By Lee Rainie, Kathryn Zickuhr, Kristen Purcell, Mary Madden and Joanna BrennerReading trends have fluctuated during the decades that polling organizations have been asking questions about Americans’ reading habits, especially when it comes to books.
Americans cite a variety of motives for their reading, especially when it comes to long-form content like books or magazine articles. 74% say they read at least occasionally in order to do research on specific topics that interest them. Men (58%) are more likely than women (53%) to say they read for work or school-related reasons. Technology users are uniformly more likely than non-users to be readers for all of these reasons. Across the board, people who use the internet and other digital devices – such as cell phones, tablet computers, and e-book readers – are more frequent readers than non-users for each of these purposes. If the reading is for work or school, it is not surprising that those under age 50 are more likely than those who are older to say they read for this purpose with the greatest frequency. Our question was somewhat different from Gallup’s in that we asked respondents whether they had read any books in the past 12 months in print, via audiobook, or an e-book. When we re-asked the question of adults 18 and older in a survey from January 20-February 19, 2012, the number of readers of e-books in the previous year had increased to 21%. A full description of the readers of e-books, the gadgets they use, and their habits is covered in Part 4 of this report. In our December 2011 survey, women were more likely than men to have read a book in the previous 12 months. The overall number of book readers in various age cohorts also decreased by age: 82% of those ages 18-29 read a book in the past year, compared with 68% of those age 65 and older. We divided these readers into three segments for a more detailed examination of who they are, their motives for reading, and their devices. Those with the greatest frequency of book reading are women, whites, and those with high levels of education. In their technology profiles, these different categories of readers have somewhat different ownership and use levels.
In their reading habits, frequent readers are more likely than others to read for pleasure: 74% of frequent readers read for pleasure every day, compared with 43% of medium and 23% of infrequent readers who read for pleasure that often. In our full sample from December 2011, including 16- and 17-year-olds, 45% of the book readers said they were reading the book the day before we contacted them in the survey. Still, there has been a noteworthy change in the formats of the books being read on any given day.11 In June 2010, 95% of the book readers “yesterday” were reading print books and 4% were reading e-books. Asked to tell us what they like most about book reading, those who had read a book in the past 12 months gave a host of reasons that ranged from the highly practical to the sublime. 26% of those who had read a book in the past 12 months said that what they enjoyed most was learning, gaining knowledge, and discovering information.
15% cited the pleasures of escaping reality, becoming immersed in another world, and the enjoyment they got from using their imaginations. 12% said they liked the entertainment value of reading, the drama of good stories, the suspense of watching a good plot unfold. 6% liked the variety of topics they could access via reading and how they could find books that particularly interested them. 4% said they enjoy finding spiritual enrichment through reading and expanding their worldview.
Some 11% of all Americans age 16 and older – or 14% of those who have read a book in the past year – consume audiobooks.
Demographically, audiobook listeners are more likely to have had at least some college education and to be the parent of a minor child. In addition, 18% of those 16 and older said they had physical or health conditions that made reading difficult or challenging. Interestingly, there was not substantial overlap among the non-book reading group and those who have health or physical conditions that made reading challenging. In addition to asking respondents about their book-reading habits, we also asked people about other kinds of reading and found that 58% of those 16 and older say they regularly read news or a daily newspaper and 48% say they regularly read magazines and journals.
Tablet and e-book reader owners are much more likely than non-owners to do both types of reading. We followed up that general question with a query about whether those readers had read news or a daily newspaper “yesterday,” the day before we reached them in the survey. In addition, 46% of those who regularly read magazines and journals said they read that type of publication yesterday. The Pew Research Center's Internet & American Life Project is one of seven projects that make up the Pew Research Center.
The general consensus among most palm readers, with respect to what each hand indicates (right and left) is this — for right-handed individuals, the left hand lines and shapes indicate the character traits, personality and destiny one is born with. The heart line, also known as the love line or mensal line, gives an indication about a person’s emotional state and their emotional and physical relationships with others.
The head line, also known as the wisdom line (considered one of the most important lines in Chinese palmistry), reveals mental and psychological makeup and intellectual development and intuitive abilities.
The palmistry minor lines, or secondary lines, can reveal an individual’s talents, interests, strengths and weaknesses. In Palmistry, the mounts, or bumps of flesh, on the palm play a very important role during a reading. Palmistry markings are positive or negative interruptions and blockages in the normal flow of the palm lines, mounts and fingers. The division of palmistry that deals with the study of the shape of the hand and fingers is known as chirognomy.


The simplest type of hand shape classification using the natural elements consists of four elements: earth, air, water and fire.
While some palm readers do not place too much importance on the thumb, there are those who do consider it to be an important aspect of assessing someone’s traits and characteristics. As the other fingers on the hand have three distinct phalanges, or sections, the thumb is unique in that it has only two phalanges.
Gone Girl: Read it and weepThursday September 27th, 2012 in Random thoughtsI fell face first into yet another New York Times best seller.
But, seriously, without spoiling the book for all of you that plan on reading it, – what was with the ending!?!?!?
Yahoo , Facebook , Facebook , Twitter , Twitter , Google+ , Google+ , Myspace , Myspace , Linkedin , Linkedin , Odnoklassniki , Odnoklassniki , Vkontakte , Vkontakte , Google , Google , Yahoo , Yahoo , Rambler , Rambler , Yandex , Yandex , Gmail , Gmail , Yahoo! Designers Manufacturers , ??????? ????????? - ?????????? ???????????? , Gorgian Wikipedia - Free Encyclopedia , ????????? ?????? ????????? , Cambridje Dictionary Online , ????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????????? , Oxford Advenced Learner's Online Dictionar? , ??????????? ?????? - moazrovne,net, ??? Our survey introduced several new dimensions of this exploration by asking about people’s purposes for reading, by looking at new technology formats, and by paying particular attention to the role of libraries and librarians in people’s reading lives.
Those under age 65 are considerably more likely to cite this reason, compared with seniors. That applies to internet users, cell phone owners, tablet owners, and e-book reader owners.
In addition, those who are relatively well-educated and have relatively higher incomes are more likely than others to be frequent readers in each realm.
For instance, those who read frequently – daily or almost daily – for pleasure are more likely to be female, white or black (compared with Hispanics), over age 50 and non-parents of minors. Similarly, those with higher levels of education and income are more likely than others to read frequently for work or school.
In broad strokes, fewer people are reading books now than in 1978, but the data have fluctuated over time. Those with college educations and higher household incomes were more likely to be book readers than less educated and less well-off people.  Hispanics who preferred to take the survey in Spanish were less likely than English speakers of all races to be book readers in the past year.
The table below shows the average (mean) figure was 17 books that a typical American read in the past year. Infrequent readers (31% of the population) are those who read between 1-5 books in the previous 12 months.
We often say that survey results like this present a picture of a “typical” or “average” day.
By December 2011 in our survey, 84% of the “yesterday” readers were reading print books and 15% were reading e-books.
Several strands of answers stood out: The joy of reading to people comes from entertainment, enjoyment, education, enrichment, escape, and the way it eases life in a stressful world. It turns out that they like to consume books in all formats: 90% of them said they read at least one print book in the past 12 months and 39% said they consumed e-books. In addition, internet users and cell phone owners were more likely than non-users to read magazines and journals. On a “typical day” those more likely to be reading magazines and journals are over age 30 and college educated.
Palmistry reveals individual personality and character traits through the study of the shape, size and lines of the hands and fingers. This line begins between the index finger and the thumb and continues downward toward the base of the thumb and the connection to the wrist. This line begins just above the life line, between the thumb and the index finger and runs across the palm toward the other edge of the palm horizontally.
Their meanings can vary, depending on the hand shape, markings, mounts and the other lines nearby or crossing over them. They are related to the influences of the planets, which also tell us a lot about our physical and emotional makeup. They can indicate warnings of difficulties, separations, traumatic events or health problems.
Along with the lines, mounts, markings, hand color, skin texture and flexibility, the shape of the fingers and hands give clues as to what type of characteristics an individual may have. Each of them reveals a different portion of an individual’s character, emotional state, spirituality and health. They believe that the thumb can reveal a lot of details about an individual’s personality and temperament. However, there are some palmists who consider the Mount of Venus, which resides at the base of the thumb, to be a third phalange.
And I definitely spent way too much time Googling to determine what really happened in the end.
But I have a pile of books I need to read and i can’t keep reading the new popular book that comes out. This is partly tied to the fact that proportionally fewer senior citizens are in the workforce.
This, too, is partly tied to the fact that proportionally fewer senior citizens are in the workforce. At the same time, it is notable that men (38%) are more likely than women (33%) to read almost daily for work or school.
The Gallup organization’s surveys of adults age 18 and older over the decades highlight those shifts. Some 78% of those 16 and older had read at least one book in any format in the previous 12 months, compared with 88% in the 1978 Gallup survey of adults.


Urban (80%) and suburban (80%) residents were more likely than rural residents (71%) to have read a book in the past year.
Medium readers (29% of the population) are those who read between 6-20 books in the previous 12 months. Medium readers are also a bit more likely than infrequent or frequent readers to be internet users, and slightly more likely to own cell phones. At the same time, frequent and medium readers are equally as likely to read every day to keep up with current events and to read for purposes of researching specific topics they are interested in.
The shift toward e-book reading on a typical day is being driven by those who are college educated, those living in higher-income households, and those ages 30-49.
Audiobook listeners are much more likely to have technology in their lives – that is, use the internet, or be a tablet or e-book reader owner. And only 28% of those with health-related issues said they had not read a book in the past year.
Frequent book readers were also notably more likely than infrequent- or non-book readers to be news and magazine readers.
On a “typical day” those more likely than others to be reading news are male, white, over age 30, college educated, living in a household earning more than $50,000, and e-book reader owners. Technology owners and users are no more likely than non-users to be reading magazines and journals.
Question wording for book readers was “There are different ways people read books these days. A common misconception about the life line is that it reveals how long you will live or when you will die. There are seven mounts on the palms, and they are synonymous with the Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus and Saturn. Some markings may indicate a period of recovery, problem resolution, or an emotional healing period.
Six of the basic hand shapes studied in palmistry are conic, spatulate, pointed or psychic, square, intellectual or knotted and mixed.
They can give insights into an individual’s knowledge, intellect, ambition, balance, creativity and communication with others. Parents with minor children (80%) are more likely than non-parents (72%) to say this is a reason they read. Those who have lower levels of household income and education stand out in this group who do not read often for work or school. In the first Gallup survey in the summer of 1978, 12% of adults said they had not read a book in the previous 12 months or refused to answer a question about book reading. Audiobook listeners consumed an average (mean) of 25 books in all formats in the previous 12 months and a median (midpoint) of 12 books. 17% and 16%), age 65 or older (27%), lacking a high school diploma (34%), living in households earning less than $30,000 (26%), unemployed (22%), and residents of rural areas 25%. Chiromancy deals with the lines on the palm and chirognomy deals with the shape of the hands and the color, shape and texture of the palm, fingers and thumb. However, depending upon the palm reader and his or her training or country of origin, this may vary. It does however, reveal information about the encounters in your life, relationships with others, health and physical and emotional well-being. It starts either under the index finger or middle finger, and extends toward the pinky finger. If they do appear on the palm, they will give the palm reader a lot more insight into the subject.
There is also a relationship to the other major and minor lines in the hand, for example, where the mounts may intersect with those lines.
However, their meanings are dependent upon where they are located on the palm, as each area on the palm represents a different part of your life. The figures for adults 18 and older in that survey were the same, except it was 17% who had read an e-book. Both figures are far higher than those who do not listen to books.  As book consumers, those who listen to books are more likely than non-audio consumers to read for pleasure, to read to do research on specific topics, and to read for work or school. Listed below are nine of the more common minor lines and their general meanings — fate line, apollo (sun) line, bracelet (rascette) lines, relationship (marriage) lines, health line, girdle of venus and intuition line. Another method used assigns each hand shape the characteristics of a natural element: earth, air, fire, water, wood and metal.
Palmists consider their shape, length, width, placement, flexibility, horizontal or vertical lines, markings, nail shape and whether or not there are half-moons on the nail. Some 59% of those over age 50 read to follow current events every day or almost every day, compared with 38% of those ages 18-29. Listed below are the important markings that can appear on the palm of the hand, along with their general meanings.
In Western palmistry, the four element classification is the most common: earth, air, water and fire.
In  contrast, when it comes to doing reading for research on topics that interest people, those ages 18-29 are much more likely to do that daily (30%) than those who are 65 and older (14%). Here you will find: breaks, chains, crosses, dots, grilles, islands, squares, stars, tassels, transverse lines, triangles, tridents, upward and downward lines and vertical lines.



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