In 1851 the games manufacturer John Jaques of London (founded in 1795) commissioned a set of drawings from John Tenniel, later Sir John, the chief cartoonist of Punch, for their new game of Happy Families. Above: cards from an 1880s edition of Happy Families published by John Jaques & Son, 102 Hatton Garden, London, which included 11 families of four members each. Tenniel's designs are an artisan crowd - even the doctor, the only professional among them, is reduced to 'Mr Dose'.
Playing cards have been with us since the 14th century, when they first became a part of popular culture.
Sunish Chabba is working on an initiative to revive traditional Ganjifa, the card game most popular 17th Century India.
While many have commonly heard cockroaches are the species most likely to survive a nuclear war, which isn’t entirely accurate by the way, and they are well known as being among the most adaptable creatures on the earth, it’s still somewhat of a surprise that any creature can live for so long without its head. Physiologist and biochemist Joseph Kunkel at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, who studies cockroach development, explains how this is possible. While humans breathe through their mouth or nose and the brain controls that function, cockroaches breathe through little holes in each body segment. So if they don’t need food or whatever within that month, but how can they continue to function without a brain?
What is even more shocking than their bodies being able to live without the head for some time? The earliest cockroach-like fossils are from the Carboniferous period between 354–295 million years ago. Certain types of female cockroaches can mate once and will be pregnant for the rest of their lives! Find Us On YouTube!Subscribe today to check out our free Daily Knowledge Youtube video series! The game was shown at the Great Exhibition of that year and was an instant success, rapidly superseding similar games such as John Bull in which players also collected sets of four cards.


Experiments have shown that cockroaches can easily live in a sealed jar without food for at least a month. Insect’s nerve tissue agglomerations are distributed within each body segment and are capable of performing the basic nervous functions responsible for reflexes.
This it is not true as all of the movement the chicken makes after having the head off is from nerves reacting, not continued normal function of the chicken body itself. Jaques' version of Happy Families remained popular until the Second World War, but was lucky to survive thereafter. Jaques' Happy Families was originally published in 1851 and shown at the Great Exhibition of that year. Happy Families, which Tenniel drew 10 years before his illustrations for Alice in Wonderland, started a successful trend. HD Wallpaper and background images in the The Incredible Hulk club tagged: the incredible hulk hulk 2003 film. These spiracles pipe air directly to tissues through a set of tubes instead of blood carrying oxygen throughout the body.
Interestingly though, eventually a cockroach will die because, without a mouth, it can’t drink water.
So even without the brain, cockroaches bodies can stand, react to touch, and move without any problems.
However, it was widely reported that a Soviet scientist, Sergei Brukhonenko, in the late 1920s managed to keep the severed head of a dog alive. It was an instant success, rapidly superseding similar games in which players collected sets of four cards, an idea possibly taken from early German models. As a result, there is no chance of uncontrolled bleeding because a cockroach’s neck seals off just by clotting.
Still with a low metabolism and cool temperature, the cockroach could last about a month without a need for its head.


Even with their heads, cockroaches spend about 75 percent of their lifetime resting, so this headless mostly resting state is nothing new to them. The dog’s head was connected to a primitive heart-lung machine which gives the head everything it needs to maintain life for a short amount of time.
However, a safe, which had been kept at the top of the building and had fallen through to the basement, yielded the charred remains of an old pattern book, which included the originals for all the firm's card games and one example of the Happy Families card game - Master Potts the Painter's son.
Originally only eleven families, the game was expanded to twelve families by the addition of the Mug family, drawn by Miss Irene Dodson, the great niece of Charles Dodson (alias Lewis Caroll).
Jaques' original Happy Families designs were copied, sometimes with only slight modifications, by later manufacturers as recently as the 1970s, testifying to their enduring popularity. A cockroach’s heart is a simple tube with valves which can pump blood backwards and forwards through the insect.
Brukhonenko presented a similar experiment in 1928 at the Third Congress of Psysiologists of the USSR. Later the printing plates for the game were discovered intact and so Happy Families lived on.
A miniature set was produced by Alfred Bird & Son in their custard powder packets just before WW2.
Moreover, there is an ability to slow down the heart rate and the heart can even stop for some time without any harm. To prove that the dog’s head was actually alive, he shines a light in dog’s eyes making it blink.  When he would hit the table with a hammer, the dog’s head would also react.



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