Bone swellings are lesions that characteristically present as asymptomatic hard lumps, covered by normal epithelium. Definition and etiology Torus mandibularis is a developmental malformation of unknown etiology. Clinical features It presents as an asymptomatic bony swelling, covered by normal mucosa. Definition and etiology Torus palatinus is a developmental malformation of unknown etiology. Clinical features It presents as a slow-growing, nodular, lobular or spindled, asymptomatic bony swelling covered by normal mucosa. Multiple exostoses may occur on the buccal surface of the maxilla, and rarely on the mandible. Definition Osteoma is a benign neoplasm that consists of mature compact or cancellous bone. Differential diagnosis Chondrosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, metastatic tumors, odontogenic tumors and cysts, giant-cell tumor. The malignancy is prevalent in central Africa (the endemic form), and usually affects children 2–12 years of age. Differential diagnosis Central giant-cell granuloma, ossifying fibroma, other non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and odontogenic tumors. Clinical features The malignancy is more common in men over 50 years of age, and the jaws are affected in about 30% of cases. Laboratory tests Bone-marrow biopsy, radiography, serum and urine protein electrophoresis.
Differential diagnosis Plasmacytoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Ewing sarcoma, leukemia, Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Definition Paget disease, or osteitis deformans, is a chronic, relatively common disorder characterized by uncoordinated bone resorption and deposition.
Clinical features Clinically, the signs and symptoms develop gradually and are characterized by bone pain, headache, deafness, visual disorders, dizziness, and progressive bone enlargement. Edentulous patients may complain that their dentures do not fit due to alveolar enlargement.
Differential diagnosis Fibrous dysplasia, osteosarcoma, multiple exostoses, fibro-osseous lesions.
Definition Odontogenic tumors are a group of lesions that originate from odontogenic epithelium and ectomesenchyme.
Clinical features Most odontogenic tumors are usually asymptomatic for long time and are discovered only during a routine radiographic examination.

The clinical signs and symptoms are not diagnostic and the final diagnosis should be made by radiographic and histopathological examinations.
Differential diagnosis Different varieties of odontogenic tumors, odontogenic cysts, osteosarcomas, chondrosarcomas, multiplemyeloma. If you are really benefited , Please share it with your friends on Facebook by clicking Fshare button. Developmental disorders, benign and malignant tumors are included in this group of lesions.
Characteristically, the lesion appears along the midline of the hard palate.It occurs more often in women, and usually appears during the third decade of life. Clinically, it appears as a painless hard swelling that progressively enlarges, causing extensive bone destruction with pain and loosening of the teeth. Cases have also been observed in other countries (the nonendemic form), and recently in patients with AIDS. Progressive expansion of the maxilla and the mandible lead to symmetrical thickening of the alveolar ridges.
However, with time they may form a usually painless slow-growing swelling or expansion of the mandible or the maxilla. Implant retained overdentures using mini dental implants are a simple treatment alternative to the problem of an unstable mandibular complete denture and a long, traumatic and expensive treatment plan of conventional implant-supported prostheses. Characteristically, the lesions appear bilaterally on the lingual surface of the mandible, usually in the area adjacent to the bicuspids. Clinically, the lesion presents as a rapidly growing hard swelling that progressively produces facial deformity. A painless soft swelling, usually on the alveolar mucosa and gingiva, may develop as part of the overall disease spectrum. This paper reports on two patients, who have been successfully rehabilitated with implant-retained overdentures using mini dental implants (3M Imtec). Clinically, it presents as a rapidly growing hard swelling that causes bone destruction, tooth loss, and facial deformity.Pain, paresthesia and large ulcerating or nonulcerating masses may also be seen.
The clinical diagnosis should be confirmed by a histopathological and radiographic examination. Elevations of serum alkaline phosphatase and urinary hydroxyproline levels are common findings. The pilot drill (1.1 mm) is delicately placed over the entry point and lightly pumped up and down until the cortical plate is penetrated. The pilot hole depth should never equal the length of the implant, as the tip of the drill is wider than the tip of the implant.

This procedure initiates the self-tapping process and is used until noticeable bony resistance is encountered.
Then, the winged thumb wrench is used to thread the implant into place until the wrench becomes difficult to turn. In final stage, small, incremental, carefully controlled ratchet turns are done for final seating. In the very dense bone (type I density), the implants were unscrewed and rescrewed to a final position.12 This selfadvancing step is repeated several times to prevent mini dental implants from fracture in the very dense bone (Figs 2 and 7).
Immediate loading of implants is done only when at least 30 to 35 Ncm of resistance is met upon insertion. The head of each implant is shaped like a ball and the retaining fixture acts like a socket. The o-ring snaps over the ball when the denture is seated and holds the denture at a predetermined level of force.
Denture is placed in patient?s mouth and checked for passive fit over implants and housings. The denture is seated in patient's mouth and patient applies normal bite pressure in centric occlusion. Final denture is seated and patient is informed to keep the denture in place for the first 48 hours after placement to prevent tissue overgrowth. The retaining fixtures allow for vertical movement while withstanding natural lifting forces. The patient wanted an immediate p- Fig.
7: Implant position in oral cavity -rosthesis after placement of implants. After implant placement, denture was modified and adapted to the ball head of the MDI implants. A cast partial denture was fabricated for the maxilla and single complete denture for edentulous mandible.

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