Lung cancer rates have fallen in men by 1.8% each year since 1991 and finally started leveling off among women.
Health experts mentioned that the declined mortality rates are due to decline in smoking, better treatments, and early detection of cancer. Colon cancer may be of the adenocarcinoma type and usually arises from the epithelium (layer of cells) lining the inside of the large intestine.
At particularly high risk are people with hereditary conditions such as familial adenomatous polyposis or hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer. First degree relatives of patients with colorectal cancer have an increased risk of colon cancer, particularly if the relative develops it at a young age. Patients who suffer from ulcerative colitis have a ten-fold risk of colon cancer, and should undergo regular colonoscopy.
If the tumour has breached the bowel wall, and especially if it is has gone into the local lymph nodes, adjuvant chemotherapy will increase the chances of success. If the colon cancer has spread to the liver, longer term palliation can still be achieved by surgery for the primary tumour to prevent bowel obstruction, followed by specific treatment for the metastases. About myVMCVirtual Medical Centre is Australia’s leading source for trustworthy medical information written by health professionals based on Australian guidelines. Please be aware that we do not give advice on your individual medical condition, if you want advice please see your treating physician. With these conditions, colon cancer can occur even in patients in their late teens and early twenties. Patients who have previously had a polyp in the large bowel should undergo regular colonoscopy (ask your doctor how often). Once it crosses through the muscle layer within the bowel wall, it enters the lymphatic vessels, spreading to local and then regional lymph nodes. If they have not invaded through the muscle wall, the vast majority of colon cancers may be cured by surgery.


For tumours that have not reached the muscular layer within the bowel wall, this will be curative in more than 90% of cases. If there is just a solitary liver metastases in one side of the liver, there is quite a strong argument for surgery to remove it in patients who are physically otherwise quite well.
Sometimes it spreads via the blood stream to the liver, which is the most common area of metastasis from this tumour. If liver involvement is severe, the clotting profile will be abnormal with a raised INR (International Normalized Ratio). Once the tumour has breached the muscular wall and gone to the regional lymph nodes, over 60% of patients will still survive for at least 5 years.
Colon cancer surgery is usually carried out to remove the primary tumour for all cancers except those that have spread to distant organs. There is a clear consensus of opinion that tumours that have spread to regional lymph nodes should receive adjuvant chemotherapy. If the colon cancer has spread to bone and is causing pain, local radiotherapycan be very useful at controlling local symptoms. If curative surgical resection has been achieved, repeated checks on a yearly basis by colonoscopy are advisable. Geographically, the tumour is found worldwide, but is most common in areas that have low fibre diets. Other human organs that may be affected by blood-borne spread are the lungs, less often the bones, and even less often the brain. If the tumour has spread to other organs, such as the liver or lung, the current 5 year survival rate is approximately 10%.
In some of these cases the primary tumour may be resected if the bowel looks as though it will become obstructed. Tumours that have breached the muscularis mucosae but have not entered the regional lymph nodes may also benefit from adjuvant treatment.


The standard adjuvant therapy for resected colon cancer is 5-FU and calcium folinate given for six months. Colon cancer imaging is normally carried out either by ultrasound or CT to check for recurrence in the liver or lymph nodes. 2 for women, prostate cancer is the second most common killer of men, and colon cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death for both sexes. The latest report from American Cancer Society reveals positive news that cancer death rates continues to go down.
The start of the colon is the ascending colon, which becomes the transverse colon where it meets the liver (the hepatic flexure).
Areas of the world with high fat consumption and low fibre consumption include Europe, the US and Australia. If a lot of tumour cells get through the bowel wall, they tend to float around as a small amount of fluid within the abdomen and can seed the covering of the bowel (peritoneum).
The transverse colon goes across the upper abdomen until it is adjacent to the spleen (the splenic flexure), where it becomes the descending colon. This type of cancer seeding produces small nodules throughout the abdomen that irritate tissues and cause the production of large amounts of ascites (fluid). Each of the agents in this regime is administered by IV injection weekly for 4 weeks every 6 weeks. Abnormal liver function tests can be monitored and imaging of any soft tissue metastases, such as in the liver or lung, can be performed.
Symptoms that may require attention are fatigue from anaemia, visceral pain from liver metastases and, less commonly, somatic pain from bone metastases. The sigmoid colon terminates at the rectum, which acts as a storage pouch for faeces before they are evacuated through the anus.



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