Patients report difficulty putting on socks and shoes, and may have discomfort from the stretched skin due to the swelling. Pregnancy- the large uterus acts as a mechanical obstruction, partly blocking the main leg veins where they join the abdominal veins. Heart failure results in fluid accumulation (by gravity) when the heart can no longer effectively pump fluids around the body.
Liver failure produces jaundice, but also causes fluid accumulation in body cavities (such as the abdomen). With ankle swelling, any signs of chest pain or sudden shortness of breath could be serious, and could indicate a pulmonary embolism. Swollen ankles, feet and legs, referred to medically as edema, occur when fluid is retained in the spaces between body cells. Initially, the feet, ankles and legs will appear swollen as the day progresses, but after a period of time, the swelling will set in first thing in the morning and continue to worsen throughout the day. Apply a cold pack to control the swelling, such as crushed ice in a plastic bag, a cold gel pack, or a bag of frozen peas or green beans. To soothe tendinitis, sprains, strains, and general foot aches, alternate hot and cold vinegar wraps.
Lecithin seeds are another effective home remedy for the treatment of swelling of feet during pregnancy. Sleeping or resting in one direction of your body (side turn) and keeping your legs raised using soft cushion reduces swelling of feet. It is also found that Vitamin E-rich food is good for patients suffering from swelling of feet during pregnancy. Sit on the carpet and stretch your leg in the front, rotate your leg 10-15 times in a clockwise direction and then in the same way rotate in the anti-clock wise direction for 10-15 times. Pain during walking (claudication) – venous claudication may be difficult to differentiate from arterial claudication by the history on itself. Ulcers – venous ulcers that are the hallmark of chronic venous insufficiency are often found in the peri-malleolar area. The clinical findings in patients with chronic venous insufficiency may be classified according to the CEAP classification or to the venous clinical severity score.

Complicated varicose veins – pain, superficial thrombophlebitis, hematoma, bleeding (that can be severe secondary to venous hypertension.
Complex varicose disease – this pattern is actually a diffuse combination of symptoms such as pain, edema and skin changes. Venous hypertension syndrome – leg pain when standing and leg pain when the leg is dangled. Leg swelling – This is a common syndrome in elderly persons that do not move much (so the calf muscle pump is not very active).
Complex multisystem venous disease – a combination of symptoms is present, however as opposed to complex varicose disease, it is more severe. As in many other vascular conditions, venous insufficiency is diagnosed by combining the history, physical examination and proper imaging studies. The most important component of conservative treatment of venous insufficiency is compression (stockings). Compression has been found effective in healing ulcers in a 2009 Cochrane database review, and it is probably more important than the type of dressing that is applied beneath the compression. Pharmacological treatment has but a small role in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency.
Preventing saphenous venous reflux has been cited as an important factor in ulcer healing and recurrence prevention. Treatment of varicose veins with laser ablation and by radiofrequency ablation is described elsewhere as is treatment of perforator veins with subfacial endoscopic perforator surgery (SEPS).
Several other interventional treatment options have been shown to improve ulcer healing and reduce symptoms of venous insufficiency including pain and swelling.
A feature often seen is “pitting oedema” – a finger pressed firmly into the swollen flesh for 10-20 seconds will leave a clear pit, which may take 10 minutes or more to smooth out again.
The overall increase in fluid, plus the pressure caused by a swollen belly, together result in swollen ankles. As this builds up, it will show first in areas most affected by gravity, such as the feet and ankles. Signs of underlying problems will provide a working diagnosis of the cause, and special tests will confirm this.

In some cases, especially when the swelling has been present for many years, complete reversal is not possible.
But, most importantly, cut down on processed foods and fast foods, all of which are overflowing with salt.
While edema typically affects the feet, ankles and lower legs, it can also impact any area of the body, causing systemic symptoms.
Long-term edema causes pitting: When you press on the swollen area for a few seconds, you will notice an indentation in that area.
Place an ice pack, or ice in a plastic bag wrapped in a clean dish towel on the raised ankle.
Some of the Vitamin E-rich food is spinach, almond oil, sweet potato, sunflower seeds, and wheat germs.
These include hyperpigmentation, stasis dermatitis, lipodermatosclerosis (which is subcutaneous fibrous tissue), atrophie blanche (hypopigmented scarring denoting previous ulcer that typically has patechial lesions in it), corona phlebectatica, thickening and induration. This is due to fluid being displaced by the fingertip, and shows how waterlogged the tissues are.
Those with congenital lymph drainage problems never improve, and the ankles and even lower legs may become permanently enlarged, with firm, rubbery tissues. Sometimes iliac vein obstruction can be found and fixed, however bilateral disease should be sought. The delay in restoring the skin to normal demonstrates the sluggish fluid movement in the tissues. The patient’s condition must be re-evaluated, with a view to changing to another form of treatment. This must only be done under medical supervision, because it may have serious consequences, such as in the case of depression or heart failure.

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