Ankle pain is often caused by a fracture or sprain, and is often accompanied by swelling and bruising. Ankle pain is most commonly caused by an ankle sprain, but there can be numerous other causes for the pain. But without proper diagnosis and treatment, the original injury may not heal properly, making the ankle more susceptible to future injuries. If you are experiencing ankle pain, you should seek medical attention to get a proper diagnosis. Your doctor will perform a physical exam, paying close attention to your ankles, and may ask you questions about your activities and your medical history. Do not hold back when describing symptoms, as this can prevent the doctor from diagnosing you correctly.
The type of treatment you receive for your ankle pain will be determined by the cause of the injury and the severity of the pain.
Your doctor may also suggest using NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) such as ibuprofen, which can be bought over-the-counter.
If the pain is more severe, your doctor may inject your joint with an anesthetic or cortisone and advise you to undergo physical therapy.  At times surgical intervention may be necessary if all conservative measures have been exhausted. The best way to prevent ankle pain is to be aware of your surroundings, loosen up your muscles and joints before exercise, and see a doctor immediately if you are injured, even if the injury is mild. Foot pain can sometimes be a sign of an underlying condition that requires medical attention.
The lupus rash is a skin condition associated with the presence of the autoimmune disease called Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE).
Lupus is an autoimmune inflammatory disease which means that a patient with the illness has antibodies that are faulty and attack the patient’s own tissue because they mistakenly identify these as foreign and unfamiliar. The lupus rashes are primarily treated through the topical application of skin creams such as corticosteroids and antimalarial drugs like hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine. SLE patients with rashes should always put on sunscreen with high SPF values before getting exposed to sunlight.
Quite often there are no Deep Vein Thrombosis symptoms at the onset of the condition, although where they do appear, they may develop rapidly. Occasionally some of the surface veins become more visible through the skin, and there may also be some pain on flexing the foot upwards.
There can be many causes of a painful or swollen leg, which means that it can be difficult for a doctor to successfully perform a first time DVT diagnosis. DVTs are usually detected by ultrasound, which is capable of detecting even the smallest blood clots.
If the results of an Ultrasound and D-dimer test cannot confirm a diagnosis of DVT, a venogram might be used.
DVTs themselves are not dangerous, but they are associated with complications which can become life threatening, or prove fatal.
More rarely, a part of the clot may also lodge in other organs including the brain, where it can lead to a stroke.
Two thirds of people diagnosed with a DVT require initial treatment at a hospital, or possibly an anticoagulation clinic. Painkillers and heat applied to the area may also be advised for relief of symptoms of a DVT, and compression stockings are often worn to cover the length of the whole leg to give support to the veins and reduce swelling.
As well as wearing compression stockings, you may be advised to raise your leg while you are resting, as this helps to reduce the pressure in the veins of the leg, and also helps tp prevent blood and fluid from gathering in the leg. Major surgical operations are known to be a risk for a DVT – particularly operations to the hip, lower abdomen, and leg. After a DVT has been diagnosed, persistent symptoms may occur in the affected part of the leg.
Tonsillitis is the inflammation of tonsils, due to infection by bacteria or viruses, often accompanied by sore throat with fever.
Below are the photographs showing unilateral and bilateral tonsillitis, tonsillitis is divided into 1. Signs and Symptoms: patient will come to you with complains of fever, sore throat, difficulty in eating and swallowing, head ache, muscle pain and it is characterized by signs of red, swollen tonsils which may have a white patches or coatings. Treatment : includes antibiotics mostly azithromycin 500 mg in adults taken once a day for 3 days, accompanied by hot water gargles + use of mouthwash and symptomatic relief from pain and fever.
Important: Do not allow children to take Aspirin because Reye Syndrome may occur when tonsillitis is due to viral infection. If you are recurrently suffering from tonsillitis, more than 4 episodes per year, you should go for tonsillectomy surgery.


If your infection is caused by a bacterium then an antibiotic for seven days may be prescribed. If you already know your diagnosis, you may search for the health topic alphabetically here.
Disclaimer: This health video may contain graphic material and viewer discretion is advised. It is composed of three bones—the tibia, fibula, and talus—and is surrounded by a network of ligaments and tendons.
Some ankle pain requires immediate attention, so it is important to seek treatment from your doctor when the pain is accompanied by additional symptoms such as swelling, bruising, or an inability to walk. All ankle injuries that cause pain—even mild pain—should be looked at by a foot specialist. In most cases, there has been an injury to the bones, ligaments, or tendons within the ankle.
Some people do not report mild ankle injuries, and instead try to reduce symptoms such as swelling and redness on their own.
Your doctor may order additional imaging tests, such as an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) or CT scan. Simple stretches and exercises can make your ligaments, tendons, joints, muscles, and bones less susceptible to damage.
Simple ankle sprains are the most common cause of ankle pain, and they can occur at any age, at any time.
The metatarsals are the long bones located in our feet, between the tarsal (ankle) bones and the phalanges (toes). Always seek the advice of a podiatrist, physician or other qualified health care professional for diagnosis and answers to your medical questions. As an autoimmune disease, SLE does not usually present itself with a predictable set of symptoms in each of the patients suffering from it, but its distinctive rash remains as a consistent sign in most SLE patients. The reactions that the antibodies make start up an inflammatory response, causing swelling and tissue damage to organs as well as to the skin. It is filled with synovial fluid which is the lubricating fluid that is usually found inside the knee joint. The problem may only become apparent when a crisis develops into a medical emergency, and the blood clot reaches the lungs, where it becomes what is known as a pulmonary embolism. If you have some of the DVT risk factors listed above, and your doctor suspects that you may have a DVT, they will usually recommend that you have some urgent tests performed, which will normally be carried out in a hospital, or possibly a specialist anti-coagulation clinic. If a doctor suspects a DVT he or she will usually request an urgent ultrasound test, and a follow-up blood test. This is a more detailed test that involves a contrast dye being injected into the vein in your leg. The most common serious complication is a pulmonary embolism, which occurs in approximately 30% of cases of DVT. The aim of the DVT treatment is to dissolve the blood clot and prevent further clots from forming. DVT prophylaxis is always preferable than having to deal with consequences of developing the condition.
You may be given an anticoagulant such as a heparin injection just before having an operation to help prevent a DVT. In order to minimise the risk of further complications you may be advised to wear a compression stocking for many months or even years. You are more likely to develop a nail-fold infection if your hands are in water for long periods, particularly with detergents.
For example, if you use gloves for long periods, or use artificial nails, it can cause a moist, airless condition around your fingernails. Sometimes pus from a bacterial infection has to be drained by a very small cut if it collects next to the nail.
Treatment is usually needed for 3-6 months before the infection goes completely and a new healthy nail fold has formed. In some cases, aspiration of synovial fluid (the fluid in the joint space) may be necessary for analysis. The lupus rash appears on areas of the skin which receives the most exposure to sunlight, such as on the face. The rash in SLE patients is a result of the inflammatory process in combination with an abnormally increased sensitivity to the heat of the sun. It most commonly occurs if there is an underlying problem with your knee such as osteoarthritis.


Our blood needs to be able to clot in order to provide the necessary protection for the body against severe loss of blood from an injury to a vein or an artery. This presents an increased risk of a solid clot forming, which can cause a partial or complete blockage in the vein. There is a special blood test known as the D-dimer test, which is capable of detecting fragments of a blood clot that have broken up, and present within the blood stream. An X-ray is then used to see whether the dye is flowing through your vein, or if it is blocked by a blood clot. This is where a part of the blood clot in the leg vein breaks off and travels through the blood stream to the lung, where it becomes lodged, causing chest pain and severe breathing difficulties. The primary DVT therapy is with anticoagulant medicines such as Heparin or Warfarin which thin the blood, allowing it to flow more freely.
This is usually necessary only in the case of a severe form of DVT called phlegmasia cerulea dolens, which does not respond to the non-surgical treatments described above. An inflatable sleeve connected to a pump to compress the legs during a long operation may also be used. Sometimes, a course of antifungal tablets or antifungal nail paint is needed for 6-12 months to clear the infection, particularly if the infection spreads to your nail in addition to your nail fold. Compression involves wrapping the ankle with an elastic bandage to provide support, and elevation helps to minimize bruising and swelling.
It is also known as a “butterfly rash” for the shape it assumes as it is spread horizontally across the patient’s cheeks and nose. However, blood can sometimes form clots whilst inside a blood vessel, which is the definition of a Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT).
Inactivity and bed rest is discouraged and patients are encouraged to move around as much as possible. Phlegmasia cerulea dolens, if not adequately treated, can cause gangrene, which is when the tissues do not receive sufficient oxygen, and subsequently die. It is also common practice to get you up and walking as soon as possible after an operation. Rarely, a Baker's cyst can rupture (split open) and cause similar symptoms to a deep vein thrombosis. Regular blood tests are performed monitor the effectiveness of the treatment and to reduce the risk of a haemorrhage. Gangrene is a very serious condition that may result in the amputation of the affected limb. However, there are various treatments that may help if you do have symptoms associated with it. This fluid acts as a lubricant within your knee joint and helps to cushion it during movement. Bursae are normally found around joints and in places where ligaments and tendons pass over bones. The menisci cartilage sit on top of, and are in addition to, the usual thin layer of cartilage which covers the top of the tibia (one of the bones of the lower leg). They act as shock absorbers to absorb the impact of the upper leg on the lower leg and also help to improve smooth movement and stability of the knee. In a secondary Baker's cyst, the underlying problem within the knee joint causes too much synovial fluid to be produced within the joint. The joint capsule bulges out into the back of the knee, forming the Baker's cyst that is filled with synovial fluid. You are more likely to develop a Baker's cyst if you have an underlying problem with your knee.
This can include various different types of arthritis, such as osteoarthritis (most common), rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and gout.
Baker's cysts may also develop if you have had a tear to the meniscus or to one of the ligaments within the knee, or if you have had an infection within the knee joint.
Cortisone (steroid) injection - this is sometimes used following fluid drainage, to reduce the pain and inflammation caused by the cyst.



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