Today I decided that I wanted to abandon all creature comforts and live off the land, so I drove to Shotover Park, just outside Oxford, to start my new 'simple life'. As I write this post, I have a large Dominos pizza on my lap, and I am fondly recounting the tales of my life in the wilderness to Sarah, who is watching CSI Miami on TV and showing no interest in learning about my new found survival skills.
The first time I came across strawberries in the wild, and knew it, I was 18 years old hiking with a friend in the coastal mountains of Oregon. If you have ever seen a strawberry plant in Home Depot, Lowes or your local garden center then you know what a wild strawberry plant looks like – only the wild strawberry is smaller. Growing your own strawberry patch: Strawberry plants are easy to grow if you want free fresh fruit. They should be planted in full sun in a light, loose soil, about 10” apart in rows 2’ apart. The biggest problems I have in the Northeast are rabbits (they will eat the plant right down to the ground) and gray squirrels (they will sneak in like the rats they are and eat the fruit just as it is ripening).
Commission Schedules Meetings to Discuss Black Bear Management28 July 2016 - NewsEngineRALEIGH, N.C. Many gardeners find it a challenge to grow on land that has a steep slope but it is possible.
Disclaimer: These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration and we make no medical claims, nor intend to diagnose, treat, or heal medical conditions. The Santa Fe River valley was used by all peoples who entered the area and an important concentration of thousands of ancient petroglyphs are found along a volcanic escarpment formed by lava. San Felipe is one of the most culturally conservative of all the Keresan speaking tribes and passionately retains their traditional religion and customs despite relentless pressures from the outside world. Join Southwest Seminars and David Grant Noble for an archaeological journey on the scenic Yampa and Green Rivers through Dinosaur National Monument. Trip Description: Meeting in Vernal, Utah on May 20, we will visit the Dry Fork Creek Petroglyphs near Vernal, one of the most famous rock art sites in the Southwest. In Echo Park wea€™ll hike to two Fremont petroglyph panels and along the way cool off in Whispering Cave. On our final day, wea€™ll emerge from the canyons for a leisurely float through Rainbow Park followed by an exciting ride through Split Mountain and its series of rapids. Santa Anaa€™s original location is unknown as all the members of the Pueblo either left or were killed during the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. Join Southwest Seminars for the experience of a lifetime led by Geologist Wayne Ranney, author of a€? Carving Grand Canyona€? and featuring 7 days rafting the Colorado River through the legendary Grand Canyon and 7 nights camping under the stars. Learn the story revealed in the thick sequence and variety of rocks exposed in the walls of the canyon which provide a record of the Paleozoic Era (550-250 million years ago). Wayne Ranney is the author of a€?Carving Grand Canyona€? and a€?Ancient Landscapes of the Colorado Plateaua€?, which he co-authored with Ron Blakey.
Trip Details: The trip will be in 37 foot motored raft as they are the preferred mode of transportation for this kind of river excursion by Wayne, being more comfortable and safer for this kind of expedition.
Enter Grand Canyon and within the first few miles begin our descent though the geologic layers, traveling 78 miles by river to the bottom of this great stack of rocks. Float deeper into the Marble Canyon section of the river and see lush green spring of Vaseya€™s Paradise stopping at Redwall Cavern, a vast alcove that J.W.
The canyon is truly Grand Canyon as we float downstream to the turquoise blue waters of the Little Colorado River, the spiritual birthplace of the Hopi Fourth World. Raft the notorious Lava Falls in the depths of the Grand Canyon near the end of our journey. Arriving at Whitmore Wash, we board a helicopter for a scenic flight out of the canyon, followed by charter flight returning us to Marble Canyon for farewell dinner with Wayne and those often dreamt about beds. We have learned more about the Coronado Expedition in the past 25 years than has been pieced together in a century of prior work.
Located on Ute Mountain tribal lands, this park was a 1911 compromise: between the United States taking tribal lands and the visionary leadership of Jack House, son of the Ute Chief Acowitz, who in the 1880a€™s tipped off the legendary Wetherill brothers to the existence of fantastic ancient Pueblo sites in Lion and Johnson Canyons in the Southwest.
Step back in time to the late 19th century as we ride the train from Lamy, to Las Vegas, NM on the tracks of the old Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad to visit three historic hotels: Castaneda, Plaza, and Montezuma. Join us for a special visit to San Ildefonso Pueblo, one of the best-known New Mexico Pueblos because of the famous black-on-black pottery, which originated there and was revived in the1920s. Join Alan Osborne and attend Candelaria Day festivities at both San Felipe and Santo Domingo Pueblos, both Eastern Keres villages on the banks of the Rio Grande, where traditional and culture are closely held and tenaciously kept.
We have been invited to the Acoma Sky City Governora€™s Feast Day where we will feast at the home of the governor and his family and witness celebratory observances of this important event where tribal members renew their culture, language and native religion.
The juxtaposition of young lava and old sandstone makes for a wonderful geologic setting and story.
When sixteenth-century Spanish explorers first set foot in what is now Arizona and New Mexico, they encountered people who lived in large multistory apartment buildings of stone and adobe enclosing communal plazas.
Join John Ware, Porter Swentzell (Santa Clara), and Connie Eichstaedt for a seven day tour of the Ancestral Pueblo world to visit the sites highlighted in Warea€™s new book from the SAR Press, A Pueblo Social History.
Our 3-day 2-night visit will be centered at the Chaco National Park campground, where our outfitters will provide a luxury and restful camping experience, including catered delicious food and shelter on-site under the stars and the night skya€™s pantheon of other heavenly bodies.
Eighteen giant calderas, or a€?supervolcanoesa€?, erupted in southwestern Colorado between 30-25 million years ago, forming much of the modern San Juan Mountains. Visit an early 18th Century Comanche camp, a site which encompasses where lodges were erected as well as ritual sacred areas beyond the dwellings. Journey to sacred sites in northern New Mexico, which are spiritually significant to different traditions, which have made a mark on New Mexicoa€™s cultural and religious landscape. This excursion will visit the remote site of Tsipinga€™uinge, an ancestral Tewa village on the northwest edge of the Tewa world. Attend the Jemez Pueblo feast day dances and witness an age-old religious ceremony, one of the only occasions outsiders may visit the Jemez Pueblo village of Wallatowa. Following our cultural orientation we will drive to the village of Santo Domingo for the occasion and spend the balance of the day watching the dances and ceremonial activities.
Frontiers a€?the leading edges of contact and change between culturesa€? and boundaries are important because they recognize that social systems are open and provide perspective on the more intensely studied central places, such as Chaco Canyon, Mesa Verde, and the Mimbres River. This important cultural area embraces the entirety of the Rio Alamosa drainage, from its headwaters at the Plains of San Agustin to its mouth on the Rio Grande including its tributary drainages and was the home of Ancestral Puebloans for more than 800 years.
What could be better than a spring float down the mighty San Juan River, legendary cultural resource in the heart of the Four Corners region? Our expedition outfitter is Wild Rivers Expeditions with its staff of expert and well-informed river guides, who tell the local stories, row the rafts and prepare all our river meals, and also furnish our camping equipment and supplies.
After a hearty breakfast on Thursday, we will board our rafts for a 3-day float down the San Juan River.
Float through the fabulous Upper Canyon of the San Juan with its stunning geologic formations and fascinating stop to see fossils. Includes 3 full days of floating and 2 nights of camping on the river, 2 nights lodging at Desert Rose Inn, (the evenings before and after the raft trip), with tents, and sleeping bags for the camping nights.
Laguna Pueblo is seen by literally thousands of travelers who pass along Interstate 25 heading west of Albuquerque, but few are aware of its history, legacy, or traditions. The next morning, we drive to Bisti Badlands area, where we will marvel at the hauntingly beautiful scenery and enjoy a (requiring good walkers) 4-mile round-trip hike on relatively flat grounda€¦a gourmet picnic luncha€¦followed by more spectacular scenery and outdoor geology classes as Dr. Nestled between the Sangre de Cristo Mountains and the Sandia Mountains, While much attention has been given to the important archaeology of the Galisteo Basin, much less has of the public interest has been devoted to the geology of this rich resource area, until oil and gas exploration was proposed recently before our Governor imposed an important moratorium on extraction industries in this beautiful area just south and east of Santa Fe located along the Rio Galisteo. El Malpais National Monument offers many learning opportunities for us, including a presentation by Dr.
We will drive over the continental divide through a lovely, ponderosa forest setting amid volcanic flows, cinder cones, and scenic sandstone bluffs landscape to El Morro National Monument.i?? This prominent high rocky promontory sheltered a large fresh-water pool, which attracted wildlife, as well as ancestral Pueblo, Spanish and Anglo-American travelers seeking water at the base of the bluff. Georgia Oa€™Keefea€™s Beloved White Place: A Geo-Walk Through the Rocks at Plaza blanca with Dr.
Located in the Sierra Negra Badlands, Our special day trip to Plaza Blanca (White Place) with our wonderful and favorite vulcanologist and Fulbright Scholar, Dr. You will also have the extraordinary blessing of spending a day with Sunny Dooley, a traditional Dine storyteller from the Chil Chi Tah area south of Gallup, who will guide us through her rural homeland. Make a memorable visit to the Crownpoint Navajo Rug auction, a significant monthly cultural event held in the Crownpoint Elementary School auditorium, where you will see many traditional weavers, as well as appreciate the opportunity to view a stunning collection of 200 or more weavings of all sizes, regional styles, and prices. Tour participants will visit three recently discovered (2008) Apache petroglyph sites along the upper Rio Grande, near Pilar, with noted Ethnobotanist and archaeologist Dr. Visit some of the most important Archaic era petroglyphs in the U.S, estimated at 4,000-6,000 years old or more. The charming town of El Rito, north of Santa Fe on El Rito Creek, is situated along the margin of both the Colorado Plateau and the Rio Grande rift. For those of you that have explored the eastern half (the part you see from State Highway 4 out of Los Alamos), of the Valles Caldera, this tour will provide new insight and understanding to the amazing geologic and natural history of the Valles Caldera.
Join Alan Osborne, Southwest Cultural historian for a day trip to Zia Pueblo for feast day dances.
Spend an enlightening day with noted archaeologist, scholar, author and professor emeritus Dr.
Arroyo Hondo was composed of 1,000 rooms arranged in 1 and 2-story room blocks and was originally investigated and partially excavated by Nels Nelson of the American Museum of Natural History. Tijeras Pueblo is on the east side of the Sandia Mountains and was occupied, like Arroyo Hondo, from about 1300 to 1425 AD. While neither Arroyo Hondo nor Tijeras Pueblos remained occupied into the mid-1400's, settlement did continue at a pueblo in the modern village of San Antonio. Paa-ko Pueblo also began in the 1300's AD as a plaza-oriented adobe-walled compound of several hundred rooms. Journey into the magical Canyonlands and Arches National Parks of southeast Utah and the spectacular Red i??Rock Country of the Colorado Plateau for an unforgettable five-day experience with Dr. Something extraordinary happened a thousand years ago in a shallow canyon in the heart the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico. Saturday, April 7, 2007 The many layers of geologic history unfold as we spend a fascinating day hiking among the sacred landscape and spectacular i??formations of the new Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument. This one-day hiking adventure will explore the geologic story of the Abiquiu area, including rock formations and vistas that inspired Georgia Oa€™Keeffe.
With Deputy Director of the OAS and Chaco scholar, Wolky Toll and cultural historian Alan Osborne, we'll leave Santa Fe early in the morning and drive along a scenic route through lands of the Santa Ana and Zia Pueblos and the Jicarilla Apache Reservation on our way to Chaco Culture National Historic Park.
This six day tour of the Rio Grande Pueblos will include visits to Taos, Picuris, San Ildefonso, Pojoaque, Cochiti, and Zia Pueblos, as well as tours of important and seldom visited Eastern Pueblo archaeological sites, including Tsankawi, Hanat Kotyiti, Guisewa, Kuaua, Pecos, and the world famous rock art panels of the Galisteo Basin. Departing Santa Fe, we will travel to EspaA±ola, then turn west onto Forest Road 144 (also known as 39-mile road), winding our way up into the northern Jemez Mountains. Some of these monographs may be thought of as an anthology of maps, which, like all anthologies, reflects the taste and predilection of the collector.
Cartography, like architecture, has attributes of both a scientific and an artistic pursuit, a dichotomy that is certainly not satisfactorily reconciled in all presentations.
The significance of maps - and much of their meaning in the past - derives from the fact that people make them to tell other people about the places or space they have experienced. It is assumed that cartography, like art, pre-dates writing; like pictures, map symbols are apt to be more universally understood than verbal or written ones. As previously mentioned, many early maps, especially those prior to the advent of mass production printing techniques, are known only through descriptions or references in the literature (having either perished or disappeared).
Many libraries and collections were not in the habit of preserving maps that they considered a€?obsoletea€? and simply discarded them.
A series of maps of one region, arranged in chronological order, can show vividly how it was discovered, explored by travelers and described in detail; this may be seen in facsimile atlases like those of America (K. As mediators between an inner mental world and an outer physical world, maps are fundamental tools helping the human mind make sense of its universe at various scales. The history of cartography represents more than a technical and practical history of the artifacts. The only evidence we have for the mapmaking inclinations and talents of the inhabitants of Europe and adjacent parts of the Middle East and North Africa during the prehistoric period is the markings and designs on relatively indestructible materials. Although some questions will always remain unanswered, there can be no doubt that prehistoric rock and mobiliary art as a whole constitutes a major testimony of early mana€™s expression of himself and his world view. Despite the richness of civilization in ancient Babylonia and the recovery of whole archives and libraries, a mere handful of Babylonian maps have so far been found. Egypt, which exercised so strong an influence on the ancient civilizations of southeast Europe and the Near East, has left us no more numerous cartographic documents than her neighbor Babylonia. In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extant Egyptian achievement is represented by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (see monograph #102) .
In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extent that Egyptian achievement is represented is by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (#102). It has often been remarked that the Greek contribution to cartography lay in the speculative and theoretical realms rather than in the practical realm, and nowhere is this truer than in the Archaic and Classical Period. To the Arab countries belongs chief credit for keeping alive an interest in astronomical studies during the so-called Christian middle ages, and we find them interested in globe construction, that is, in celestial globe construction; so far as we have knowledge, it seems doubtful that they undertook the construction of terrestrial globes. Among the Christian peoples of Europe in this same period there was not wanting an interest in both geography and astronomy. Above the convex surface of the earth (ki-a) spread the sky (ana), itself divided into two regions - the highest heaven or firmament, which, with the fixed stars immovably attached to it, revolved, as round an axis or pivot, around an immensely high mountain, which joined it to the earth as a pillar, and was situated somewhere in the far North-East, some say North, and the lower heaven, where the planets - a sort of resplendent animals, seven in number, of beneficent nature - wandered forever on their appointed path. Now, it is remarkable that the Greeks, adopting the earlier Chaldean ideas concerning the sphericity of the earth, believed also in the circumfluent ocean; but they appear to have removed its position from latitudes encircling the Arctic regions to a latitude in close proximity to the equator.
Notwithstanding this encroachment of the external ocean - encroachment which may have obliterated indications of a certain northern portion of Australia, and which certainly filled those regions with the great earth - surrounding river Okeanos - the traditions relating to the existence of an island, of immense extent, beyond the known world, were kept up, for they pervade the writings of many of the authors of antiquity. In a fragment of the works of Theopompus, preserved by Aelian, is the account of a conversation between Silenus and Midas, King of Phrygia, in which the former says that Europe, Asia, and Africa were lands surrounded by the sea; but that beyond this known world was another island, of immense extent, of which he gives a description.
Theopompus declareth that Midas, the Phrygian, and Selenus were knit in familiaritie and acquaintance. The side of the boat curves inwards, so that when reversed the figure of it would be like an orange with a slice taken off the top, and then set on its flat side.
Comparing these early notions, as to the shape and extent of the habitable world, with the later ideas which limited the habitable portion of the globe to the equatorial regions, we may surmise how it came to pass that islands--to say nothing of continents which could not be represented for want of space - belonging to the southern hemisphere were set down as belonging to the northern hemisphere.
We have no positive proof of this having been done at a very early period, as the earlier globes and maps have all disappeared; but we may safely conjecture as much, judging from copies that have been handed down. Early maps of the world, as distinguished from globes, take us back to a somewhat more remote period; they all bear most of the disproportions of the Ptolemaic geography, for none belonging to the pre-Ptolemaic period are known to exist. We have seen that, according to the earliest geographical notions, the habitable world was represented as having the shape of an inverted round boat, with a broad river or ocean flowing all round its rim, beyond which opened out the Abyss or bottomless pit, which was beneath the habitable crust. The description is sufficiently clear, and there is no mistaking its general sense, the only point that needs elucidation being that which refers to the position of the earth or globe as viewed by the spectator. Our modern notions and our way of looking at a terrestrial globe or map with the north at the top, would lead us to conclude that the abyss or bottomless pit of the inverted Chaldean boat, the Hades and Tartaros of the Greek conception, should be situated to the south, somewhere in the Antarctic regions. The internal evidence of the Poems points to a northern as well as a southern location for the entrance to the infernal regions. Another probable source of information: The Phoinikes of Homer are the same Phoenicians who as pilots of King Solomona€™s fleets brought gold and silver, ivory, apes and peacocks from Asia beyond the Ganges and the East Indian islands. European mariners and geographers of the Homeric period considered the bearing of land and sea only in connection with the rising and setting of the sun and with the four winds Boreas, Euros, Notos, and Sephuros. These mariners and geographers adopted the plan - an arbitrary one - of considering the earth as having the north above and the south below, and, after globes or maps had been constructed with the north at the top, and this method had been handed down to us, we took for granted that it had obtained universally and in all times.
Such has not been the case, for the earliest navigators, the Phoenicians, the Arabs, the Chinese, and perhaps all Asiatic nations, considered the south to be above and the north below. It is strange that some historians, in pointing out so cleverly that the Chaldean conception was more in accordance with the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe than had been suspected, fails, at the same time, to notice that Homer in his brain-map reversed the Chaldean terrestrial globe and placed the north at the top.
During the middle ages, we shall see a reversion take place, and the terrestrial paradise and heavenly paradise placed according to the earlier Chaldean notions; and on maps of this epoch, encircling the known world from the North Pole to the equator, flows the antic Ocean, which in days of yore encircled the infernal regions. At a later period, during which planispheric maps, showing one hemisphere of the world, may have been constructed, the circumfluent ocean must have encircled the world as represented by the geographical exponents of the time being; albeit in a totally different way than expressed in the Shumiro-Accadian records. It follows from all this that, as mariners did actually traverse those regions and penetrate south of the equator, the islands they visited most, such as Java, its eastern prolongation of islands, Sumbawa, etc., were believed to be in the northern hemisphere, and were consequently placed there by geographers, as the earliest maps of the various editions of Ptolemya€™s Geography bear witness. These mistakes were the result doubtless of an erroneous interpretation of information received; and the most likely period during which cognizance of these islands was obtained was when Alexandria was the center of the Eastern and Western commerce of the world. But to return to the earlier Pre-Ptolemaic period and to form an idea of the chances of information which the traffic carried on in the Indian Ocean may have offered to the Greeks and Romans, here is what Antonio Galvano, Governor of Ternate says in 1555, quoting Strabo and Pliny (Strabo, lib. Now as the above articles of commerce, mentioned by Strabo and Pliny, after leaving their original ports in Asia and Austral-Asia, were conveyed from one island to another, any information, when sought for, concerning the location of the islands from which the spices came, must necessarily have been of a very unreliable character, for the different islands at which any stay was made were invariably confounded with those from which the spices originally came. From these facts, and many others, such as the positions given to the Mountain of the East or North-East of the Shumiro-Accads, the Mountain of the South, or Southwest, of Homer, and the Infernal Regions, we may conclude that the North Pole of the Ancients was situated somewhere in the neighborhood of the Sea of Okhotsk. It is in the Classical Period of Greek cartography that we can start to trace a continuous tradition of theoretical concepts about the size and shape of the earth. Likewise, it should be emphasized that the vast majority of our knowledge about Greek cartography in this early period is known primarily only from second- or third-hand accounts. There is no complete break between the development of cartography in Classical and in Hellenistic Greece. In spite of these speculations, however, Greek cartography might have remained largely the province of philosophy had it not been for a vigorous and parallel growth of empirical knowledge. That such a change should occur is due both to political and military factors and to cultural developments within Greek society as a whole. The librarians not only brought together existing texts, they corrected them for publication, listed them in descriptive catalogs, and tried to keep them up to date. The other great factor underlying the increasing realism of maps of the inhabited world in the Hellenistic Period was the expansion of the Greek world through conquest and discovery, with a consequent acquisition of new geographical knowledge. Among the contemporaries of Alexander was Pytheas, a navigator and astronomer from Massalia [Marseilles], who as a private citizen embarked upon an exploration of the oceanic coasts of Western Europe.
As exemplified by the journeys of Alexander and Pytheas, the combination of theoretical knowledge with direct observation and the fruits of extensive travel gradually provided new data for the compilation of world maps.
The importance of the Hellenistic Period in the history of ancient world cartography, however, has been clearly established. In the history of geographical (or terrestrial) mapping, the great practical step forward during this period was to locate the inhabited world exactly on the terrestrial globe.
Thus it was at various scales of mapping, from the purely local to the representation of the cosmos, that the Greeks of the Hellenistic Period enhanced and then disseminated a knowledge of maps.
The Roman Republic offers a good case for continuing to treat the Greek contribution to mapping as a separate strand in the history of classical cartography. The remarkable influence of Ptolemy on the development of European, Arabic, and ultimately world cartography can hardly be denied. Notwithstanding his immense importance in the study of the history of cartography, Ptolemy remains in many respects a complicated figure to assess. Still the culmination of Greek cartographic thought is seen in the work of Claudius Ptolemy, who worked within the framework of the early Roman Empire. When we turn to Roman cartography, it has been shown that by the end of the Augustan era many of its essential characteristics were already in existence.
In the course of the early empire large-scale maps were harnessed to a number of clearly defined aspects of everyday life. Maps in the period of the decline of the empire and its sequel in the Byzantine civilization were of course greatly influenced by Christianity.
Continuity between the classical period and succeeding ages was interrupted, and there was disruption of the old way of life with its technological achievements, which also involved mapmaking. The Byzantine Empire, though providing essential links in the chain, remains something of an enigma for the history of the long-term transmission of cartographic knowledge from the ancient to the modern world. It may be necessary to emphasize that the ancient Greek maps shown in this volume are a€?reconstructionsa€? by modern scholars based upon the textual descriptions of the general outline of the geographical systems formed by each of the successive Greek writers so far as it is possible to extract these from their writings alone.
China is Asiaa€™s oldest civilization, and the center from which cultural disciplines spread to the rest of the continent.
An ancient wooden map discovered by Chinese archaeologists in northwest China's Gansu Province has been confirmed as the country's oldest one at an age of more than 2,200. The map of Guixian was unearthed from tombs of the Qin Kingdom at Fangmatan in Tianshui City of Gansu Province in 1986 and was listed as a national treasure in 1994. Unlike modern maps, place names on these maps were written within big or small square frames, while the names of rivers, roads, major mountains, water systems and forested areas were marked directly with Chinese characters.
Whoever sets out to write on the history of geography in China faces a quandary, however, for while it is indispensable to give the reader some appreciation of the immense mass of literature which Chinese scholars have produced on the subject, it is necessary to avoid the tedium of listing names of authors and books, some of which indeed have long been lost.
As for the ideas about the shape of the earth current in ancient Chinese thought, the prevailing belief was that the heavens were round and the earth square. The following attempts to compare rather carefully the parallel march of scientific geography in the West and in China.
Almost every legal jurisdiction considers striking a downed person with shod-feet potentially deadly or crippling force.
After QUICKLY maneuvering to the zombie's side, fully draw up (chamber) your striking leg and thrust diagonally into the knee joint--the movie Roadhouse nicely demonstrates the technique (against a zombie, leave out the punch-to-groin setup Sam Elliot uses).
To knock down a zombie, use the same technique police officers and first responders use to knock in residential doors--a thrusting front kick. To parry a flail is about the hardest thing you can do, even shields offer little protection against them, as flails are known for simply going over or around the shield, possibly hitting the opponent or even digging into the shield and ripping it from the user's hands. A dangerous weapon from Japan, the Kanabo is a heavy, 3–5 foot long club A Kanabo. An impact weapon invented by Native Americans, especially associated with Iroquois and Algonquin warriors. Even after the introduction of steel-headed tomahawks, ball-headed war clubs remained popular for Indian warriors as they never needed to be sharpened, did not rust or have their heads come loose, and could be carried slung through a belt with no fear of cutting the user.
While wood replicas of the ball-headed war club are available, a more affordable and durable polypropylene model is available through Cold Steel (pictured). Traditionally used by the East Woodland Indians such as the Iroquois and Huron-Wyandot, gunstock war clubs resemble gunstocks, but are not made from actual gunstocks.
Popularized by martial arts and screen legend Bruce Lee, nunchaku (or in common English, "nunchuks")  were famous martial arts weapons. A police officer's nightstick, also known as a Baton or Tonfa is specifically designed so that it doesn't kill people, An outdated Police baton (Nightstick).
Made to be sturdy due to their purpose of prying things open, this is an incredibly useful weapon, and extremely versatile tool as well. Spiking a bat is not recommended, as the nails may bend and it may weaken the structure of the bat.
Baseball bats are most commonly found in sporting goods stores and at baseball fields, though they can also be found in homes, often as ad-hoc home defense weapons.
Not really any better than a section of pipe or crowbar of similar size in terms of damage or length, and also a bit harder to find, a ski pole would bend pretty easily and be overall useless, but hey, if this is your only option for a weapon, then you might as well use it.
A typical two-piece cue for pocket billiards is usually made mostly of hard rock maple, with a fiberglass or phenolic resin ferrule, usually 0.75 to 1 inch (19 to 25 mm) long, and steel joint collars and pin. A hockey stick is a piece of equipment used in field hockey, ice hockey , roller hockey or underwater hockey to move the ball or puck. Although a hockey stick offers 2% less encumbrance than the fire axe, the accuracy cannot be improved as much as the axe. Although it is known to injure many people in fights, a hockey stick sadly lacks the durability and strength to smash a skull. However, a vintage (or antique) golf club of extremely high quality would be surprisingly effective, assuming the head, and not the shaft, is what hits the zombie.
One handed hammers, however, require the survivor to be perilously close to the zombie, and require several swings from even the strongest wielders before the brain is destroyed. One should not underestimate the value of good tools in a Zombie Apocalypse however, especially in building or maintaining a base.
Tennis rackets lack the strength to break the skull no matter what, and they should never be used for a weapon. Popularized by Shaun of the Dead and the game Left 4 Dead 2, cricket bats can be found throughout Britain and other cricket-playing countries. There are light and heavy bats, though the extra speed that can be achieved with a light bat is probably not worth the lower force. Pipes are generally to be found anywhere there is plumbing, which is basically any village or town. My friend Sarah was down for the weekend, so she agreed to come with me and chart the progress of my survival in the wilderness. Shelter is important and you have to use the tools that are available, so I fashioned myself this protection from the rain. The toothed leaves are thin and basal compound in groups of 3 with a petiole generally 1” – 4”. The strawberry is an important food source for many wild animals from insects to deer and birds. 128 July 2016 - NewsEngineThe recreational harvest of greater amberjack will reopen in Gulf state waters Aug. Women who are pregnant or nursing, or persons with known medical conditions should consult their physician before taking any herbal products.
Our special visit to the southwest Santa Fe petroglyph site of La Cieneguilla features one of our favorite study leaders: David Grant Noble, noted and celebrated editor, photographer and archaeology writer and author. Although the Pueblo is not more than thirty minutes from Santa Fe, the fact that outsiders are not encouraged to visit has made it possible for them to maintain their individuality and resist the influences of modern life. The 4th edition of his Ancient Ruins of the Southwest: An Archaeological Guide is due to appear in 2015, as his a new edited volume, Living the Ancient Southwest.
We float through the beautiful canyons of the Yampa River for three days, reaching the confluence with the Green River in Echo Park, so-named by John Wesley Powell on his famous 1869 expedition. The Yampa is the only remaining free-running, undammed tributary of the Colorado and its flow level depends on the winter snow pack and spring runoff.
Our outfitter will be Dinosaur River Expeditions, family owned and locally operated in Vernal Utah staffed by experienced and knowledgeable river guides that love sharing the beauty, the history and the wildlife of the mighty Yampa River of Colorado and the crystal clear waters of Utaha€™s Green River of the Flaming Gorge.
Three nights lodging at Landmark Suites in Vernal, Utah (2 nights before the rafting trip and 1 night after).
1300-1600) by visiting four important Classic Period Ancestral Tewa sites in the Ojo Caliente Valley northwest of Santa Fe. Following the 1692-4 Spanish Reconquest, Old Sana Ana Pueblo (Tamaya), was founded 8 miles NW of Bernalillo.
We raft into the Canyon beginning at Leea€™s Ferry and exit the canyon via scenic helicopter and charter air.
He holds a mastera€™s degree in geology at Northern Arizona University and leads tours for the Museum of Northern Arizona, The Grand Canyon Field Institute and the Smithsonian, including round the world trips by private charter. Our 190-mile trip between Leea€™s Ferry and Whitmore Wash has been selected by Wayne as covering the most scenic and geologically significant sites within the canyon in just the right balance of time on the river and off site exploration.
Jane Coulter in 1922 as a tourist camp, ita€™s style was later adapted to most National Park Service locations. Explore the relationships between settled Puebloan villages along the Rio Grande and early Spanish-led expeditionaries.
This led to a race for claimants to the treasures, the search and disappearance of artifacts along with the creation of a brisk trade in antiquities looted from these sites before federal laws were enacted to preserve them. After a warm welcome by a Harvey Girl we will get a detailed description of what railroad passengers experienced as they will bring back the deep appreciation of those magnificent days when the customer was king and the Harvey Girls, a€?those respectable young womena€™ and Couriers were ambassadors of impeccable service and local culture. We will visit friends who have invited us to feast with them as they observe this important sainta€™s religious day in the Pueblos. It was extensively studied and researched by School of Advanced Research (SAR) in the 1970a€™s and has been the subject of nine monographs and numerous scholarly articles. These two parks are geologic showcases for the Jurassic Navajo sandstone, the largest petrified dune field in the world.
We then travel to Zion National Park where we will stay in the park at the renowned historic National Park Service Lodge cabins, Zion Lodge for 3 nights. The Spanish referred to these people as Pueblos (Spanish for a€?townsa€?), no doubt to distinguish them from the regiona€™s rancherA­a dwellers and nomads. Wea€™ll visit the contemporary Eastern Pueblos of Cochiti and Jemez, the Western Pueblos of Hopi and Acoma, and Ancestral Pueblo sites in Chaco, Mesa Verde, the San Juan River Gorge, and Canyon de Chelly.
Scott Ortman will lead us on a very special tour of the Santa Clara Tribal Park at Puye Cliff Dwellings.
We will hike the 3.6 miles South Mesa Trail Loop to Tsin Kletsin, (3 hours) on the South Rim with a visit to the important great kiva at Casa Rinconada.
With less driving back to town for overnight lodging in a town, we will see morea€¦nature, birds, plants, landscape, the skya€¦basically the full day and night Chaco experience.
Kirt Kempter for a 4-day geologic exploration of the Creede and Lake City and Pagosa Springs, region of Southern Colorado, where four of the massive supervolcanoes eruptions occurred. Visit the scenic North Clear Creek Falls and the spectacular Slumgullion landslide en route to Lake City.
Zia achievements in pottery and other arts and crafts, their storied history as well as spiritual tenacity are legendary. Our purpose will be to enhance our appreciation and understanding of these special sacred places and the spiritual traditions which hold them dear. We will also visit the Jemez State Monument, a 17th century Spanish Mission church, and the ancient village it was built near, now operated by the New Mexico State Monuments Division, as well as a delightful lunch at Deba€™s Deli in Jemez Springs, a resort community in the beautiful valley of the Jemez River. Joe Suina, former Governor of Cochiti Pueblo and Professor of Education (ret.), for the renowned Santo Domingo Feast Day, an annual ceremonial held in one of New Mexicoa€™s most colorful Pueblos on the Rio Grande.
Suinaa€™s home in Cochiti Pueblo for an informative cultural education presentation on the ceremonialism of Pueblo dances and Sainta€™s day feast celebrations in theEastern Keres villages of Cochiti and Santo Domingo.
Tuition of $90 includes Study Leader honorarium, transportation, meal, and donation to the Keres Language Project in which Dr. Steve Lekson and Karl Laumbach for an archaeology and history field study trip to visit important sites of the Canada Alamosa, located in southwestern New Mexico. Studies suggest that the Pueblo populations of the CaA±ada Alamosa were at times strongly linked to a central place(s) and at other times were reorganizing in an independent effort to adapt and survive. Rio Alamosa is fed by a perennially flowing warm spring (Ojo Caliente), home of the Warm Springs Apache, the hot springs are located three miles northwest of the ranch headquarters.
Enjoy an educational and relaxing 3-day trip down the scenic San Juan River between Montezuma Creek, Utah and Mexican Hat. Shortly before our river trip ends, we will pass the amazing balancing rock known as the Mexican Hat, which is near our river put-out.
All meals: 4 breakfasts, 4 lunches and 4 dinnersa€¦2 at a€?Bluffa€™s besta€™ and 2 a€?round the campfire.
Visit one of the traditional western i??Keres villages of the Lagunas, Paraje, with Southwest cultural historian Alan Osborne where we will attend the annual Feast Day honoring Saint Joseph, patron saint of the Pueblo. Containing some of the most spectacular and b bizarre geologic formations in New Mexico, including gravity-defying hoodoos and multi-hued shales, the stacked layers, or formations within this 45,000 acre wilderness area show a continuous record of ancient environments, formed between 160 million and 40 million years ago, with episodes of uplift and erosion, inland seas, shorelines, estuaries, large forested river deltas, meandering steams, bogs, and numerous fresh-water lakes leaving evidence of early mammal fossils, dinosaurs, petrified wood caches, and periodic volcanic ash showers. Its subtle natural beauty, with wooded hillsides, dramatic volcanic dikes, and wide, open grasslands has drawn many noted contemporary artists to settle there and has attracted attention from those seeking easily accessible but less traveled areas containing important sites of natural history, including those who specialize in flora and fauna, as well as geology and vulcanology.
Kendrick on the many archaeological sites found El Malpais and recent discoveries, as well as current preservation projects in which Dr.
Taylor, an 11,301-foot volcano, which figures prominently into native cosmology, life here has been longstanding, adaptive, and enriched by the landscape. We will a chance to see some of the most exciting and interesting ancient and historic petroglyphs (more than 2,000) in North America, including the Onate inscription of April 1605, (15 years before Plymouth colony in Massachusetts) most of which are accessible by a scenic paved walking trail. Kirt Kempter, who will feature his a€?wise and well-considereda€™ thoughts and research on the geology between Santa Fe and Abiquiu, including a few roadside stops to look at important landscape features, rocks, scenic overlooks, and geologic field maps.
Paul Zolbrod, Research Associate, Laboratory of Anthropology, Santa Fe, Professor of Literature, Dine College, Crownpoint, Professor Emeritus, Allegheny College, Pennsylvania, and Author, Dine Behane. Sunny is a scholar for the New Mexico Endowment for the Humanities and travels widely sharing her culture through stories. Included is transportation, lodging at legendary El Rancho in Gallup on Route 66, most meals, special presenters and Study Leaders honoraria, and donation to Chil Chi Tah Elementary School, and celebration dinner.
We will take you to seldom visited sites in northern New Mexico That are spiritually sacred and significant to different traditions which have made a mark on New Mexicoa€™s cultural and religious landscape. These western-Keres speaking and traditonal people have occupied the scenic hilltop village and this rugged region NW of Albuquerque for centuries.
Linda Cordell, with whom we will be visiting four archaeological sites on the edge of the Galisteo Basin: Tijeras Pueblo, Paa-ko Pueblo, Arroyo Hondo Pueblo, and San Antonio. Intensively studied by Douglas Schwartz for the SAR, it sits at the margins of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains just outside Santa Fe. It is located above a seep, it is bisected by 2 arroyos, and was excavated by UNM field schools in the late 1940's, and again in the 1970's, directed by W. Kirt Kempter, vulcanologist, geologist, former Fulbright scholar, and Alan Osborne, Southwest cultural historian. Not only spectacular vistas, but also wildlife, including bighorn sheep, are always a possibility for sighting and photographing on this memorable day. Puebloan peoples constructed over a dozen elaborate Great Houses of stone reaching three to four stories above the desert floor. Wea€™ll first arrive at the Chaco Visitora€™s Center on the north side of the canyon, which features exhibits and interpretations of recent archaeological research as well as historic excavations, and artifacts revealing ancient life at Chaco. It may also be likened to a book of reproductions of works of art, in the sense that the illustrations, even with the accompanying commentary, cannot really do justice to the originals. A knowledge of maps and their contents is not automatic - it has to be learned; and it is important for educated people to know about maps even though they may not be called upon to make them.
Some maps are successful in their display of material but are scientifically barren, while in others an important message may be obscured because of the poverty of presentation. Maps constitute a specialized graphic language, an instrument of communication that has influenced behavioral characteristics and the social life of humanity throughout history. Maps produced by contemporary primitive peoples have been likened to so-called prehistoric maps. In earlier times these maps were considered to be ephemeral material, like newspapers and pamphlets, and large wall-maps received particularly careless treatment because they were difficult to store. When, in 1918, a mosaic floor was discovered in the ancient TransJordanian church of Madaba showing a map of Palestine, Syria and part of Egypt, a whole series of reproductions and treatises was published on the geography of Palestine at that time. Kretschner, 1892), Japan (P.Teleki, 1909), Madagascar (Gravier, 1896), Albania (Nopcsa, 1916), Spitzbergen (Wieder, 1919), the northwest of America (Wagner, 1937), and others. Indeed, much of its universal appeal is that the simpler types of map can be read and interpreted with only a little training. Crone remarked that a€?a map can be considered from several aspects, as a scientific report, a historical document, a research tool, and an object of art.
It may also be viewed as an aspect of the history of human thought, so that while the study of the techniques that influence the medium of that thought is important, it also considers the social significance of cartographic innovation and the way maps have impinged on the many other facets of human history they touch.


It is reasonable to expect some evidence in this art of the societya€™s spatial consciousness.
There is, for example, clear evidence in the prehistoric art of Europe that maps - permanent graphic images epitomizing the spatial distribution of objects and events - were being made as early as the Upper Paleolithic.
In Mesopotamia the invention by the Sumerians of cuneiform writing in the fourth millennium B.C. In the former field, among other things, they attained a remarkably close approximation for a?s2, namely 1.414213. The courses of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers offered major routes to and from the north, and the northwest, and the Persian Gulf allowed contact by sea along the coasts of Arabia and east to India. Within this span of some three thousand years, the main achievements in Greek cartography took place from about the sixth century B.C. Stevenson, it is not easy to fix, with anything like a satisfactory measure of certainty, the beginning of globe construction; very naturally it was not until a spherical theory concerning the heavens and the earth had been accepted, and for this we are led back quite to Aristotle and beyond, back indeed to the Pythagoreans if not yet farther. We are now learning that those centuries were not entirely barren of a certain interest in sciences other than theological. It has now been ascertained and demonstrated beyond doubt that the earliest ideas concerning the laws of the universe and the shape of the earth were, in many respects, more correct and clearer than those of a subsequent period. Ragozin, says the Shumiro-Accads had formed a very elaborate and clever idea of what they supposed the world to be like; they imagined it to have the shape of an inverted round boat or bowl, the thickness of which would represent the mixture of land and water (ki-a) which we call the crust of the earth, while the hollow beneath this inhabitable crust was fancied as a bottomless pit or abyss (ge), in which dwelt many powers. The account of this conversation, which is too lengthy here to give in full, was written three centuries and a half before the Christian era. Of the familiaritie of Midas, the Phrigian, and Selenus, and of certaine circumstances which he incredibly reported. This Selenus was the sonne of a nymphe inferiour to the gods in condition and degree, but superiour to men concerning mortalytie and death. The Chaldean conception, thus rudely described, shows a yet nearer approximation to the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe, when we bear in mind that this actually is in shape a flattened sphere, with the vertical diameter the shorter one.
A curious example of the difficulties that early cartographers of the circumfluent ocean period had to contend with, and of the sans faA§on method of dealing with them, occurs in the celebrated Fra Mauro mappamundi (Book III, #249), which is one of the last in which the external ocean is still retained. The influence of the Ptolemaic astronomical and geographical system was very great, and lasted for over thirteen hundred years. There are reasons to believe however, apart from the evidence we gather in the Poems, that these abyssal regions were supposed or believed to be situated around the North Pole. Homer, The Outward Geography Eastwards: a€?The outer geography eastwards, or wonderland, has for its exterior boundary the great river Okeanos, a noble conception, in everlasting flux and reflux, roundabout the territory given to living man. The Phoenician reports referred to came most likely therefore, not so much from the north, as from these regions which, tradition tells us (Fra Mauroa€™s mappamundi #249), were situated propinqua ale tenebre. These winds covered the arcs intervening between our four cardinal points of the compass, which points were not located exactly as with us; but the north leaning to the east, the east to the south, the south to the west and the west to the north (see Beatusa€™ Turin map, Book II, #207). The reason for this is plausible, for whereas the northern seaman regulated his navigation by the North Star, the Asiatic sailor turned to southern constellations for his guidance. This is all the more strange when we take into consideration that, in the light of his context, the fact is apparent and of great importance as coinciding with other European views concerning the location of the north on terrestrial globes and maps. The Chaldeans placed their heaven in the east or northeast; Homer placed his heaven in the south or southwest.
In this ocean we find also EA the Exalted Fish, but, deprived of his ancient grandeur and divinity, he is no doubt considered nothing more than a merman at the period when acquaintance is renewed with him on the SchA¶ner-Frankfort gores of Asiatic origin bearing the date 1515 (Book IV, #328). The divergence was probably owing in a great measure to the inability of representing graphically the perspective appearance of the globe on a plane; but may be also traceable to an erroneous interpretation of the original idea, caused by the reversion of the cardinal points of the compass. According to this division other continents south of the equator were supposed to exist and habited, some said, but not to be approached by those inhabiting the northern hemisphere on account of the presumed impossibility of traversing the equatorial regions, the heat of which was believed to be too intense. We shall see, when dealing with Ptolemy's map of the world, some of the results of this confusion.
Thomas, after the dispersion of the Apostles, preached the Gospel to the Parthians and Persians; then went to India, where he gave up his life for Jesus Christ. That he corroborates Homera€™s views as to the sphericity of the earth by describing Cratesa€™ terrestrial globe (Geographica; Book ii. That he accentuates Homera€™s views concerning the black races that lived some in the west (the African race) others in the east (the Australian race). That he shows the four cardinal points of the compass to have been situated somewhat differently than with us, for he says (Book 1, c.
That he appears to be perpetuating an ancient tradition when he supposes the existence of a vast continent or antichthonos in the southern hemisphere to counterbalance the weight of the northern continents.
The relativeness of these positions appears to have been maintained on some mediaeval maps.
To appreciate how this period laid the foundations for the developments of the ensuing Hellenistic Period, it is necessary to draw on a wide range of Greek writings containing references to maps. We have no original texts of Anaximander, Pythagoras, or Eratosthenes - all pillars of the development of Greek cartographic thought.
In contrast to many periods in the ancient and medieval world and despite the fragmentary artifacts, we are able to reconstruct throughout the Greek period, and indeed into the Roman, a continuum in cartographic thought and practice.
Indeed, one of the salient trends in the history of the Hellenistic Period of cartography was the growing tendency to relate theories and mathematical models to newly acquired facts about the world - especially those gathered in the course of Greek exploration or embodied in direct observations such as those recorded by Eratosthenes in his scientific measurement of the circumference of the earth. With respect to the latter, we can see how Greek cartography started to be influenced by a new infrastructure for learning that had a profound effect on the growth of formalized knowledge in general. Thus Alexandria became a clearing-house for cartographic and geographical knowledge; it was a center where this could be codified and evaluated and where, we may assume, new maps as well as texts could be produced in parallel with the growth of empirical knowledge.
In his treatise On the Ocean, Pytheas relates his journey and provides geographical and astronomical information about the countries that he observed.
While we can assume a priori that such a linkage was crucial to the development of Hellenistic cartography, again there is no hard evidence, as in so many other aspects of its history, that allows us to reconstruct the technical processes and physical qualities of the maps themselves. Its outstanding characteristic was the fruitful marriage of theoretical and empirical knowledge. Eratosthenes was apparently the first to accomplish this, and his map was the earliest scientific attempt to give the different parts of the world represented on a plane surface approximately their true proportions. By so improving the mimesis or imitation of the world, founded on sound theoretical premises, they made other intellectual advances possible and helped to extend the Greek vision far beyond the Aegean. While there was a considerable blending and interdependence of Greek and Roman concepts and skills, the fundamental distinction between the often theoretical nature of the Greek contribution and the increasingly practical uses for maps devised by the Romans forms a familiar but satisfactory division for their respective cartographic influences. The profound difference between the Roman and the Greek mind is illustrated with peculiar clarity in their maps. Through both the Mathematical Syntaxis (a treatise on mathematics and astronomy in thirteen books, also called the Almagest and the Geography (in eight books), it can be said that Ptolemy tended to dominate both astronomy and geography, and hence their cartographic manifestations, for over fourteen centuries. A modern analysis of Ptolemaic scholarship offers nothing to revise the long-held consensus that he is a key figure in the long term development of scientific mapping.
In its most obvious aspect, the exaggerated size of Jerusalem on the Madaba mosaic map (# 121) was no doubt an attempt to make the Holy City not only dominant but also more accurately depicted in this difficult medium. In both Western Europe and Byzantium relatively little that was new in cartography developed during the Dark Ages and early Middle Ages, although monks were assiduously copying out and preserving the written work of many past centuries available to them. Researcher He said that the map, drawn in black on four pine wood plates of almost the same size, had clear and complete graphics depicting the administrative division, a general picture of local geography and the economic situation in Guixian County in the Warring States era. Only a few examples can be given, but it should be understood, even when it is not expressly said, that they must often stand simply as representative of a whole class of works. It may be said at the outset that both in East and West there seem to have been two separate traditions, one which we may call a€?scientific, or quantitative, cartographya€™, and one which we may call a€?religious, or symbolic, cosmographya€™. Give your guests an adorable way to hold their goodies with this large plastic curious george favor bag. Not only are high-topped and thick-soled military, hiking, or work boots essential survival wear, under the right circumstances they are highly effective impact weapons. The first priority target is the skull, using the floor or ground to brace the target so none of the kinetic impact is dissipated by the "shock-absorber" of the zombie's neck .
With either of these goals accomplished, the choice is then to flee or to finish off the zombie with boot stomps.
Avoid steel-toed work boots--not only can they cause foot problems (especially bunions) they can suck heat out of an already frostbite-prone region of your anatomy.
Typically, they are heavy weapons used by various nations across the globe during the Middle Ages.
It was commonly used by infantry to knock horsemen off the horse, and could penetrate the plate armor with a well-struck hit. Basically an Asian staff, mastery of these weapons began millenniums ago in the Shaolin Temple, in what is now Henan Province, China.
It is a tree branch cut into a club or whatever shape you want it, and with rows of metal bolts protruding from the sides for bashing zombies heads in.
They are Victorian exercise equipment (borrowed from Asian-Indian Athletes), and fell out of use in the 1930s but have recently regained a retro-comeback among some fitness enthusiasts.
This pre-contact weapon was traditionally carved from a single piece of hardwood (usually hornbeam, a variant of ironwood) and was much more durable in close-quarter combat than the indigenous stone-headed tomahawks. The Cold Steel offering also features a steel-post set into the striking head to concentrate the bone-crushing impact.
Gunstock War Clubs regained weapon-fan popularity after the 1992 remake of The Last of the Mohicans, where one was carried and used by the character Chingakook (Russell Means) Cold Steel currently offers a polypropylene model (pictured).
Most nunchuks were comprised of two identical wooden sticks connected by rope or small linked chain.
Not only can you bash zombies with it, but, with a good swing, the claw end can puncture the skull and rip through the brain with minimal splatter (be careful not to get it stuck). They are also quite durable, and are readily available from any hardware store.
Polypropylene is the most recommended out of the three, due to the fact that it has more durability, wood is the second most recommended, although it can break with use, and aluminum can depend if it's hollow or not, however it's not recommended due to the fact that it can get dented and even when hit, it can cause an uncomfortable vibration. Also, using a spiked bat may completely shatter the skull, sending blood and brain matter everywhere, raising the chances of infection.
Modern ski poles are most commonly made from aluminum and carbon fiber, though materials such as bamboo are still used. However, a hockey stick can be used to gain the upper hand against poorly armed or unarmed human adversaries. So if your lucky 9-iron was passed on to you by your father, who may or may not have received it from your grandpa, maybe. If nothing else in the general area would be useful, tennis rackets may serve a purpose for simply knocking zombies aside. They are similar to the American baseball bat, though heavier and slightly more durable, but with many of the same problems.
A good rule of thumb is that the heavier something is, the easier it will crush a skull, although it may take you off balance and tire you out more quickly.
Much of the force put into swinging a bat in cricket is used to swing the arms, rather than the bat (as it is wielded in two hands) anyway. A weapon is essential for killing prey, and also killing members of other tribes or picnickers who show aggression. It was one of those times when it was all about camping, fishing for cutthroat trout and eating wild foods – with a lot of it being strawberries along with a smattering of blackberries, thimbleberries and a bit of wild greens. This is a perennial plant that spreads by seed, short rhizomes (a thick underground horizontal stem that produces roots and has shoots that develop into new plants) and leafless stolon (a long stem or shoot that arises from the central rosette of a plant and droops to the ground). Obviously the fruit is edible and if you can pick enough, it can be canned, frozen or dried.
One way to enjoy the benefits of the leaves is make a tea with a handful of freshly picked leaves. We will learn about the history and theories relating to Ancestral Puebloan rock art, migration of Tewa Pueblo peoples, Colonial Spanish exploration and settlement along El Camino Real (Royal Road). Individual interests are subordinate to community values and responsibilities so that the strong ceremonial structure and the traditional rituals have kept the people as a vital and distinctive tribal entity with a proud heritage of ancient origin. Along the way, wea€™ll see the remains of a pioneera€™s cabin, a series of pictographs in the Barrier Canyon style, and Serviceberry Shelter, where Archaic hunter-gatherers camped millennia ago. See architecture, agricultural fields, and ritual features in the context of some of the largest and best-preserved ancient Pueblo sites in the region.
Tribal members usually maintain two places of residence, one in the farming community along the Rio Grande and the other a traditional home on the north bank of the Jemez River several miles away.
The trip includes hotel lodging and dinner the night before the excursion as Wayne sets the stage for our grand adventure and another night and dinner after the trip wraps up as we celebrate our amazing journey through this vividly colored canyon, a nine day study tour on the most coveted raft trip in the world. Discuss the origin of the canyon and how the complexity of erosional features of the Colorado River and precipitation created and continue to shape the canyon.
We begin our journey with slow moving rapids, which increase in intensity as we travel further into the Canyon. Our highly recommended outfitter, Colorado River & Trail Expeditions (CRATE) has been in business since 1971 and features knowledgeable, trained and experienced river guides, who are excellent outdoor chefs, enthusiastic river companions and certified in CPR, Wilderness Medicine and River Rescue. Protecting these lands from Anglo incursion, touristic curiosity and the federal government has created a seldom visited trove of four well-preserved canyon cliff dwellings requiring three miles of hiking and climbing five ladders when accompanied by a Ute tribal guide. We will learn about Fred Harvey, the Englishman who founded the hotel and restaurant chain. They have a strong sense of identity and retain ancient ceremonies and rituals and dances tenaciously. The site was occupied in two separate and distinct phases more than six centuries ago, and at its height was comprised of approximately 1,000 rooms. Over 2000 feet of Navajo Sandstone form massive cliffs within Zion Canyon, creating one of eartha€™s grandest geologic settings. Our days at Zion will include visits to more remote corners of the park, such as Kolob Canyon in the northwest, and the more central Kolob Terrace Road, where we will hike the scenic Northgate Peaks Trail. Classifying people by settlement pattern and architecture, the most visible of cultural expressions, may be a natural thing for explorers to do, but i??the label a€?Puebloa€? glossed over considerable cultural variability.
Participants will be regaled with stories of the Pueblo past from an archaeologist (Ware) and Native Pueblo scholar (Swentzell), and view the spectacular landscapes of the Southwest 4-Corners from the comfort of a modern coach (with on-board restroom!). These ancestral Puebloan sites figure prominently in his ethno genesis research on Tewa Pueblo origins, migrations, settlement patterns, and history.
This study tour is designed to experience 2 backcountry trails while still visiting Great Houses within the central a€?downtowna€™ area of Chaco Canyon Culture National Historic Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Their mission church and plaza and the village and surrounding hills and mountains are powerful spiritual forces. Visits include (subject to change): Upaya Buddhist Zen Center, Sikh Dharma in Sombrillo, Plaza Blanca and Dar al Islam in Abiquiu, and Christ in the Desert Monastery overlooking the Chama River, the Sikh Dharma in Somlbrillo, Our day will be filled with opportunities for reflection and awareness on the different paths for restoring balance and harmony in our world.
1312-1350 and is possibly one of the places where immigrants from the Four Corners region entered and settled the northern Rio Grande region.
In the centuries before the Apache (Athapascan) migration in to this area, it was the setting for two large-plaza Pueblos, a migrant Mesa Verde village, a huge 500-room Tularosa town, the northernmost Mimbres village, the southernmost Socorro site, and a sizeable earlier Ancestral Puebloan pithouse community, all located on the Monticello Box Ranch. Wea€™ll camp for 2 nights, learning about the cultural history and archaeology of the region with David Grant Noble. Comfortable overnight motel lodging the night before and after our 3-days and 2-nights on the river at Desert Rose Inn, a log lodge recently built on the edge of the town of Bluff, Utah. This scenic stretch of the river is especially noted for its Puebloan ruins and Basketmaker rock art panels and many are only accessible from the river.
Honorarium for our exceptional Study Leader and river guides, all fees for permits and services. You will have the opportunity to be part of this important ceremonial day and by your silent observation both give and receive the blessings of the Lagunas.
The area is filled with multi-colored ash created by iron, manganese and crystal-forming silicates, and has been described as a paleontological treasure trove! Kirt, offering plenty of time for on-site educational lectures, photographic moments, and awe-inspiring sacred landscape.
Drive back to Santa Fe that afternoon for evening arrival with a stop at our favorite Cuba, NM dinner spot, Brunoa€™s for some home-style cooking before our Santa Fe evening return. Many myths and legends abound about this remarkable area, including oral tradition never written down. For an optional energetic uphill hike, those interested may visit the ancestral Zuni village of Atsinnaon top of El Morro. Along the way, we will Santa Rosa de Lima, the historic site overlooking the Chama River and original site of the Abiquiu Valley settlement. We visit her local Chapter House and to the Chil Chi Tah School, where you will meet Navajo teachers and students. Our purpose will be to enhance our appreciation and understanding of these various sacred places and the spiritual and religious traditions which hold them in esteem. Ford who serves as Arthur Thurnow Professor of Anthropology and former director, Ethnobotanical Laboratory, University of Michigan.
Zia, located beside the Jemez River, is near the Nacamiento Mountains and red rock foothills of the Pajarito and Jemez Plateaus.
Each of these is representative of different ways Ancestral Puebloans built 14th century communities.
In the 1970's, portions of the ancestral pueblo village and the historic San Miguel de Laredo were excavated by the Museum of New Mexico and scholars conducted important ethno historic research. By the 1500's, a smaller, mostly stone-masonry pueblo was built on-site and occupied into the 1600's AD.
Wea€™ll spend all four nights at the new and beautiful Red Cliffs Lodge, featuring a popular restaurant and on-site winery and vineyard, as well as beautifully appointed riverside timber lodges with private patios overlooking the Colorado River. Within just a few generations, masonry Great Houses were built by Pueblo communities throughout the San Juan Basin and beyond to eventually encompass portions of four adjacent states. Following lunch we will take the short hike to the nearby-unexcavated Una Vida site, as well as an optional scramble up to the petroglyphs overlooking Una Vida. They have often served as memory banks for spatial data and as mnemonics in societies without the printed word and can speak across the barriers of ordinary language, constituting a common language used by men of different races and tongues to express the relationship of their society to a geographic environment. Certain carvings on bone and petroglyphs have been identified as prehistoric route maps, although according to a strict definition, they might not qualify as a€?mapsa€?.
In the present work, reconstruction of maps no longer extant are used in place of originals or assumed originals.
Since the maps were missing, he drew them himself from indications in the ancient text, and when the work was finished, he commemorated this too in verse. The map answered many hitherto insoluble or disputed questions, for example the question as to where the Virgin Mary met the mother of John Baptist. A series of maps of a coastal region (for example, that of Holland or Friesland) or of river estuaries (the Po, Mississippi, Volga, or lower Yellow River) gives information on the rate of changes in outline and their causes. Maps represent an excellent mirror of culture and civilizationa€?, but they are also more than a mere reflection: maps in their own right enter the historical process by means of reciprocally structured relationships. But when it comes to drawing up the balance sheet of evidence for prehistoric maps, we must admit that the evidence is tenuous and certainly inconclusive. The same evidence shows, too, that the quintessentially cartographic concept of representation in plan was already in use in that period. Our divisions into 60 and 360 for minutes, seconds and degrees are a direct inheritance from the Babylonians, who thought in these terms.
The Pharaohs organized military campaigns, trade missions, and even purely geographical expeditions to explore various countries.
From earliest times much of the area covered by the annual Nile floods had, upon their retreat, to be re-surveyed in order to establish the exact boundaries of properties. We find allusions to celestial globes in the days of Eudoxus and Archimedes, to terrestrial globes in the days of Crates and Hipparchus.
In Justiniana€™s day, or near it, one Leontius Mechanicus busied himself in Constantinople with globe construction, and we have left to us his brief descriptive reference to his work. But above all these, higher in rank and greater in power, is the Spirit (Zi) of heaven (ana), ZI-ANA, or, as often, simply ANA--Heaven. On this map of the world the islands of the Malay Archipelago follow the shores of Asia from Malacca to Japan. Even the Arabs, who, after the fall of the Roman Empire, developed the geographical knowledge of the world during the first period of the middle ages, adopted many of its errors. Volcanoes were supposed to be the entrances to the infernal regions, and towards the southeast the whole region beyond the river Okeanos of Homer, from Java to Sumbawa and the Sea of Banda, was sufficiently studded with mighty peaks to warrant the idea they may have originated. Many cartographers of the renascence, whose charts indeed we cannot read unless we reverse them, must have followed Asiatic cartographical methods, and this perhaps through copying local charts obtained in the countries visited by them. Taprobana was the Greek corruption of the Tamravarna of Arabian, or even perhaps Phoenician, nomenclature; our modern Sumatra. Geographical science was on the eve of reaching its apogee with the Greeks, were it was doomed to retrograde with the decline of the Roman Empire. John III, King of Portugal, ordered his remains to be sought for in a little ruined chapel that was over his tomb, outside Meliapur or Maliapor.
In some cases the authors of these texts are not normally thought of in the context of geographic or cartographic science, but nevertheless they reflect a widespread and often critical interest in such questions.
In particular, there are relatively few surviving artifacts in the form of graphic representations that may be considered maps.
Despite a continuing lack of surviving maps and original texts throughout the period - which continues to limit our understanding of the changing form and content of cartography - it can be shown that, by the perioda€™s end, a markedly different cartographic image of the inhabited world had emerged.
Of particular importance for the history of the map was the growth of Alexandria as a major center of learning, far surpassing in this respect the Macedonian court at Pella. Later geographers used the accounts of Alexandera€™s journeys extensively to make maps of Asia and to fill in the outline of the inhabited world.
Not even the improved maps that resulted from these processes have survived, and the literary references to their existence (enabling a partial reconstruction of their content) can even in their entirety refer only to a tiny fraction of the number of maps once made and once in circulation. It has been demonstrated beyond doubt that the geometric study of the sphere, as expressed in theorems and physical models, had important practical applications and that its principles underlay the development both of mathematical geography and of scientific cartography as applied to celestial and terrestrial phenomena.
On his map, moreover, one could have distinguished the geometric shapes of the countries, and one could have used the map as a tool to estimate the distances between places. To Rome, Hellenistic Greece left a seminal cartographic heritage - one that, in the first instance at least, was barely challenged in the intellectual centers of Roman society. Certainly the political expansion of Rome, whose domination was rapidly extending over the Mediterranean, did not lead to an eclipse of Greek influence. Such knowledge, relating to both terrestrial and celestial mapping, had been transmitted through a succession of well-defined master-pupil relationships, and the preservation of texts and three-dimensional models had been aided by the growth of libraries. The Romans were indifferent to mathematical geography, with its system of latitudes and longitudes, its astronomical measurements, and its problem of projections. Yet Ptolemy, as much through the accidental survival and transmission of his texts when so many others perished as through his comprehensive approach to mapping, does nevertheless stride like a colossus over the cartographic knowledge of the later Greco-Roman world and the Renaissance.
Pilgrims from distant lands obviously needed itineraries like that starting at Bordeaux, giving fairly simple instructions. When we come to consider the mapping of small areas in medieval western Europe, it will be shown that the Saint Gall monastery map is very reminiscent of the best Roman large-scale plans. Some maps, along with other illustrations, were transmitted by this process, but too few have survived to indicate the overall level of cartographic awareness in Byzantine society.
Eighty-two places are marked with their respective names, locations of rivers, mountains and forested areas on the map.
Experts said that graphics, symbols, scales, locations, longitude and latitude are key elements of a map.
Thus in the Ta Tai Li Chi, Tseng Shen, replying to the questions of Shanchu Li, admits that it was very hard to see how, on the orthodox view, the four comers of the earth could be properly covered. One such proponent is Max Brooks (author of The Zombie Survival Guide), who has written in his book, with outstanding clarity, "Blades don't need reloading." This ignores, however, that blades do require reloading in a very real sense, as they rely entirely on the user for the energy needed to kill something, and melee combat, even with an edged weapon, is extremely tiring and wears on the body.
Weapons marked with a *^ are weapons that could either be made or be improvised with another item to produce the same effect, but besides this, they are still pretty common. Finding one that can take repeated punishment of smashing zombie skulls is a bit trickier, but things made from aluminum are both lightweight and durable. Limbs are secondary targets only so far as to cripple the zombie enough to then be able to attack the skull. Not only is the knee joint more susceptible to damage from side-impact, it means a collapsing zombie will not be falling literally into your lap, which can very well result if you attack from the front.
Avoid any "urban combat" footwear that may look threateningly cool but are often shoddy-quality, ankle-turning, and fatigue-inducing monstrosities.
The only problem with this tactic is that the flail is more likely to wrap around the weapon, effectively making both weapons useless, which can put either user at a great advantage or a disadvantage depending on the strength of the fighters and whether or not they have another weapon. The slightly inverse-curved weapon typically ranged from 18" to 25" in length and was highly regarded by both Indian and Euro-Americans for its capacity to smash a human skull with a single full-arm awing.
While potentially devastating to a human opponent (who reacts to both pain and visual misdirection) nunchuks are ill advised to dispatch a zombie. Finally, the crowbar has a key advantage over other melee weapons—it can be used for its original purpose of prying open boxes, doors, windows, and what have you. Plus there would be no way to holster a spiked bat therefore making it your primary weapon. They have a long reach and can be found anywhere baseball is played (which is to say, anywhere in the United States), and most importantly, they have enough power to crack a skull open in one blow or if you need to cripple it, a good hit in the spine will do. Bats are very easily found, require no prior experience to become effective, and are very durable and light weight. Poles are used in alpine skiing, freestyle skiing (with the exception of aerials), and cross-country skiing.
While there are many custom cuemakers, a very large number of quality pool cues are manufactured in bulk. If someone in your group is breaking order, you can use this to restore order, although it isn’t recommended. If the club head says stuff like "1926" "Hand-Forged" "Made In Edinburgh, Scotland" or anything like that, if the head has a good heft to it and if the shaft is varnished wood, chances are a direct hit (or two) would kill a zombie.
However, in isolated cases, an old tennis racket can be used to restrain a single zombie until dealt with by removing enough netting until the racket can be easily placed around the neck of a zombie. A professional cricketer can exert an average force of just under 9,000N on a cricket ball, with the peak being almost double this, and so a bat can exert more than enough force to decapitate or crush.
And keeping morale up is the key to survival." So I got a stick, and spent half an hour rubbing it on a tree stump but nothing happened. Ok, I know that beetles aren't dangerous, but it does demonstrate how easy it is to come across insects, some of which could potentially be dangerous.
I fashioned this spear from a branch and Naughty George is being the prey to give me some practice. At certain times of the year, however, they welcome visitors and the Green Corn Dances in May are the main attraction to outsiders and other Pueblo people as well. We will learn about the archaeology of the Desert Archaic and Fremont cultures through Davida€™s lectures and hikes.
Wea€™ll also hike to Mantlea€™s Cave, a huge rock shelter where Fremont Indians stored an astonishing array of specialized items in storage cysts, now in the collections of the University of Colorado, Boulder. Set among towering red cliffs and ancient ponderosa pines, we may see a variety of wildlife, deer, eagles and big horn sheep along the shoreline. Learn Tewa history and how we use different techniques, archaeological review and Tewa oral tradition, to better understand their past.
Learn about the variety of species of mammals, reptiles, fish and birds that make the Grand Canyon home, including many threatened and endangered species and plants that have found a refuge in the Parka€™s protected lands. There is plenty of whitewater excitement, including some of the most famous a€?drops and fallsa€? in the world: Horn Creek, Hermit, Crystal and Lava Falls. While millions visit Mesa Verde National Park, which borders Ute reservation lands, these are seldom seen and striking sites that have not been stripped of their ancient presence and essence. Wea€™ll tour the famed Castaneda, newly purchased and under renovation by its new owner, Allan Affecldt (or resident partner), who also restored La Posada, the Harvey Hotel in Winslow, Az. The significance of Arroyo Hondo is that it was one of the earliest large, aggregated pueblos built during a period when settlement patterns throughout the northern Rio Grande were evolving in the direction of large towns located near dependable sources of water.A We will have an archaeological tour of this important cultural site, owned by the Archaeological Conservancy, with site steward and noted author, and archaeologist, Dr. Several easy to moderate hikes will be offered within Zion Canyon, including Echo Canyon, Weeping Rock, and the Riverside Walk. Coral Hills Best Western will serve as our base for two nights to explore beautiful Snow Canyon. The people the Spanish called Pueblos spoke at least seven mutually unintelligible languages (six are still spoken today) from four different language families, and their linguistic diversity was mirrored in many of their social, economic, and religious practices and institutions. He is able, using linguistics, metaphors, architecture, and material culture, to follow ancestors on their long journey south from Mesa Verde and the San Juan River Basin.
Between them, wea€™ll learn about the history and theories relating to ancestral rock art, migration of Tewa Pueblo peoples, Colonial Spanish exploration and settlement along El Camino Real (Royal Road), plus fascinating concepts of earth science, significant geographic landscape and visible volcanic features young and old we see in this region, as well as the causes of the rise of the majestic Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Wea€™ll be like trees: silent observers, important witnesses, participants in the continuing strength of Keres Pueblo culture here today. Wea€™ll explore the sitea€™s well-preserved architecture, cliff dwellings, artifacts, rock art and trails, and the world-quarter shrine all while overlooking the stunning Piedra Lumbre made famous by Georgia Oa€™Keeffe. Suina will share with us aspects of culture, history, spiritual underpinnings, and ritual observances which are tied to the rhythms of nature in the native world of the Eastern Keres Pueblos. The area has been extensively studied by scholars for several years in recognition and interpretation of frontiers and migrations of peoples in the archaeological record.
Lekson and others have made a strong case that the Canada Alamosa was the destination for a migrant community from the Mesa Verde culture area. He has guided educational and archaeological groups down the San Juan River for more than twenty years. Learn the history of the Keres world and its influence from both the ancestral Puebloan and European traditions. Kirt Kempter, will use this outdoor classroom as an educational opportunity to explain and discuss the earth history of this beautiful basin in our own backyard. From them, you will learn about the magnificent natural and cultural history of this scenic area, called a€?the evil countrya€™, or the badlands, by chroniclers on the Coronado Expedition of 1540, as a result of their extreme difficulty in crossing through lava flows by the expeditionaries and their horses along the legendary Zuni-Acoma Trail. The mythology of El Malpais will be discussed as well as the many different native cultures in the area, including Acoma, Zuni, Dine (Navajo), and others, which have made their home in the region for centuries and in some cases, millennia.
All will have access to the modern Visitor Center, featuring rangers, interpretive exhibits, and books and literature. Departing Santa Fe, we will travel through EspaA±ola, turn west over the Rio Grande, and on the north side of town turn west again onto a dirt road which we will travel for several miles on a scenic forest road, where we wind our way up through the Pajarito Plateau and into the scenic Jemez Mountains.
Zolbrod will escort us to an important ancient Chacoan outlier, Kin YaA­a (Tall House), where he will help us understand the importance of Chaco Canyon culture. You will have an opportunity to interact and learn about Dine culture in education from the teachers and students and tour the school.
Our Study Leader is a specialist on sacred spaces and places, and this will be a unique opportunity to share in his wisdom and insights. After scenic drive up the northern Rio Grande valley to Pilar, we will access the petroglyphs by hiking to view some of the most exciting images on stone. Forest Service and members of the American Rock Art Research Association, as well as Arizona State University scholars, these areas (Sites #006 and #147) are filled with over 600 known rock art carvings, which are astronomically aligned to Summer solstice and equinox sunrise and sunsets.
These lands were the site of hunting gathering and farming communities for many millennia, as this region was populated by different peoples over long periods of time who came together to become those who were encountered by Spanish conquerors, missionaries and settlers. All four pueblos were constructed of adobe and noted scholars excavated each to different degrees during the 20th century and today visitors see low mounds of earth. Pottery traditions of the village were shared with other puebloans of the Tewa Basin and Pajarito Plateau but Arroyo Hondo appears not to have participated in much broader networks of exchange. While much smaller than Arroyo Hondo, with about 250 rooms, it experienced 2 different construction episodes during which the community completely reorganized its space. This is one of Americaa€™s recent national monuments and is an important area sacred to Keres and other Pueblo peoples. This implies that throughout history maps have been more than just the sum of technical processes or the craftsmanship in their production and more than just a static image of their content frozen in time.
The reconstructions of such maps appear in the correct chronology of the originals, irrespective of the date of the reconstruction.
After the fall of Byzantium in 1453, its conqueror, the Turkish Sultan Mohammed II, found in the library that he inherited from the Byzantine rulers a manuscript of Ptolemya€™s Geographia, which lacked the world-map, and he commissioned Georgios Aminutzes, a philosopher in his entourage, to draw up a world map based on Ptolemya€™s text.
Comparison of travelersa€™ maps from various periods show the development and change of routes or road-building and allows us to draw conclusions of every kind about the development or decay of farms, villages and towns. They were artistic treasure-houses, being often decorated with fine miniatures portraying life and customs in distant lands, various types of ships, coats-of-arms, portraits of rulers, and so on. The development of the map, whether it occurred in one place or at a number of independent hearths, was clearly a conceptual advance - an important increment to the technology of the intellect - that in some respects may be compared to the emergence of literacy or numeracy. The historian of cartography, looking for maps in the art of prehistoric Europe and its adjacent regions, is in exactly the same position as any other scholar seeking to interpret the content, functions, and meanings of that art. Moreover, there is sufficient evidence for the use of cartographic signs from at least the post-Paleolithic period.
They are impressed on small clay tablets like those generally used by the Babylonians for cuneiform inscriptions of documents, a medium which must have limited the cartographera€™s scope. The survey was carried out, mostly in squares, by professional surveyors with knotted ropes. We find that the Greek geographer Strabo gives us quite a definite word concerning their value and their construction, and that Ptolemy is so definite in his references to them as to lead to a belief that globes were by no means uncommon instruments in his day, and that they were regarded of much value in the study of geography and astronomy, particularly of the latter science. With stress laid, during the many centuries succeeding, upon matters pertaining to the religious life, there naturally was less concern than there had been in the humanistic days of classical antiquity as to whether the earth is spherical in form, or flat like a circular disc, nor was it thought to matter much as to the form of the heavens. Hyde Clarke has more than once pointed out in The Legend of the Atlantis of Plato, Royal Historical Society 1886, etc., that Australia must have been known in the most remote antiquity of the early history of civilization, at a time when the intercourse with America was still maintained. Between the lower heaven and the surface of the earth is the atmospheric region, the realm of IM or MERMER, the Wind, where he drives the clouds, rouses the storms, and whence he pours down the rain, which is stored in the great reservoir of Ana, in the heavenly ocean. Then in a northeasterly direction Homera€™s great river Okeanos would flow along the shores of the Sandwich group, where the volcanic peak of Mt. Aristotlea€™s writings, for example, provide a summary of the theoretical knowledge that underlay the construction of world maps by the end of the Greek Classical Period.
Our cartographic knowledge must, therefore, be gleaned largely from literary descriptions, often couched in poetic language and difficult to interpret. The ambition of Eratosthenes to draw a general map of the oikumene based on new discoveries was also partly inspired by Alexandera€™s exploration.
In this case too, the generalizations drawn herein by various authorities (ancient and modern scholars, historians, geographers, and cartographers) are founded upon the chance survival of references made to maps by individual authors.
Yet this evidence should not be interpreted to suggest that the Greek contribution to cartography in the early Roman world was merely a passive recital of the substance of earlier advances. If land survey did play such an important part, then these plans, being based on centuriation requirements and therefore square or rectangular, may have influenced the shape of smaller-scale maps.
This is perhaps more remarkable in that his work was primarily instructional and theoretical, and it remains debatable if he bequeathed a set of images that could be automatically copied by an uninterrupted succession of manuscript illuminators.
While almost certainly fewer maps were made than in the Greco-Roman Period, nevertheless the key concepts of mapping that had been developed in the classical world were preserved in the Byzantine Empire.


What is more surprising is that the map marks the location of Wei Shui, now known as the Weihe River, and many canyons in the area. The map of Guixian County has all these elements except longitude and latitude, according to historians. Blades also require extreme care in their use and constant, regular maintenance anytime they are employed; a blade that sees regular use can require as much or more maintenance and care than a firearm. Targeting the torso should only be done to knock back down a zombie attempting to get back up. Finally, avoid "speed-zippers"--these accessories will break under severe or sustained wear.
The flanged mace favored by the Mongolians was so effective that it could literally disintegrate a human skull in a single strike.
Because Asian history is devoid of armies or cavalries donning heavy armor, bashing weapons were reserved for unarmored combat, and piercing and slashing weapons for light armor.
The main problems with the Kanabo are that it is heavy (over 8 pounds), hard to find, and has little to no secondary purpose (unless you are hunting and need a secondary method of putting prey down, which would need to be around the size of a elephant to not be overkill).
Some look like short, thick turned-wood chair legs with an adjustable-length metal shaft and a D handle. They can be made of wood or polypropylene, and are effective in bashing skulls and bones of both the living and undead.. One has to get within grabbing distance to connect a blow with them, and unless the entire structure is made of a sturdy metal or studded, the impact on a skull will, at best, cause a small crack. However, actually doing so takes a great deal of upper body strength, as their light weight actually worked against them in this way. In recent years, more technological materials such as fiberglass, carbon fiber, aluminum, etc., have been increasingly used for shafts and butts, and there has been a trend toward experimentation with rubber, memory foam and other soft wraps.
Don't plan on using your lucky 9-iron on an attacking ghoul, unless you plan to make him look funny with that 9-iron wrapped around his neck as he starts biting your face off.
This can be useful for keeping a zombie at bay and creating a target when said zombie is attacking a survivor.
Once a runner plant has established its own roots and is healthy I like to move it to avoid overcrowding.
Our hike will include some relatively flat trails on the mesa top, some rough uneven terrain along the boulder slope where the rock art is located, but will also include the short but steep rocky talus access to the mesa top, so please come prepared for this rugged landscape on the outskirts of Santa Fe which overlooks the important riparian stream banks of the beautiful Santa Fe River downstream from the city now featuring beaver dam ponds.
Hundreds of men, women and children dance throughout the day, accompanied by a male chorus, in the huge sunken bowl of the Plaza worn down by the centuries.
Ann features Corn Dance, a colorful spectacle which draws the entire Pueblo together as most of its population, nearly 700 people, return to the Old Pueblo (normally not open to outside visitors) for traditional ceremonies and visiting native arts and crafts vendors. Discover more about the 5000 year human history presence and importance of the canyon to ancestral Puebloan, Hopi, Havasupai, Navajo, Hualapai, Paiute and Zuni.
As importantly wea€™ll hike beautiful side canyons with cascading waterfalls, turquoise pools, and the cooling shade of hidden grottos and enjoy stargazing at night.
Wea€™ll enjoy dinner, a lecture, and overnight at the historic Old Plaza Hotel, built in 1889. It is with anticipation that we look forward to spending time with our dear friend, Dora Tse Pe, the legendry potter and San Ildefonso resident as well as her family who have invited us to share a feast meal with them on this important occasion. George, Utah, just a few minutes from Snow Canyon State Park, where geologically young volcanoes poured dark basalt lava through spectacular canyons of red and white Navajo sandstone. The close proximity of Snow Canyon and Zion will allow us to spend significant quality time in both parks, with less highway travel. On Day 3 we begin our exploration of Zion, lodging for three nights in individual historic cabins right in the heart of Zion National Park, a very special opportunity indeed. They were not, in other words, a monolithic culture, but several different peoples who shared cultural practices. On this day trip, we will see remains of Tewa houses dating from the 14th century, much evidence of pottery as well as other artifacts in situ. We will also review the local hydrology and understand the presence of many natural springs nearby. It is with anticipation that we look forward to spending time with legendary potter and Zia native, Dora Tse Pe and her family who have invited us to visit and share a feast meal with them on this important occasion.
He will also share information on the important Keres language preservation project for which this study tour is organized to support. In addition to providing commentary on each site visited, he will offer us interesting facets of Puebloan and Dine (Navajo) history. Wea€™ll also visit the beautiful Laguna Mission church, operated by the Franciscan order, built in 1699 and containing beautiful native paintings, colonial reredo (altar screen), and traditional adobe architecture.
We will travel through the historic ghost town of Waldo and along the railroad tracks laid through the area in the late 19th century to the picturesque village of Cerrillos, then travel across the Galisteo Basin heading east on the backloads through this scenic area. Visit a small rural family-owned Trading Post, rarely seen by outsiders, which helps bridge cultures and maintain community. Special visits and tours of Dar al Islam Mosque in Abiquiu, Christ in the Desert Monastery, the Sikh Dharma and community in Somlbrillo near Espanola, the Buddhist stupa in Santa Fe, plus special presentations by representatives at these very special locations.
In addition to petroglyphs, there will be spectacular views of the Rio Grande gorge, birds, possibly early wild flowers, important Apache cultural shrines and their campsites. These types of carvings from this era are often associated with nomadic hunter-gatherer societies. While conquest is an important chapter of Pueblolan history, a€?survivancea€™ is its modern reality. Why did ancient Puebloans build monuments whose construction required the quarrying and shaping of thousands of tons of sandstone from canyon walls and the hauling of over 200,000 pine logs from mountain slopes 60 miles away, all to build a dozen 300-600 room edifices that housed only a handful of people? The trail is well marked and follows along a small arroyo and enters an elegantly carved slot canyon, then climbing to a scenic overview of the spectacular Rio Grande valley where we will enjoy a gourmet picnic lunch.
A short walk down the canyon will lead us to Kin Kletso, an important part of the developmental history of the area. Indeed, any history of maps is compounded by a complex series of interactions, involving their intent, their use and their purpose, as well as the process of their making. All reconstructions are, to a greater or lesser degree, the product of the compiler and the technology of his times.
He knew it would be out of date, but that is precisely what he wanted - an ancient map; to perpetuate it, he also had a carpet woven from the drawing. Inferences have to be made about states of mind separated from the present not only by millennia but also - where ethnography is called into service to help illuminate the prehistoric evidence - by the geographical distance and different cultural contexts of other continents.
Two of the basic map styles of the historical period, the picture map (perspective view) and the plan (ichnographic view), also have their prehistoric counterparts. However, the measurement of circular and triangular plots was envisaged: advice on this, and plans, are given in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus of ca.
From Ptolemaic Egypt there is a rough rectangular plan of surveyed land accompanying the text of the Lille Papyrus I, now in Paris; also two from the estate of Apollonius, minister of Ptolemy II. There is, however, but one example known, which has come down to us from that ancient day, this a celestial globe, briefly described as the Farnese globe. Yet there was no century, not even in those ages we happily are learning to call no longer a€?darka€?, that geography and astronomy were not studied and taught, and globes celestial as well as armillary spheres, if not terrestrial globes, were constructed.
Here however he makes his hero confess that he is wholly out of his bearings, and cannot well say where the sun is to set or to rise (Od. Although these views were continued and developed to a certain extent by their successors, Strabo and Ptolemy, through the Roman period, and more or less entertained during the Middle Ages, they became obscured as time rolled on. The bones of the holy apostle were found, with some relics that were placed in a rich vase. Again, if we consider the Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans as devoid of the American Continent, and the Atlantic Ocean as stretching to the shores of Asia, as Strabo did, the parallel of Iberia (Spain) would have taken Columbusa€™ ships to the north of Japan--i.e.
At the time when Alexander the Great set off to conquer and explore Asia and when Pytheas of Massalia was exploring northern Europe, therefore, the sum of geographic and cartographic knowledge in the Greek world was already considerable and was demonstrated in a variety of graphic and three-dimensional representations of the heavens and the earth. In addition, many other ancient texts alluding to maps are further distorted by being written centuries after the period they record; they too must be viewed with caution because they are similarly interpretative as well as descriptive. Eudoxus had already formulated the geocentric hypothesis in mathematical models; and he had also translated his concepts into celestial globes that may be regarded as anticipating the sphairopoiia [mechanical spheres].
And it was at Alexandria that this Ptolemy, son of Ptolemy I Soter, a companion of Alexander, had founded the library, soon to become famous through the Mediterranean world.
It seems, though, that having left Massalia, Pytheas put into Gades [Cadiz], then followed the coasts of Iberia [Spain] and France to Brittany, crossing to Cornwall and sailing north along the west coast of England and Scotland to the Orkney Islands.
On the contrary, a principal characteristic of the new age was the extent to which it was openly critical of earlier attempts at mapping.
Disregarding the elaborate projections of the Greeks, they reverted to the old disk map of the Ionian geographers as being better adapted to their purposes.
This shape was also one which suited the Roman habit of placing a large map on a wall of a temple or colonnade. 90-168), Greek and Roman influences in cartography had been fused to a considerable extent into one tradition.
The Almagest, although translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona in the 12th century, appears to have had little direct influence on the development of cartography. Ptolemya€™s principal legacy was thus to cartographic method, and both the Almagest and the Geography may be regarded as among the most influential works in cartographic history. However, the maps of Marinus and Ptolemy, one of the latter containing thousands of place-names, were at least partly known to Arabic geographers of the ninth to the 10th century. The most accomplished Byzantine map to survive, the mosaic at Madaba (#121), is clearly closer to the classical tradition than to maps of any subsequent period. He Shuangquan, a research fellow with the Gansu Provincial Archaeological Research Institute, has made an in-depth study of the map and confirmed its drawing time to be 239 B.C. Always remember while active a zombie is ALWAYS attempting to grab and bite any human within contact range. Even if they were wearing a helmet, the flail would deliver some serious blunt force trauma, and the helmet could become so distorted that should the intended victim somehow survive the battle, they'd require a blacksmith to help pry the helmet off his head.
It is most effective when you know how to handle it as it is quite heavy, but it can penetrate or crush the zombie skull. Even in feudal Japan, the weapon was rarely used by soldiers, instead being more of a weapon for those with major strength who could swing and recover fast if they missed their target.
The gunstock warclub is also good for knocking zombies out of your way and its not only lethal but also looks nicely nasty. Even then, the chain cannot be too thick, which means it will quickly wear thin, rust, or outright snap like a bicycle chain. Steel and lead pipes would be best suited for the task of bashing heads, although, like bats, they still require a great deal of upper body strength. The trip inclui??des all lodging, meals, river and rafting arrangements and quality time with David Noble. Experience the soothing comfort of a quiet river valley and nearby pond, a welcome oasis in the heat of the summer.
Visit interesting historical sites only accessible by the river, study unique geological features, and gain a comprehensive educational perspective on the geology and natural history of this majestic canyon.
We will take a short hike to Piedras Marcadas Canyon, where the first petroglyph of a horse known in the United States is found amid a rich concentration of petroglyphs, most of which were created a century before European contact. On the next day, accompanied by our modern Harvey Girl we will tour the legendary Montezuma Hotel, now part of the United World College campus. Featuring gas log fireplaces and a private porch at each cabin, we promise a bit of quiet time to enjoy the majesty of one of our favorite U.S.
The wealth of data on Pueblo culture, from three thousand years ago to the present day, provides an ideal laboratory for the study of culture change.
Those who have accompanied Ware and Governor Joseph Suina on past Pueblo World Tours will visit many of the same destinations but see many new sites, and youa€™ll be able to follow along with Warea€™s commentary on Pueblo social history with an advance copy of his new critically acclaimed book. The site contains lots of petroglyph panels, spectacular views and a large important ancient Santa Clara village that includes a reconstructed kiva. Sam Duwe, assistant professor in the Department of Anthropology and Applied Archaeology and Director of the Tewa Basin Archaeological Research Project at Eastern New Mexico University. David is the author and editor of many books relating to Southwest archaeology and culture, including Ancient Ruins of the Southwest: An Archaeological Guide and most recently, In the Places of the Spirits. A short but interesting hike (one mile round-trip) will illustrate the fascinating earth history of the Cerrillos Hills, Ortiz Mountains and the beginning of rifts in the Santa Fe area. In El Malpais are found ancient jagged lava flows, volcanic cinder cones and rims, pressure ridges, lava tubes, ice caves, and other landscape features, as well as prehistoric ruins and cairns, rock structures, and homesteads, plus important cultural sites where ancient pottery and other material artifacts have been discovered.
Paul Catholic Church in Crownpoint, where Navajo spirituality coexists with Roman Catholic Christianity.
The glyphs follow the contours of the rock and incorporate natural features, such as nodules, bumps, and cracks, into the carving. Some have said the Zia people have retained most of their traditional beliefs and thus absorbed very little influence of our dominant society. Cordella€™s interpretation, we will walk each of the sites to understand their similarities and differences. Their kivas were of 2 different shapes and construction techniques, and the village maintained 2 different traditions of painted pottery, while participating in extensive trade networks. Why did ancestral Puebloan communities over a geographic region the size of New England build community centers that emulated these monumental structures? Learn the fascinating geologic story of how these dramatic columns have eroded as you appreciate the power of Mother Naturea€™s forces: wind, water, and time. Wea€™ll visit smaller habitation sites, small farming settlements surrounding Casa Rinconada, Chacoa€™s massive great kiva.
Therefore, reconstructions are used here only to illustrate the general geographic concepts of the period in which the lost original map was made.
It was said that as the Archangel Gabriel appeared to Zacharias in the holy of holies, Zacharias must have been High Priest and have lived in Jerusalem; John the Baptist would then have been born in Jerusalem.
I have not been able to find any such evidence or artifacts of map making that originated in the South America or Australia. This is described in an inscription in the Temple of Der-el-Bahri where the ship used for this journey is delineated, but there is no map. It is of marble, and is thought by some to date from the time of Eudoxus, that is, three hundred years before the Christian era. The Venerable Bede, Pope Sylvester I, the Emperor Frederick II, and King Alfonso of Castile, not to name many others of perhaps lesser significance, displayed an interest in globes and making.
See the sketch below of an inverted Chaldean boat transformed into a terrestrial globe, which will give an idea of the possible appearance of early globes. Indeed, wherever we look round the margin of the circumfluent ocean for an appropriate entrance to Hades and Tartaros, we find it, whether in Japan, Iceland, the Azores, or Cape Verde Islands. Terrestrial maps and celestial globes were widely used as instruments of teaching and research. Despite what may appear to be reasonable continuity of some aspects of cartographic thought and practice, in this particular era scholars must extrapolate over large gaps to arrive at their conclusions. By the beginning of the Hellenistic Period there had been developed not only the various celestial globes, but also systems of concentric spheres, together with maps of the inhabited world that fostered a scientific curiosity about fundamental cartographic questions. The library not only accumulated the greatest collection of books available anywhere in the Hellenistic Period but, together with the museum, likewise founded by Ptolemy II, also constituted a meeting place for the scholars of three continents.
From there, some authors believe, he made an Arctic voyage to Thule [probably Iceland] after which he penetrated the Baltic. Intellectual life moved to more energetic centers such as Pergamum, Rhodes, and above all Rome, but this promoted the diffusion and development of Greek knowledge about maps rather than its extinction. The main texts, whether surviving or whether lost and known only through later writers, were strongly revisionist in their line of argument, so that the historian of cartography has to isolate the substantial challenge to earlier theories and frequently their reformulation of new maps. There is a case, accordingly, for treating them as a history of one already unified stream of thought and practice.
With translation of the text of the Geography into Latin in the early 15th century, however, the influence of Ptolemy was to structure European cartography directly for over a century. It would be wrong to over emphasize, as so much of the topographical literature has tended to do, a catalog of Ptolemya€™s a€?errorsa€?: what is vital for the cartographic historian is that his texts were the carriers of the idea of celestial and terrestrial mapping long after the factual content of the coordinates had been made obsolete through new discoveries and exploration.
Similarly, in the towns, although only the Forma Urbis Romae is known to us in detail, large-scale maps were recognized as practical tools recording the lines of public utilities such as aqueducts, displaying the size and shape of imperial and religious buildings, and indicating the layout of streets and private property.
But the transmission of Ptolemya€™s Geography to the West came about first through reconstruction by Byzantine scholars and only second through its translation into Latin (1406) and its diffusion in Florence and elsewhere.
But as the dichotomy increased between the use of Greek in the East and Latin in the West, the particular role of Byzantine scholars in perpetuating Greek texts of cartographic interest becomes clearer.
Forested areas marked on the map also tallies with the distribution of various plants and the natural environment in the area today. Since ammunition will become increasingly difficult to come by, it is important to keep a quality close-quarters weapon handy. Simply take a flat shovel, preferable no larger than two feet long, and weld two axe blades on either sides. For this reason, avoid the jumping two-legged stomp ("Bronco Kick") against any zombie who is lying face upward. And being the heavy weapons they are, your speed is greatly reduced while wielding them and much skill and strength are required to use and carry them.
An even more insidious weapon was the morning star, which had numerous spikes on the ball itself, and when used on an unarmored human head, could cause such damage that most of the brain itself could be flung out of the shattered skull.
Use of hardware store dowel rods are inadvisable as they are frequently made from pine, which isn't sturdy enough for combat. In addition, the kanabo may smash a zombie's head a little too well, splattering infected brain matter all over you like watermelons at a Gallagher show. Some can take the shape of a glass bottle (pretty much any glass vessel with a narrow neck) and some look like giant, over sized bowling pins with faded circus paint and fading fancy letters that say stuff like "100-pound Herculean". The speed nunchuks generate is substantial, and can cause substantial bruising, pain, bleeding, and hairline fractures in smaller bones. Best to ignore these, unless the situation dictates that you get out of an area as quickly as possible, leaving you little time to kill each and every zombie, in which case these would be useful in shoving aside ghouls in your way. Titanium crowbars recently have become available in North America and are lighter than their steel counterparts, yet more than twice as strong.
For most people, taking a ghoul down should be easy, assuming the person is not suffering from intense strain in a muscle.
Charming casitas, comfy beds and organic samples from the garden will round out our archaeological day excursions. Appreciate the context, and underlying meanings of this powerful ritual and sacred cultural landscape. Our mission is to arrive before dawn so we witness the entrance into the village of the deer and other animals. Few places in world provide so much historical information, over so many centuries, on cultures that thrive today. On the Saturday following the tour wea€™ll visit Cochiti Pueblo for a tour of the community by this yeara€™s Cochiti Governor, Dr. We begin to learn how Tewa people understand their own unique history and become witness to the kind of collaborative work Scott and tribal members have been doing to link the native understandings to Southwestern archaeological research.
Our afternoon will conclude with a relaxed social Happy Hour, including a glass of wine and appetizers at Conniea€™s Casa, the owner-built, passive solar traditional home to Southwest Seminars Director, Connie Eichstaedt. Includes transportation, 4 meals, overnight accommodations, entrance fees and Study Leadersa€™ honoraria.
You will also need long pants and hiking boots, hat, water, and hiking sticks (poles) if you use them.
They are typically deeply incised and may represent the only remnants of conscious communication left by these early peoples. The Zia achievements in pottery and other arts and crafts, as well as spiritual tenacity is legendary. Was it political hegemony, economic imperialism, or religious fervor that inspired the architects of Chaco and their emulators?a€?a€?Amerinda€™s spring tour to the northern Southwest will spend two days in a€?Downtown Chacoa€? in search of answers to these questions.
3-mile roundtrip hike, 400 feet elevation gain Includes: Study leader honorarium, transportation and a lovely picnic lunch included.
No one person or area of study is capable of embracing the whole field; and cartographers, like workers in other activities, have become more and more specialized with the advantages and disadvantages which this inevitably brings. Nevertheless, reconstructions of maps which are known to have existed, and which have been made a long time after the missing originals, can be of great interest and utility to scholars.
It has been shown how these could have appealed to the imagination not only of an educated minority, for whom they sometimes became the subject of careful scholarly commentary, but also of a wider Greek public that was already learning to think about the world in a physical and social sense through the medium of maps. The relative smallness of the inhabited world, for example, later to be proved by Eratosthenes, had already been dimly envisaged.
The confirmation of the sources of tin (in the ancient Cassiterides or Tin Islands) and amber (in the Baltic) was of primary interest to him, together with new trade routes for these commodities. Indeed, we can see how the conditions of Roman expansion positively favored the growth and applications of cartography in both a theoretical and a practical sense.
The context shows that he must be talking about a map, since he makes the philosopher among his group start with Eratosthenesa€™ division of the world into North and South. Here, however, though such a unity existed, the discussion is focused primarily on the cartographic contributions of Ptolemy, writing in Greek within the institutions of Roman society. In the history of the transmission of cartographic ideas it is indeed his work, straddling the European Middle Ages, that provides the strongest link in the chain between the knowledge of mapping in the ancient and early modem worlds. Finally, the interpretation of modem scholars has progressively come down on the side of the opinion that Ptolemy or a contemporary probably did make at least some of the maps so clearly specified in his texts. Some types of Roman maps had come to possess standard formats as well as regular scales and established conventions for depicting ground detail.
In the case of the sea charts of the Mediterranean, it is still unresolved whether the earliest portolan [nautical] charts of the 13th century had a classical antecedent. Byzantine institutions, particularly as they developed in Constantinople, facilitated the flow of cartographic knowledge both to and from Western Europe and to the Arab world and beyond.
However, using melee weapons causes you to run the risk of exposing yourself to infection, either through a zombie bite or blood splatter (although Solanum infected blood congeals, partially minimizing this concern. Alternatively, sharpen the edges of a flat-bladed shovel until it is suitable for zombie-killing.
However, if you can find one and have the considerable strength and fitness required to effectively wield it, you have yourself a great close-range zombie-smasher. Over time and repeated usage, the spikes wear down and become nubs, but this does not significantly diminish the damage rendered.
Also, the studs can come off with enough force, making the weapon less useful after every fight. It's worth noting that the vast majority of ones that say they're 100 pounds or more rarely approach that weight. It can also generate concussive force, which is irrelevant to a zombie.  It was never designed to penetrate armor, or the thick human skull. On the other hand, a steel tonfa (while rare) could provide the weight and therefore generate enough force to take out a zombie in only a few, well aimed strikes.
Because it is so light and cracking the skull takes a powerful swing, it's advised that you only use it if you're fighting a few zombies at a time, or if you're trying to quickly get through a crowd of zombies and don't have the time to kill them. PVC piping is generally rather weak, however an episode of the Internet series Zombie Go Boom proved that multiple strikes can be effective depending on the thickness and length of the pipe.
As they age plants will lose “vigor” so you should pull plants over three years old to maintain your patch’s fruit production.
Along with the amazing scenery and geo-education wea€™ll enjoy periods of profound peace as we drift quietly through narrow corridors of polished granite. Meredith Davidson, an enthusiastic young scholar, is Curator of 19th and 20th Century Southwest Collection, for the New Mexico History Museum and curated the current permanent exhibition, Setting the Standard: The Fred Harvey Company and its Legacy. We will have a picnic lunch on site and finish with a visit to a Santa Clara pottery-making family for a demonstration of their famous deep-carved black and red ware, which often features the water serpent, or Avanyu, as well as other symbols and imagery significant to the Tewa villages of the northern Rio Grande. On our last Southwet Seminars field trip to the North Rim we had a very special porcupine sighting!
These incredible rock carvings include curvilinear, rectilinear, non-representational, irregular, geometric, spirals, starbursts, animal tracks, hunting images, and vision & Dream scenes. Their mission church and plaza are all part of the accommodation and compartmentalization of different but powerful spiritual forces. Wea€™ll begin our tour 150 miles to the north in the central Mesa Verde region where Chaco probably had its roots. The possibilities include those for which specific information is available to the compiler and those that are described or merely referred to in the literature. Some saw in the a€?hill countrya€™ Hebron, a place that had for a long time been a leading Levitical city, while others held that Juda was the Levitical city concerned.
The fact that King Sargon of Akkad was making military expeditions westwards from about 2,330 B.C.
The whole northern region, of sea as he supposed it, from west to east, was known to him only by Phoenician reports. If a literal interpretation was followed, the cartographic image of the inhabited world, like that of the universe as a whole, was often misleading; it could create confusion or it could help establish and perpetuate false ideas. It had been the subject of comment by Plato, while Aristotle had quoted a figure for the circumference of the earth from a€?the mathematiciansa€? at 400,000 stades; he does not explain how he arrived at this figure, which may have been Eudoxusa€™ estimate. It would appear from what is known about Pytheasa€™ journeys and interests that he may have undertaken his voyage to the northern seas partly in order to verify what geometry (or experiments with three dimensional models) have taught him. Not only had the known world been extended considerably through the Roman conquests - so that new empirical knowledge had to be adjusted to existing theories and maps - but Roman society offered a new educational market for the cartographic knowledge codified by the Greeks. Ptolemy owed much to Roman sources of information and to the extension of geographical knowledge under this growing empire: yet he represents a culmination as well as a final synthesis of the scientific tradition in Greek cartography that has been highlighted in this introduction. Yet it is perhaps in the importance accorded the map as a permanent record of ownership or rights over property, whether held by the state or by individuals, that Roman large-scale mapping most clearly anticipated the modern world.
If they had, one would suppose it to be a map connected with the periploi [sea itineraries].
Our sources point to only a few late glimpses of these transfers, as when Planudes took the lead in Ptolemaic research, for example.
Safety goggles and a closed mouth while attacking should protect most melee weapon wielders), especially if you are tired or injured. It can be used for piercing, smashing, and slashing, though the latter works somewhat ineffectively. However, don't even think of using this against the undead unless you have lots of practice, or no alternative. An ordinary, one-handed Indian Club offer a slight increase in range over a knife, but multiple strikes may be needed to smash the brain.
Also, if you find yourself an antique police nightstick then by all means use it, those things are made of solid hardwood and a direct hit would be surprisingly effective.
Sam Duwe, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, University of Oklahoma and Director, Tewa Basin Archaeological Research Project will be a highlight of our trip as he shares knowledge of the Tewa and the region. Includes 7 full days of activities and 8 nights in favorite lodging in scenic locations, and featuring the interplay and dialogue which accompanies scholarly discussion and debate. Includes Transportation, scholar honorarium, lunch, followed by wine with apps at Conniea€™s Casa (and hoped-for lilacs) before return to Hotel Santa Fe, our pick-up and departure point. Our destination will be a high altitude alpine meadow overlooking the spectacular north rim of the Valles Caldera where we will be served a gourmet fajita picnic lunch with a breathtaking view down into the caldera valley below. Zolbrod will also introduce us to two Catholic nuns who were part of the effort to create the Crownpoint Rug Auction, now a major cultural tradition and artistic event which you will have the privilege of attending. We will be like trees: silent observers and important witnesses of the continuing strength of culture here today at Zia Pueblo. Viewed in its development through time, the map is a sensitive indicator of the changing thought of man, and few of these works seem to reflect such an excellent mirror of culture and civilization. Of a different order, but also of interest, are those maps made in comparatively recent times that are designed to illustrate the geographical ideas of a particular person or group in the past but are suggested by no known maps. Many solutions to this problem were put forward, but it was solved once and for all by the Madaba map, which showed, between Jerusalem and Hebron, a place called Beth Zachari: the house of Zacharias. The paucity of evidence of clearly defined representations of constellations in rock art, which should be easily recognized, seems strange in view of the association of celestial features with religious or cosmological beliefs, though it is understandable if stars were used only for practical matters such as navigation or as the agricultural calendar.
The celestial globe had reinforced the belief in a spherical and finite universe such as Aristotle had described; the drawing of a circular horizon, however, from a point of observation, might have perpetuated the idea that the inhabited world was circular, as might also the drawing of a sphere on a flat surface. Aristotle also believed that only the ocean prevented a passage around the world westward from the Straits of Gibraltar to India. The result was that his observations served not merely to extend geographical knowledge about the places he had visited, but also to lay the foundation for the scientific use of parallels of latitude in the compilation of maps.
Many influential Romans both in the Republic and in the early Empire, from emperors downward, were enthusiastic Philhellenes and were patrons of Greek philosophers and scholars. In this respect, Rome had provided a model for the use of maps that was not to be fully exploited in many parts of the world until the 18th and 19th centuries. But in order to reach an understanding of the historical processes involved in the period, we must examine the broader channels for Christian, humanistic, and scientific ideas rather than a single map, or even the whole corpus of Byzantine cartography. In addition, while a katana or a scimitar might be great to have during a zombie apocalypse, they're about as useful as bare hands if you don't know how to use them.
Train your technique using a store-bought coconut lying on the ground--you will get valuable feedback in the necessary technique and commitment. It would be possible to make a makeshift mace by attaching something somewhat heavy (like a rock) to a thick stick or a metal bar. When using a flail, having a slightly longer handle and using two hands can improve one's control over the weapon.
However, the majority of Indian Clubs that still survive are extremely well-made out of the most durable hardwoods, or occasionally metal. The PR-24 (short for "prosecutor"), as pictured on the side, can be used to kill zombies by holding the short handle and spinning the baton, connecting to the head. We are proud to offer this unique opportunity, a Must-Do for all lovers of the Southwest culture and landscape, especially when accompanied by such exceptional scholars. The maps of early man, which pre-date other forms of written communication, were attempts to depict earth distributions graphically in order to better visualize them; like those of primitive peoples, the earliest maps served specific functional or practical needs. Excavations on this site revealed the foundations of a little church, with a fragment of a mosaic that contained the name a€?Zachariasa€?. What is certainly different is the place and prominence of maps in prehistoric times as compared with historical times, an aspect associated with much wider issues of the social organization, values, and philosophies of two very different types of cultures, the oral and the literate.
Later we encounter itineraries, referring either to military or to trading expeditions and provide an indication of the extent of Babylonian geographical knowledge at an early date. Another of a land, also in the north, where a man, who could dispense with sleep, might earn double wages, as there was hardly any night. There was, however, evidently no consensus between cartographic theorists, and there seems in particular to have been a gap between the acceptance of the most advanced scientific theories and their translation into map form. Viewed in this context, some of the essential cartographic impulses of the 15th century Renaissance in Italy are seen to have been already active in late Byzantine society.
One should be careful not to underestimate the effects of fatigue while using melee weapons.
Even fully trained modern experts wear reinforced helmets when demonstrating these weapons, because the whirling ball is so unpredictable that the user has a very good chance of smashing his own brain in with the thing.
The design maximizes centrifugal force by maximizing speed of the spin (force= mass x acceleration). All expenses covered coach transportation, admissions, all lodging and meals, donation to tax deductable donation to the Amerind Foundation. Their lives represent an intersection of cultures that they have chosen for their life's work.
Lunch included at Conniea€™s Casa in Canoncito at Apache Canyon for debriefing and sharing our adventure stories. Maps were also frequently used purely for decoration; they furnished designs for Gobelins tapestries, were engraved on goblets of gold and silver, tables, and jewel-caskets, and used in frescoes, mosaics, etc.
They do not go so far as to record distances, but they do mention the number of nights spent at each place, and sometimes include notes or drawings of localities passed through.
He probably had the first account from some sailor who had visited the northern latitudes in summer; and the second from one who had done the like in winter. The influence of these views on Chinese cartography, however, remained slight, for it revolved around the basic plan of a quantitative rectangular grid, taking no account of the curvature of the eartha€™s surface. While adrenaline will endow extra strength and energy, this chemical reaction is an emergency fight or flight response, and will not last long. It is advisable to practice sufficiently before the zombie apocalypse in order to attain the necessary level of competence with the nunchuaku, as they are also functional against multiple zombies. However, this does require practiced skill and to be most effective, spikes should be added to the end of the PR-24. It was not until the 18th century, however, that maps were gradually stripped of their artistic decoration and transformed into plain, specialist sources of information based upon measurement.
As in Greek and Roman inscriptions, some documents record the boundaries of countries or cities. At the same time Chinese geography was always thoroughly naturalistic, as witness the passage about rivers and mountains from the LA? Shih Chhun Chhiu. Only the highly fit should engage in melee battle for more than a few minutes without having an escape plan.
Another useful quick modification would be to sharpen all ends so they may be used in a stabbing manner to penetrate the skull, though this would require good aim and massive force to successfully execute. Flailing zombie arms and hands will effectively defeat this weapon (unaltered) as they stop the momentum required to deliver a zombie-stopping blow. In these humble surroundings, you will come to respect and understand the Dine and their important connections between people, language, and land. His discussions and commentary featuring his perspectives on Dine culture will be valuable tools for our own education. Free printable halloween masksfun masks for kids including disney characters, pirates, animals, superheroes and more.



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