more common for radiation to be used in rectal cancer, since the rectum does not move as much as the colon and is thus easier to target.
The molecular structure was determined by an X-ray single crystal structure analysis of the diethylammonium salt of the complex, although the dibutylammonium salt was employed for the coating solution in order to prevent from the crystallization of the precursor. Each precursor film for the first layers was formed by applying SOX and heat-treated at 475C for 30 min. Notations indicate the energy levels of five atoms in parentheses, ??? (Ti 2p), ?0? (O 1s), ? ? (N 1s), ? ? ? (C 1s), ??? (In 3d). The rate ? [nmol L–1 min–1] of decoloration rate of 0.01 mol L–1 MB solution by the photoreaction with each thin film under UV-light irradiation [6].
The crystallite size of anatase was measured with a typical Scherrer-Hall method by employing a peak assignable to only (1 0 1) of anatase, because other peak intensities due to anatase were too low to measure accurately.
Before the measurement, the thin films were exposed to UV irradiation of 1.3 mW cm–2 at 356 nm obtained by a black light (each on the left side), and to visible light without UV light was obtained from a fluorescent light by removing light of wavelengths shorter than 400 nm using a cut-off filter. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding, including the passage of bright red blood in the stool, may indicate colorectal cancer, as may the increased presence of mucus.
This occasionally leads to the obstructed and distended bowel perforating and causing peritonitis. The disease may invade other organs, and may cause blood or air in the urine (invasion of the bladder) or vaginal discharge (invasion of the female reproductive tract).


Larger and those with greater surface area (villous polyps compared to tubular) are more likely to undergo neoplasia due to the greater likelyhood of one of these cells undergoing the series of malignant transformations into cancer. Women who have had cancer of the ovary, uterus, or breast are at higher risk of developing colorectal cancer. It has been implicated in human and experimental animal carcinogenesis.[13] Carbonic acid type surfactants easily combine with calcium ion and become detoxication products. The APC protein is a "brake" on the accumulation of ?-catenin protein; without APC, ?-catenin accumulates to high levels and translocates (moves) into the nucleus, binds to DNA, and activates the transcription of genes that are normally important for stem cell renewal and differentiation but when inappropriately expressed at high levels can cause cancer. Eventually, a cell line acquires a mutation in the TP53 gene and transforms the tissue from an adenoma into an invasive carcinoma. Despite this, colorectal cancer screening rates remain low.[40] Therefore, screening for the disease is recommended in individuals who are at increased risk. It detects bleeding and non-bleeding colorectal polyps and tumors and has significantly superior sensitivity compared to conventional occult blood tests.[42] The amount of M2-PK in stool can be quantified in 4 mg of feces either by ELISA or with a Point-of-Care Rapid Test.
The result is a thin layer of barium over the inner lining of the colon which is visible on X-ray films. These tests are frequently false positive or false negative, and are not recommended for screening, it can be useful to assess disease recurrence. PET is not used for screening and does not (yet) have a place in routine workup of colorectal cancer cases.
Left-sided tumours tend to be circumferential, and can obstruct the bowel much like a napkin ring.
Tumor cells describe irregular tubular structures, harboring pluristratification, multiple lumens, reduced stroma ("back to back" aspect). The systems for staging colorectal cancers depend on the extent of local invasion, the degree of lymph node involvement and whether there is distant metastasis. Chemoprevention clinical trials in human volunteers have shown smaller prevention, but few intervention studies have been completed today. However, when it is detected at later stages (when distant metastases are present), it is less likely to be curable. The mutation turns [EGFR] into a switch that’s always on.” But this doesn’t mean that having normal, or wild-type, KRAS is a fail-safe.
The single crystals of the identical orange-yellow color could be obtained from a reacted solution of the complex with the diethylamine instead of dibutylamine. The precursor film of the second layer for OX-OX-OX formed by employing the half-diluted solution of SOX, and OX-ED-OX formed by using the half-diluted solution of SED were heat-treated at 500C for 30 min. Net multiplication part is corresponding to the second layer formed by applying the solution SED.Table 1. The crystallite size of anatase in ED and ED-PA5 could not be obtained because the (1 0 1) peak of anatase was also too weak to determine the crystallite size.
However, the use of heat-treatment is essential in the manufacturing processes of many highly functional materials. Sincerely, Tim Arvin I am incredibly grateful to have discovered this amazing man and his staff. Melena, black stool with a tarry appearance, normally occurs in upper gastrointestinal bleeding (such as from a duodenal ulcer), but is sometimes encountered in colorectal cancer when the disease is located in the beginning of the large bowel. CA19-9 and CA 242 biomarkers can indicate e-selectin related metastatic risks, help follow therapeutic progress, and assess disease recurrence. Adjunct staging of metastasis include Abdominal Ultrasound, MRI, CT, PET Scanning, and other imaging studies.
The broader stage of a cancer is usually quoted as a number I, II, III, IV derived from the TNM value grouped by prognosis; a higher number indicates a more advanced cancer and likely a worse outcome. In colon cancer, chemotherapy after surgery is usually only given if the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes(Stage III). The precursor films of the third layers for OX-OX-OX and OX-ED-OX formed by employing the half-diluted solution of SOX were heat-treated at 475C for 30 min. The rate ? [nmol L–1 min–1] of decoloration rate of 0.01 mol L–1 MB solution by the photoreaction with both thin films under UV and VIS irradiation [5]. The reaction rate ? of the decoloration reaction in an aqueous solution containing 0.01 mol L–1 of methylene blue under visible- and UV-light irradiation and under dark conditions [7]. The crystallite size of rutile was measured with a typical Scherrer-Hall method by employing the peaks assignable to (1 1 0), (1 0 1) and (2 1 1) of rutile. Calcites and aluminates are completely removed along with substantial quantity of silicates by citric acid leaching.
Also the level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP1) in the blood has been shown to correlate with the occurrence of colon cancer. The extent of the orientation was estimated in terms of Logtering orientation factor, f, from the XRD peak intensities (I). From this point of view, modification by thin film fabrication on various substrates, as opposed to manufacturing the entire body with the functional material, can generally save resources. The change in absorption of organic functional groups and mineral matter in coal samples were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).
A TIMP1 test can be helpful in an evaluation to assess the risk of having developed colorectal cancer. For calculating the orientation factor, the intensity data of non-oriented rutile was cited from the JCPDS card 21-1276.
The molecular precursor method (MPM) that was developed in our study is a wet chemical process for fabricating metal oxide and phosphate thin films [1-11].
Analysis indicated that oxygen containing species were decreased in the coal structure during acetic acid and citric acid (40%) procedure and buffered EDTA 3 hours leaching. Results indicated that EDTA acts as a pentadentate ligand in the complex, and the peroxo ligand linked to the Ti4+ ion has a side-on coordination structure.
This method requires heat-treatment to eliminate organic ligands from metal complexes involved in spin-coated precursor films and to fabricate thin films of crystallized metal oxides or phosphates. As the period of leaching with buffered EDTA increased from 1 hr to 3 hr, organic functional groups and mineral functional groups decreased its intensity. We emphasize the importance of heat-treatment by describing recent results obtained using the MPM, which show great potential for the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology tools and materials.This chapter focuses on the transparent thin film fabrication of both a visible (Vis)-light-responsive anatase thin film having enhanced UV sensitivity and an unprecedented Vis-responsive rutile thin film on glass substrates.
The results indicated that the described acid treatment procedures with citric acid have measurable effects on the coal structure. They may also be poisoned by touching the lead and then putting their fingers in their mouths. Lead is more harmful to children because their brains and nervous systems are still developing.
The XPS peaks of thin films were measured after bombarding Ar+ ion beam with 2 kV and 18 µA cm–2 for 3 min, in order to remove surface oxides. Solution-based thin film formationNovel thin films are an active area of research and are widely used in industry. Most of the thin films have thicknesses ranging from monolayer to nanometer levels up to several micrometers. Due to their relatively high hardness and inertness, ceramic coatings are of particular interest for the protection of substrate materials against corrosion, oxidation, and wear resistance [12-17]. The electronic and optical properties of thin films are used in many electronic and optical devices [18-20]. The wide range of materials, techniques for preparation, and range of applications make this an interdisciplinary field. Many different methods are used to fabricate thin films, including physical techniques and chemical processes. Physical vapor deposition (PVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are the two most common types of thin film formation methods. PVD methods such as thermal evaporation and sputtering involve atom by atom, molecule by molecule growth, or ion deposition on various materials in a vacuum system [21-23]. This technology can be used to manufacture thin films in a relatively cheap way compared with PVD. In a typical sol–gel protocol (Figure 1), the process starts with a solution consisting of metal compounds, such as a metal alkoxide, acetylacetonate, carboxylate, and soluble inorganic species as the source of cations in the target oxide. Additional reactants include water as the hydrolysis agent, alcohols as the solvent, and an acid or base as a catalyst.
Metal compounds undergo hydrolysis and polycondensation near room temperature, giving rise to a sol in which polymers or colloidal particles are dispersed without precipitation.
Further reaction connects the fine particles, solidifying the sol into a wet gel, which still contains water and solvents. Heating the gel to higher temperatures, where the organic constituents and residues are removed, gives rise to microstructures of inorganic–inorganic composites or hybrids, and glasses and ceramics. In Figure 2, the structural changes to metal oxides from the corresponding hydrolysed polymers by heat treatment of the as-deposited gel. The processes accompanied with dehydration can be categorized into two reactions; (A) the intrachain and (B) the interchain condensation.
Introduction Fossil fuel constitutes an imperative fraction of natural fuel resources available at present. Principle of MPMThe MPM is a wet process for the formation of thin films of various metal oxides, including titania or calcium phosphate compounds [1-11]. This method is based on the design of metal complexes in coating solutions with excellent stability, homogeneity, miscibility, coatability, etc., which have many practical advantages. This is because metal complex anions with high stability can be dissolved in volatile solvents by combining them with the appropriate alkylamines.
Furthermore, apprehensions over the effects of excessive burning of coal worldwide on the climate have restricted mankind from extracting its full potential.
Furthermore, the resultant solutions can form excellent precursor films through various coating procedures. The elimination of mineral matter from coal has been practiced since coal was first extracted from the earth and researches in chemical demineralization have been extensively conducted from decades. But the processes have not reached widespread commercialization due to the fact that the methods for removing mineral matter need to have low cost and be environmentally friendly. If not, it is impossible to obtain the resulting metal oxide thin films spread homogeneously on substrates by subsequent heat-treatment.
Methods of removing metal ions from ore mainly consist of physical, chemical and biological technologies.
The acceptance of coal for particular process in industry critically depends on its organic and inorganic constituents. The model structure of the amorphous precursor films formed on substrates can be examined by means of crystal engineering and based on the crystal structures.
Heat-treatment is necessary to fabricate the desired metal oxide films by eliminating the ligand in the metal complex and alkylamine as the counter cation. The organic part of coal contains sulphur, oxygen and nitrogen in functional groups in addition to carbon. It is important that densification during heat-treatment occurs only in the vertical direction of the coated substrate. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a widely used analytical technique for determining the different functional groups of a coal structure.
To the best of our knowledge, the crystallite size of the oxide particles in the resultant thin films fabricated by the MPM is generally smaller than those prepared by the conventional sol–gel method. This method is capable to reveal aromatic and aliphatic carbohydrogenated structures and hetroatomic functions (oxygenated), as well as mineral functional groups in coal. The smaller size of the crystallites obtained using the MPM may be related to the nucleation process of the crystallized metal oxides.
In the nucleation process in the sol–gel method, the polymer chains themselves are rearranged by heat-treatment (Figure 2). Signs of mental impairment may include: behavior problems low IQ poor grades at school problems with hearing learning difficulties(short and long term) growth delays A high, toxic dose of lead poisoning may result in emergency symptoms. The polymer chains should move to produce the core structure of the metal oxide, especially during interchain condensation.
The effect of carboxylic acid leaching on coal structure and the mechanism of mineral solubilization is discussed. These include: severe abdominal pain and cramping vomiting muscle weakness stumbling when walking seizures coma encephalopathy, which manifests as confusion, coma and seizures If someone has symptoms of severe lead exposure, call 911. Be sure to have the following information ready to tell the emergency operator: the persons age their weight the source of the poisoning the amount swallowed the time the poisoning occurred In nonemergency situations, call poison control to discuss lead poisoning symptoms.
When coupled with elimination of the organic ligands via heat-treatment, a vast number of crystallites can be rapidly formed. It is consequently feasible that the crystallite sizes of metal oxides fabricated using the MPM are smaller than those obtained using the sol–gel method.4. Thin film fabrication and basic properties of TiO2Titania is a popular industrial material that has been used as a white pigment for paints, cosmetics, and foodstuffs [35]. The photoreactivity of titania is known from observations of phenomenon such as the chalking of white paints containing titania after long-term outdoor exposure. The photoreactivity of titania was first observed by Honda and Fujishima in 1967, and reported in the literature in 1972 [36]. The microbial solubilization of some Indian bituminous coal carried out by Sharma and Wadhwa [2] also revealed the removal of minerals by mixed culture of bacterium. When the surface of a titania electrode (under an appropriate bias between a Pt counter electrode) was irradiated with light of energy shorter than its band gap, 3.0 eV, a photocurrent flowed from the Pt electrode to the titania electrode through the external circuit.
It is known that the micro organisms secrete acids during leaching and these lowers the pH of the solution and enhances the removal of minerals by reducing the cohesive force between minerals and coal matrix.
The oxidation reaction occurs at the titania electrode, and the reduction reaction occurs at the Pt electrode. This observation showed that water molecules could be split into oxygen and hydrogen using UV light in a sulfuric acid electrolyte. The energy-conversion process that occurs on the titania surface is termed the Honda–Fujishima effect. When titania particles absorb UV radiation, they produce pairs of electrons and holes inside the particles. The anatase phase appears during the heat-treatment of the precursor film at a temperature between 400 and 500°C and is transformed to the rutile one between 500 and 700°C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the films prepared by a conventional sol–gel process showed that the anatase phase appeared between 400 and 500°C and was not transformed to the rutile one, even when heat-treated at 900°C.
During heat-treatment of anatase, the atoms in the original tetragonal lattice can be rearranged into the rutile tetragonal lattice. The temperature difference between the phase transformation from anatase to rutile in the sol–gel method and the MPM will be discussed in the section O deficiency in rutile thin films.5.
However, there is little information on the enhancement of UV sensitivity of Vis-responsive anatase films.The implantation of various transition-metal ions such as V5+, Cr3+, and Cu2+ into the lattice of Ti4+ in anatase thin films was investigated by Anpo et al. The photoreactivities of chemically modified anatase thin films decreased under UV irradiation, although those anatase thin films modified with transition-metal ions can behave as photocatalysts under Vis irradiation. However, the photoreactivities of those films are lower under UV irradiation than those before modification in all cases. Thus, studies on the chemical formation of Vis-responsive anatase thin films with enhanced photoreactivities under UV irradiation are significant from the viewpoint of solar energy efficiency. Coal Sample An Indian bituminous coal, Korba (K) coal, was used in this study.


Figure 3.An ORTEP view of the precursor complex having the EDTA and peroxo ligands linked to the central Ti4+ ion. The bituminous coal was air-dried and ground to the particle size Table 1, and the ash content is 8.2 wt% on a dry basis. Results indicated that EDTA acts as a pentadentate ligand in the complex, and the peroxo ligand linked to the Ti4+ ion has a side-on coordination structure.The MPM forms transparent titania thin films using the ethanol solution obtained as a coating solution (SED) by the reaction of alkylamine with a titanium complex of EDTA as the ligand [1, 2, 4-9]. Activated charcoal can be used to bind the lead in the gastrointestinal tract and substances which encourage elimination via defecation(cathartics) may also be used.
According to single-crystal structural analysis, this Ti complex contains Ti–N bonds (Figure 3). A chemical called EDTA may also be used but it can be hard to reverse the effects of chronic exposure to lead.
If the Ti–N bonds in this complex can be preserved in the anatase thin film obtained by heat-treatment after coating, a partially nitrided anatase film can be directly formed.
However, XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed that the precursor film formed on a glass substrate using the ethanol solution is transformed into a nitrogen-free anatase thin film through heat-treatment for 30 min in air at a temperature of 450C or higher. Based on these results, the heat-treatment of molecular precursor films spin-coated with SED on ITO glass substrates was examined in an Ar gas flow of 0.1 L min?1 at 500C for 30 min. The XRD pattern indicated that the spin-coated precursor film crystallized to anatase through heat-treatment at a temperature of 500C or higher under atmospheric conditions. Some tips include: Avoid or throw away painted toys and canned goods from foreign countries. Thus, the anatase form was created even if oxygen was not supplied externally to remove organic residues in the metal complex. Furthermore, the chemical bond toward the Ti4+ ion from both oxygen and nitrogen atoms can be observed in the XPS spectra of the resultant thin films.
Demineralization The Korba bituminous coal was demineralized using different carboxylic acids like citric acid and acetic acid.
Importantly, the binding energy of N 1s was 396.7 eV, and the existing nitrogen was only in the oxygen-substituted form, not in the chemisorbed form [73, 74]. 10 g of coal was mixed with 50 ml of citric acid (40%— 1 hr and 2 hr—KC1 and KC2) and acetic acid (2N-KA) individually in a 500 ml Teflon beaker.
Thus, the heat-treatment of the precursor films in an Ar gas flow was effective in preserving nitrogen atoms in the complex. However, the photoreactivity of the thin film was not observed after Vis irradiation with a weak fluorescent lamp. The mixture was kept for 24 hr and after leaching; the treated coal sample was separated from the respective organic acid solution by filtration using a poly-propylene funnel and naturally dried at room temperature.
The coal resulting samples were washed repeatedly with double distilled water to remove the acid content, dried in an oven at 70˚C and allowed to cool slowly in a dessicator.
The sample was treated with buffered EDTA with acetic acid for a period of 1, 2, and 3 hours (KAE1, KAE2 and KAE3), filtered and dried as discussed above (3 - 5). The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) data of both films show even surfaces without cracks or pinholes. These surfaces were too smooth to detect the roughness by measuring with a stylus profilometer, whose detective limit is ca. The depth profile for OX–ED–OX revealed that nitrogen and carbon were locally distributed in the deep portion corresponding to the second layer. This confirmed that significant amounts of carbon and nitrogen atoms were still present in the second layer, and the substitutional nitrogen atoms were locally distributed in the deep portion corresponding to the second layer. Most nitrogen atoms did not diffuse to other layers, although the amounts of nitrogen and carbon atoms in the other layers could not be neglected.
Net multiplication part is corresponding to the second layer formed by applying the solution SED.The photoreactivities of the films were tested using the decolorizing reaction of methylene blue (MB) aqueous solution [5-8, 75-77].
Spectral Analysis of the Coal Sample The identification of the most prominent bands of FTIR spectra of both bituminous coal and its chemical leached products are shown in Table 1. The decoloration rate of 0.01 mol L–1 MB solution by the photoreaction with both multilayered thin films under UV or Vis irradiation are summarized in Table 1. These bands became more evident in the FTIR spectra of solid residues of leached coal. It is important that the photoreactivities of the Vis-responsive films are also extremely high under UV irradiation.The Vis-responsive property of the OX–ED–OX film was mainly due to the colored materials that were formed spontaneously during heat-treatment by chemical reactions between the reductant derived from the precursor complex containing OX in the upper layer and the organic residues derived from EDTA ligands in the lower one. Thus, the thermal reactions between the residues derived from the ligand of the precursor complex can afford novel functions such as the Vis-responsive nature of the resultant thin films through heat-treatment of the thin films fabricated by the MPM.
This is present even after leaching, but with decreased intensity. In Figure 1 all the absorp- Table 1. FTIR band assignment of virgin and leached coal samples. Formation of O-deficient anatase thin filmTo clarify the factors for designing an anatase thin film with a higher photoreactivity under UV irradiation, the relationship between the photoreactivity and O deficiency of anatase thin films fabricated with the heat-treated precursor films under regulated conditions was examined. Thin films were formed by heat-treating precursor films spin-coated onto FTO glass substrates with SED and SSG (sol–gel solution) under Ar or air. The spin-coating method at ambient temperature was used for forming precursor films using a double-step method. The precursor films were pre-heated in a drying oven at 70 °C for 10 min and then heat-treated at 500°C for 30 min in a 0.1 L min–1 Ar gas flow.
Thin films, ED and SG, were formed by applying the precursor solutions SED and SSG, respectively, before annealing in air. An SSG of 0.5 mmol g–1 was stirred for 3 days at ambient temperature to fabricate an anatase film of thickness 100 nm. The post-annealing treatment for the ED, EDair, and SG thin films was carried out in air at 500C for 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min.
The number in the notation used for post-annealed films indicates the annealing time (min).
Each value was calculated as the difference between the decoloration rate under UV-light irradiation and the corresponding value measured for each thin film in the dark.
Calculated standard deviations are presented in parentheses.It is generally accepted that the main factors to consider when designing enhanced photoreactivity of anatase are (1) higher crystallinity, (2) larger surface area, and (3) decreased impurities.
FTIR spectra of virgin and leached coal samples.
KX-Virgin bituminous coal, KA-Acetic acid leached coal, KC-Citric acid leached coal, KAE-Buffered EDTA leached coal. Among the crystallite sizes of the three anatase thin films, ED, EDair and SG, the SG thin film had the largest value and the ED film had the smallest (Table 3). These values for the anatase crystallites in EDair and SG thin films were not affected by post-annealing treatment in air. The thin film ED-PA15 (whose crystallite size was the smallest) showed the highest photoreactivity in the decoloration of an MB aqueous solution among the various thin films formed in this study.
The specific surface areas of the thin films were not measured quantitatively because of the difficulties involved.
However, the degrees of adsorption of MB molecules in aqueous solution were nearly equal among the thin films, including those formed by the sol–gel method. Therefore, the differences in the photoreactivity among these thin films should be due to other factors than the specific surface area. The XPS spectra suggested that the thin films SG and SG-PAn have higher purities than the other thin films. The refractive indices of the thin films EDair and SG increased gradually, depending on the post-annealing time. On the other hand, the refractive index of the ED thin film decreased with post-annealing treatment time up to 15 min and then increased with further annealing. The decrease in permittivity of the thin film arose from the lower charge density derived from the O deficiency because the structure of the anatase lattice is rigid.
Thus, the O deficiency formed by this method was one of the most important factors for fabricating highly UV-sensitive anatase. As a result of heat-treating the precursor complex in an Ar gas flow, neighboring complexes reacted with each other.
In this process, several O atoms linked to one Ti ion could be covalently bonded by other Ti ions, and the anatase lattice was gradually created. By eliminating large amounts of C, H, and N atoms with O atoms, oxide ion sites of the anatase lattice were partially occupied by a rather stable nitride ion derived from the coordinated N atom originally belonging to the ligand. As a result, the total negative charge of the N-substituted anatase in the ED thin film is ca. The substitutional N atoms could be removed from the anatase lattice by post-annealing the ED thin film. Consequently, the total negative charge of the ED-PA15 thin film, whose photoreactivity is the highest, decreased to ca.
Longer annealing treatment replenished oxide ions in the anatase thin films from their surfaces and the photoreactivity decreased (Figure 8) [6].
Thus, it was elucidated that O deficiency is an important factor to consider when designing anatase photoreactivity.
These bands arise due to aromatic-CH, aliphatic-CH and C=C aromatic groups respectively. Anatase is important for photocatalysis in pollutant degradation and in the development of photofunctional materials such as films with hydrophilic surfaces under UV-light irradiation. The intensity of the bands directly gives the percentage of carbon content in the sample.
The poor photoreactivity and photosensitivity of rutile is generally believed to be due to its crystal structure. In very low rank coals the intensity of 2920 cm−1 is found to be very small due to the fact that the proportion of the aliphatic –CH hydrogen is substituted by hydroxyl groups. Using this knowledge and the results of previous experiments on anatase responses to Vis light, this section describes an attempt to achieve direct fabrication of O-deficient rutile thin films with high photoreactivity using a MPM. The first Vis-light-responsive thin film created from O-deficient rutile is discussed here. This material works without application of an electric potential, due to its unprecedentedly high photosensitivity under UV-light irradiation. The present findings should facilitate widespread practical use of rutile in light-related applications. The thin films were formed by heat-treating the precursor films after spin-coating onto a quartz glass substrate. The transparent precursor films formed by spin-coating the solutions and pre-heating in a drying oven at 70 °C for 10 min were heat-treated at 700 °C for 30 min in a furnace made from a quartz tube with an Ar gas flow rate of 0.1 L min–1.
There is a small absorption in the spectrum of samples leached with organic acids especially citric acid and acetic acid. Such a result is in conformity with the observations of Supaluknari et al. The film thickness was 100 nm in both cases.Each structure was characterized using XRD, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
The selectivity was due to the O-vacant sites in the oxide thin films formed at different levels due to the differences between the amounts of oxygen in the two precursors. In this case, the oxygen source required to structure titania was available only in the precursor films when these thin films were fabricated.
They assigned the band in case of low temperature carbons in low rank coals and chars which have been formed at relatively low temperature, to aromatic ring stretch of small, discrete aromatic entities. Therefore, crystallization into rutile, which has many O-vacant sites, and the accompanying rapid elimination of organic residues from the R precursor film, occurred because of the heat-treatment.In contrast, the amount of oxygen available to Ti4+ in titanoxane polymers, though significant, was insufficient to develop stoichiometric TiO2 from A.
They also suggested that the oxygen containing structure may or may not be involved in the formation of 1600 cm-1 band.
The oxygen defects in an anatase lattice generally lower the temperature of the phase transformation from anatase to rutile [84, 85]. Thus, selective formation occurred according to the differing degrees of O deficiency.The photoreactivities of the thin films were evaluated by the decoloration rates of MB solutions, which served as a model for organic pollutants in water. The results measured under Vis- and UV-light irradiation are summarized in Table 4, along with those measured under dark conditions (reference values). The data show the effects of adsorption on the samples, vessels, and self-decoloration of MB under each condition. Moreover, the photoreactivity of R was extremely high under UV irradiation and higher than the photoreactivity of A.
This is in good agreement with the elemental analysis carried out by EDS (Table 1).
The weak broad bands observed at 1375 cm−1 can be assigned to stretching modes of methylene and methyl groups present in the samples [7,8].
This is evident from the fact that 1030 cm−1 band is prominent in the spectrum. This is an indication that even though mineral content is decreased with leaching it fails to remove silicates and aluminates totally from the sample.
This might be due to the inherent nature of minerals in the coal matrix. Further, presence of clay minerals with medium carbon content reveals they are medium rank coals.
The silicate and kaolinite bands showed a systematic decrease with increase in leaching time with buffered EDTA treatment. Comparing the spectral graph it is found that Acetic acid treatment, Citric acid (1 hr) and buffered EDTA (3 hrs) are effective in this region. Characterization of the Demineralized Coal Figure 3 shows the sulphur and mineral content in Indian bituminous coal and its demineralized products.
When the coal is leached with acetic acid, citric acid and buffered EDTA individually, the sulphur content was nil.
Other elements such as calcites are removed completely where as silicates and aluminates are reduced considerably. When alumina cation are present in the coal and citric acid is fully dissociated in aqueous solution, a complexation reaction may take place. Kunjomana, “Chemical Leaching of an Indian Bituminous Coal and Characterization of the Products by Vibrational Spectroscopic Techniques,” International Journal of Minerals Materials and Metallurgy, Vol. Kunjomana, “Chemical Solubilization of Coal Using HF and Characterization of Products by FTIR, FT Raman, SEM and Elemental Analysis,” Mineral Material Characterization and Engineering, Vol.
Manoj, “Synthesis and Characterization of Carbon Nanosphere from Hydrocarbon Soot,” International Journal of Electrochemical Sciences, Vol.
Kunjomana, “Study of Stacking Structure of Amorphous Carbon by X-Ray Diffraction Technique,” International Journal of Electrochemical Sciences, Vol. Pirayehgar, “Use of Some Isolated Fungi in Biological Leaching of Aluminum from Low Grade Bauxite,” African Journal of biotechnology, Vol.



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