Bee stings are either exasperatingly painful or deadly – depending on whether the victim is allergic to the venom. Localized – a localized reaction results in swelling that normally spreads further than the sting site. Normally severe reactions that are allergic in nature aren’t common, but when they do happen they can cause shock, unconsciousness and cardiac arrest in approximately 10 minutes.
Severe allergic sting reactions should be treated with epinephrine or adrenaline, either administrated by a medical professional or self-injected.
Calamine lotion with an analgesic or Caladryl can calm the pain and itching of a bee sting within approximately 45 minutes. Maximum strength hydrocortisone cream reduces the symptoms in about an hour and should be used every 3 or 4 hours. This website is for informational purposes only and Is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.
Boston Children’s expert urology team is dedicated to educating families about hydronephrosis and providing the best care for your child. Mild: Kidney function will be only slightly affected and, typically, the condition resolves itself. In cases where hydronephrosis is diagnosed before the baby is born, the majority of children have no symptoms. Hydronephrosis is a relatively common congenital condition (meaning a child is born with it), with some estimates showing it affects about 1 in 100 babies. Prenatal hydronephrosis is often spotted on routine prenatal ultrasounds or at our Advanced Fetal Care Center and is by far the most common urinary tract abnormality we deal with. Postnatal hydronephrosis is often diagnosed after a child experiences symptoms, such as pain or blood in the urine (hematuria). There are no known risk factors, except that boys are four-to-five times more likely to be born with hydronephrosis than girls are. Neither hydronephrosis nor its underlying causes have been linked to anything parents did during pregnancy.
If your infant has had multiple urinary tract infections (UTIs) with (or without) a fever, it could indicate some kind of obstruction or reflux in the urinary system. Older children may have more recognizable symptoms of UTIs, including a strong urge to urinate, painful urination or cloudy urine. The most common complication of hydronephrosis is UTI—specifically, kidney infection (pyelonephritis) caused by bacteria spreading from the bladder. Ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction: A blockage at the point where the kidney joins the ureter (the thin tube that carries urine to the bladder). Ureterovesical junction (UVJ) obstruction: A blockage at the point where the ureter joins the bladder.
Posterior urethral valves (PUV): A congenital condition, found only in boys, in which there are abnormal flaps of tissue in the urethra, causing bladder obstruction.
Ureterocele: A bulge in the ureter that can obstruct part of the kidney and sometimes the bladder. A: In most cases where a diagnosis of hydronephrosis is made in an unborn baby, no treatment is needed in pregnancy. In either case, try gargling with salt water, drinking plenty of cold liquids and using a humidifier to keep the throat moist. If you do decide to undergo tonsillectomy surgery, check in with Tonsillectomy Recovery Resources for tips, advice and support. Osteoarthritis is a condition involving the breakdown of the protective cartilage covering the ends of the bones, where two bones meet to form a joint. Any of the three main parts of the knee (the medial compartment, the lateral compartment, and the patello-femoral joint) can be affected by knee osteoarthritis.
Knee Osteoarthritis may arise when there has been no previous story of injury or damage to the knee. Deterioration of articular cartilage is the main problem associated with knee osteoarthritis. Your surgeon will take a complete medical and physical history, and will usually arrange for x-rays of your knee which will show any degenerative changes to your knee joint. As can be seen from these images, the cartilage is worn away and the space between the joint has narrowed. Knee osteoarthritis pain is usually worse following activity, especially overuse of the affected knee.
If you have osteoarthritis of the knee you may well have undertaken some form of treatment before coming to see a knee surgeon. Cortisone injections into the knee joint can provide some relief from pain and inflammation, but this is not a long term solution.
Often but not proven, some people gain relief from various naturopathic assistance, including magnets, acupuncture or glucosamine. While exercise does not fundamentally change the arthritis in the knee, it has been shown to greatly assist with stability.
A simple elastic knee support may be beneficial in offering relief from the symptoms of osteoarthritis. Getting diagnosed and treated while knee osteoarthritis is still in the early stages is most beneficial.


A high tibial osteotomy could be an option if the osteoarthritis and pain is caused by a misalignment of the knee joint such as being bow-legged or knock kneed. Eventually the decision might be made between yourself and your surgeon, that the pain has reached the point where the only option is knee arthroplasty. The unicompartmental knee replaces the worn half of the knee joint with a prosthesis, however it relies on the other half of the knee being in good condition.
Treatment of knee osteoarthritis is usually a progression from simple non-surgical intervention to major surgical intervention. The patient information sheets are intended to provide general information only and are not a substitute for medical advice about your particular condition. Pain during walking (claudication) – venous claudication may be difficult to differentiate from arterial claudication by the history on itself. Ulcers – venous ulcers that are the hallmark of chronic venous insufficiency are often found in the peri-malleolar area. The clinical findings in patients with chronic venous insufficiency may be classified according to the CEAP classification or to the venous clinical severity score. Complicated varicose veins – pain, superficial thrombophlebitis, hematoma, bleeding (that can be severe secondary to venous hypertension.
Complex varicose disease – this pattern is actually a diffuse combination of symptoms such as pain, edema and skin changes.
Venous hypertension syndrome – leg pain when standing and leg pain when the leg is dangled. Leg swelling – This is a common syndrome in elderly persons that do not move much (so the calf muscle pump is not very active). Complex multisystem venous disease – a combination of symptoms is present, however as opposed to complex varicose disease, it is more severe.
As in many other vascular conditions, venous insufficiency is diagnosed by combining the history, physical examination and proper imaging studies. The most important component of conservative treatment of venous insufficiency is compression (stockings). Compression has been found effective in healing ulcers in a 2009 Cochrane database review, and it is probably more important than the type of dressing that is applied beneath the compression.
Pharmacological treatment has but a small role in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. Preventing saphenous venous reflux has been cited as an important factor in ulcer healing and recurrence prevention. Treatment of varicose veins with laser ablation and by radiofrequency ablation is described elsewhere as is treatment of perforator veins with subfacial endoscopic perforator surgery (SEPS). Several other interventional treatment options have been shown to improve ulcer healing and reduce symptoms of venous insufficiency including pain and swelling. The symptoms of measles rash do not appear immediately and it takes 1-2 weeks for showing the symptoms. First stage : There will not be any symptoms on the body because it is the period when the virus incubates in your body. Second stage : Measles rash begins to appear along with moderate fever, cough and runny nose.
Third stage : The symptoms are severe and there will be increased rash with red raised spots. Final stage : The measles rash begins to decline slowly from the face till your feet and it is on this stage the person spreads the rash to others. If your child has not given vaccination for measles, you can take the injection once your child got exposed to measles virus. How far the kidney is stretched, and how much the urinary flow is affected, will tell us about the nature of your child’s condition. In short, there is nothing you could have done to cause or prevent your child’s condition. However, UTIs can be difficult to spot in infants: In many cases, multiple, unexplained fevers are the only sign. If your child tends to get repeat UTIs, you may want to have him evaluated for possible urinary tract obstruction. Older children may also have no symptoms if they have mild or moderate hydronephrosis, and the condition may disappear on its own. Doctors can look for signs of hydronephrosis and other conditions in routine ultrasounds during your pregnancy.
However, fetal tissue is very elastic—which means a swelling in the kidney may look worse on ultrasound than the condition really is.
Hydronephrosis doesn’t run in families and has never been linked to anything the parents did during pregnancy. If your child needs an operation, your doctor will work with you to decide on the best surgical approach based on your child’s age and the underlying cause of her condition.
While many people naturally have larger tonsils, an inflammation or infection can cause swelling of the tissues. Anti inflamatories are also commonly recommended for these type of inflammations associated with enlarged tonsils. It is believed to be transmitted by cat scratches and bites, or exposure to cat saliva. Causes Cat scratch disease is caused by Bartonella henselae.


Osteoarthritis can also be known as degenerative or secondary arthritis, as the changes are more likely to occur when there has been previous injury.
One or more parts of the knee may be affected at any one time, but the most common site for knee arthritis affecting a single compartment is in the medial (inner) compartment.
Sometimes it gradually comes on after an initial injury to the articular cartilage of the knee, and it is well known that having a torn cartilage increases the risk of developing knee osteoarthritis later in life.
An overview of knee osteoarthritis will help you understand symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. X-rays are very helpful, allowing the doctor to see evidence of joint space narrowing and rule out other causes of knee pain. Water based exercises are excellent as they offer support and allow the muscles of the legs to be strengthened.
There are also wedges or innersoles for footwear which can assist in the redistribution of weight throughout the knee joint. This will improve some of the mechanical symptoms arising from the knee, give some temporary relief by washing out the irritating debris within the knee, and define the exact problem with a view to later major surgery.
This type of surgery involves changing the alignment of the leg so that the weight load is transferred to the side of the knee that is not worn out.
Statistically half knees are likely to fail significantly earlier than total knee replacements but it is a smaller operation and the knee maintains a better bend. When the osteoarthritis is severe and causing progressive deformity, instability, severe pain or continued catching, surgery may be a realistic option. These include hyperpigmentation, stasis dermatitis, lipodermatosclerosis (which is subcutaneous fibrous tissue), atrophie blanche (hypopigmented scarring denoting previous ulcer that typically has patechial lesions in it), corona phlebectatica, thickening and induration.
It would cause runny nose and rashes all through the skin apart from producing other symptoms. Some of the signs of measles are fever, sore throat, dry cough, repeated rash marked by scaly blotches and inflammation of eyes.
People who travel frequently and with vitamin A deficiency have increased chance for getting this rash. The obstruction, or blockage, can occur at any point in the urinary system, from the kidney down to the urethra. That is why your doctor will keep a close eye on the size of the fetus and the kidneys, as well as the level of amniotic fluid, throughout your pregnancy. In very rare cases, the condition will impair the flow of fetal urine to the point that there will be too little amniotic fluid (oligohydramnios). People suffering from recurrent tonsil problems like sleep apnea, tonsils stones, and strep throat, may need to have their tonsils removed. Continued mechanical stress, such as being overweight, will certainly make this condition worse. However, knee arthroscopy treatment cannot reverse the damage or cure knee osteoarthritis itself.
Knee replacement may take the form of a total knee replacement or a partial (unicompartmental) knee replacement.
Sometimes iliac vein obstruction can be found and fixed, however bilateral disease should be sought. Actually infection develops not all of a sudden but in a series of sequence in 2-3 weeks of infection.
It begins to appear on the face which follows the ears and arms, trunk, thighs and legs and lastly the feet.
The infected droplets from the cough fall on the surface or clothes which then spread to other person if he touches the cloth and rubs his nose or eyes.
In severe case, measles rash will lead to pneumonia (virus enters your lungs), encephalitis (it enters your brain) and can also cause throat and ear infection.
Pregnant women can take a shot of immune serum globulin (antibodies) for preventing measles virus.
Tonsillectomy is often indicated in cases where infection occurs more than 3 or 4 times per year. An osteotomy can provide functional relief for 5-10 years, at which time a knee replacement can be performed. The total knee replacement involves resurfacing the knee with a metal and plastic artificial joint.
See your doctor or an ear nose and throat specialist if you are having continual problems with bad breath, sore throat, or recurrent tonsillitis. A physical examination may reveal an enlarged spleen (splenomegaly). The disease often goes unrecognized because of the difficulty in testing. Sometimes, because of the roughening of the knee joint surface, there may be catching, clicking, clunking or similar symptoms as well as pain. Viral tonsillitis can look and feel like bacterial infection, but normally only the symptoms are treated.




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