The skull fragment identified is thought to belong to a child somewhat younger than two and shows bone lesions that commonly result from a lack of B-vitamins in the diet.
Now, the researchers suggest that the bone lesions present in this skull fragment provide support for the idea that meat-eating was common enough that not consuming it could lead to anaemia.
20 per cent of their protein from animal-based products.The latest findings were reported in a paper published yesterday in the open access journal PLoS ONE. The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline.
Nukemap is an app that can simulate what would happen if a 100 megaton nuclear bomb was detonated in a given area.
Women who choose a typically male-dominated field, sport or activity often have to break down misconceptions about a woman’s ability. Prior to Discovery Channel’s Naked and Afraid, which pairs one man and one woman survivalist, the only other female wilderness survivalist on television was Ruth England, the wife of military survivalist Mykel Hawke. Some wilderness survivalists enjoy the act of learning survival skills in a controlled setting, but they do not have the confidence or interest to test their skills in real-life situations.
Women have a higher body fat content than men, often over five percent more because we need more fat to give birth, to have menstrual cycles, to allow for breasts and milk, and to allow our hormones to work properly. Women who suffer iron-deficient anemia from menstruation will have greater energy loss and difficulty replenishing the lost iron. Another important menstrual factor to remember is that you will be luring in predators with your ongoing blood loss. Young girls often learn how to cook, make pottery, weave and sew, all skills which can be helpful in a survival situation. From hurricanes and flash floods to major disasters, chances are you will have at least a few tin or aluminum cans of food set aside for a time of need.
Here are 10 ways that every prepper can use aluminum and tin cans for direct survival needs.
If you expect to use aluminum and tin cans to their fullest potential, you need a few simple tools on-hand, and some of them are mandatory to get the job done.
Heavy, fireproof gloves – no matter whether you cut into a a large food can or a “thin” soda can, the edges  of the metal are more than sharp enough to cut into your skin.
Tarp or other coverings to cover the work surface and work area – working with metal cans is one of those things that makes more little snips of stuff than you might expect. A magnet – if you are working with metals that are drawn to magnets, you can use the magnet to retrieve shavings or other sharp bits of metal that are hard to find. Goggles – when you are cutting metal, there is always a chance that pieces will snap off, fly into the air, and land right in your eyes.
Rulers, compasses, paper, and cardboard – there are few things sloppier and more wasteful than going into a building project without a solid plan and patterns for each part of the object being built. Vices and clamps – No matter whether you are using power tools or hand tools to cut or drill into metal, keeping the work piece stationary makes it much easier to make precise cuts and also reduces the risk of injury and damage to the item you are working on. A solar can heater is the easiest and most inexpensive way to heat individual rooms now and in a crisis situation. The basic solar heater design will not heat up water, however you can amend it by simply running copper or other metal pipes through the core area for each can. You will also find it more efficient to pump water in through a pipe than trying to vent hot air into a window. For a final innovation, make your solar heater cells portable or build smaller units that take advantage of sunlight from different areas during the day.
If you have two tin cans, you can make a stove that will burn paper, small bits of wood, and just about anything else. In a world without electricity, you can rest assured that candles will be primary source of light. You can also get creative with these cans and make different slit designs for the light to go through, as well as bend the metal to make legs,  or for purely decorative purposes. When there are few sources of flat metal available, you will need a source of heat so that you can flatten available metals into blades and other important items. While you will still need some other tools to repurpose different metals into other shapes, having a metal forge is still an excellent start. As wonderful as light bulbs are, they still require a fire proof enclosure for safe operation.
You can also make shields for the light bulb in case you are going to use the lamp as a utility light.  For an added bit of innovation, bend some metal into a hook so that you can suspend the lamp from beams, nails, or anything else that suits your needs and safety concerns. If you love camping, hiking, and hunting, you may be led to believe that there is very little use for fan blades in a pure survival scenario.
Even though you may be able to use lighter weight, plastic fan blades for some applications, remember that you will still need to use metal for high heat areas or others where a plastic blade simply isn’t good enough.
Even in these “relatively safe” times, there is increasing interest in figuring out how to survive a live shooting situation.
On the other side of the equation, the average citizen that truly needs bulletproofing  is denied access to the best in terms of quality and efficiency. For example, if you want to bullet proof your home, six inches of sand will stop most bullets. When the warranty runs out on your vehicle, most car dealers figure that you will buy a new car rather than try to deal with all the expenses associated with repairing an older vehicle. To add insult to injury, if you are a dedicated prepper, then you may already know that the older vehicles are sturdier, easier to fix, and better for survival situations because there is no way for computers to shut down your vehicle from a remote location.
But what happens when a radiator blows or something else springs a leak?  If you have a few tin cans, you can cut the metal to cover the leaking area, and then braze the tin to cover the leak. Container gardens are very nice and useful for prepping, however the cost of commercial planters can be prohibitive when you survive on a budget.
Also, most planters that you buy aren’t suited for vertical gardening or other situations where space and water may both be at a premium.


For hot weather and cooler weather loving plants, paint the planters white so that they reflect heat outward.  This will keep the roots cooler and also help reduce moisture evaporation. Aside from acting as a valuable storage vessel for emergency and daily use foods, metal cans can also be used for many other things. While some of these ideas may seem redundant to other equipment that you may have on-hand, remember that physical possessions can be lost, stolen, or ruined at any moment. Previous studies have suggested that early hominids ate meat, but whether it was a regular part of their diet or only consumed sporadically was not certain. Nutritional deficiencies such as anemia are most common at weaning, when children's diets change drastically. WHY B VITAMINS ARE SO VITALB vitamins are a group of water-soluble vitamins which play vital roles in healthy cell metabolism.
When it hits the fan, and desperate neighbors are trying to escape nuclear radiation or government tyranny, the first place they will come knocking is your bunker. For instance, if one were dropped in New York City, nearly 8 million people would be instantly incinerated, while 4 million more would suffer serious injuries. The American Concrete Institute says that steel-reinforced concrete walls have 20 times the compressive strength (weight capacity) of normal concrete. Homo sapiens (us) lived through the Stone Age along with genetic cousins such as Homo erectus and Homo habilis.Our ancestors achieved a number of major developments during the Stone Age, key innovations that not only assured our survival in a harsh world, but laid the foundation for the more dramatic innovations that have shaped our world today.
Wilderness survival skills can be learned in many ways, including but not limited to: pairing up with a fellow wilderness survivalist, taking a wilderness survival class, practicing skills in a safe, controlled environment like a backyard, reading wilderness survival manuals and books, watching wilderness survival shows and movies, joining wilderness survival forums, joining wilderness survival groups and subscribing to wilderness survivalist channels on websites like YouTube. Natural factors affecting women in survival situations include but are not limited to: higher body fat, hormonal cycles, menstrual cycles, motherly instinct and dehydration. According to a 2009 study by the University of New South Wales, on average, women have 6 to 11 percent more body fat than men.
Wild edible and medicinal plants can help you replenish lost iron and aid in menstruation difficulties if you know the right plants in the area you are in.
If you are in the sea, you will be attracting sharks in the area and toothed whales such as transient orcas and sea lions. In some cultures today, and in the past for most modern cultures, women were the gatherers of water, wild edibles, wild medicinals and shelter materials. From simple, “bare bones” essential vital devices to more decorative options, you can truly use aluminum cans in more ways than expected. Without these tools and the skill to use them, you will either fail to finish your project, or you can get hurt if you don’t know how to handle and dispose of sharp metal edges and can remains. Unlike paper or fabric, these little bits of metal splinters  can get embedded in your feet or hands and wreak havoc. If you decide to use power tools for drilling holes, the risk of flying debris will be even higher.
Always start your designs on paper using rulers, compasses ,and protractors so that you get precise parts and sizing.   You will also always be well served by building cardboard models so that you can recheck measurements and make sure that most, if not all the parts are accounted for. Aside from giving you a medium that holds heat longer, it is much easier to pump water through radiators located in other rooms.
You can also modify the basic design to burn rubbing alcohol or other liquid flammable materials.
A tin can forge is easy to make and can be used to flatten out everything from  iron to drill bits. On the other hand, if you need to generate power, dry off damp areas, cool down electrical equipment, or even repair the fan blade attached to an automobile radiator, being able to make fan blades from tin cans is a very important skill. This includes scenarios where bullets from a surrounding area may find their way into your home.
If you cannot afford to build a fortification all at once, then just start with a few cans at a time. Even though some parts may not hold up very long after being patched this way, others may remain in good working order for years on end. This process is helped immensely with tinder cloth as well as other materials that catch fire easily. If you are concerned about white being easy to see by other people, try using very pale greens, blues, or even tans.
If you are serious about being ready for as many disaster situation types as possible, master the use of tin cans and make sure that you can build and operate some basic equipment made from metal cans. When all you have is are a few tin cans and other used materials, knowing how to turn crap into something useful is one skill no one can ever take from you. In order to post comments, please make sure JavaScript and Cookies are enabled, and reload the page.
The research suggest that the child may have died at a period when he or she was starting to eat solid foods lacking meat. Once regarded as a single vitamin, later research showed they are distinct chemicals which often coexist in the same foods. The residual radiation from the bomb would linger anywhere from a few minutes to several years, according to the U.S.
This will not only come in handy if an initial nuclear blast is within a few miles of your bunker, but will serve as a near-impenetrable radiation shield.
Remember you may not be able to leave the shelter for a year in the event of nuclear holocaust. And some go beyond the scope of their skills and venture into wild areas beyond their capabilities.
These all play important roles in a woman’s survival and the unique challenges posed by being a woman.
Studies show estrogen reduces a woman’s ability to burn energy after eating, resulting in more fat being stored around the body.
And girls are also often taught or nurtured in motherly instinct by their mothers or other female role models.


Women often hunt in many societies as well, and the Archery Trade Association even reports that women archers were the highest-growth group for the last several years. No matter how hard you try to avoid all those sharp edges, it only takes one cut to create a wound that can take a long time to heal or become easily infected. Keeping the work area and floor covered makes it easier to simply pick up the whole mess and discard it. Even in the best of times, eye injuries are some of the most tedious and difficult to deal with. The secret to your success will not be so much in the cans themselves, but what you put in the cans. You can even choose to build eight inch fortification walls or more and enjoy the insulative properties of the fortified wall at the same time.
If you do not have a shiny or smooth enough surface, you can also try fitting tin foil over the can to make it shinier. There are many pastel shades that can still mimic dried grass or other natural materials if you paint them as camouflage patterns. You can do it the old-fashioned way by hiring workers to dig with shovels, or have dig parties with friends who are guaranteed a spot in the bunker when it becomes necessary.
Make sure to leave small openings for an air filtration system, sewage elimination and even a spout to capture rain water for drinking. The bare minimum amount of water humans need to survive is about 68 ounces (two liters) per day, according to Human Rights Watch.
Other wilderness survivalists have learned enough wilderness survival skills to give them the basic skillset to constantly test their skills on personal wilderness quests. If a mother or a woman is thrust into a true survival situation with a child (or children), they have a lot of adrenaline that aids them in doing things that seem super-human if taken out of context.
If you know that you are going to have to work with metal in the post crisis world, now is truly the best time to learn how to solder and braze. But vitamin B12 in particular is only available from animal sources, making deficiency a concern for those unable or unwilling to eat meat.
The King County, Wash., Health Department recommends a concrete shield to protect yourself from gamma rays.
Check the region you are going to ahead of time, if possible, and learn some basic plants and their edibility and medicinal properties. Take the story of Jennifer Stolpa, who was left to shelter in a cave with her five-month-old baby and husband after being stranded by a snowstorm.
Even if you do not have access to a welder or do not know how to weld, brazing is still a valuable survival skill that you can use for your own needs or barter in exchange for other goods and services. The bunker should be 10 feet deep minimum, but for maximum protection from just about anything, go to at least 20 feet. I myself experienced two nearly back-to-back menstrual cycles while surviving 21 days in the Serengeti with apex predators like lions, hyenas and leopards. Stolpa nursed the child throughout the weeklong ordeal, even while she and her husband, who were without food and water, suffered frostbite and mild hypothermia. Women can also survive longer on their fat stores while trapped on the open sea, or in open-water swimming. Women’s extremities often feel excruciatingly cold during cold weather, but we store most of our fat in our torso, where it can insulate our organs and allow us a good shot at survival.
There is no reason why a woman cannot succeed at wilderness survival as well as a man, unless she does not believe she can. Firearms, ammunition, flashlights, matches, hygiene and first-aid supplies are the other essentials. SewingFlax fibers more than 34,000 years old have been discovered that had been spun to make thread.
Our ancestors fashioned needles from animal bones and used the thread to sew animal hide and fur into clothes, shoes and packs and to create string or yarn that had many uses including hefting and being used in making baskets and other domestic pieces.But what was particularly interesting about these fibers, found in the Republic of Georgia, was their color. So much for Stone Age people walking around in dull variations of beige, here is evidence that they made an effort to introduce color into their lives.Perhaps even a sense of fashion? Indeed Neanderthals and Homo sapien were known to have existed in the same areas of ancient Europe together up until the Neanderthals disappeared around 35,000 years ago.Music.
Long Hunting SpearFor the purposes of getting food and defending themselves Stone Age man had to contend with numerous creatures that had sharp claws and teeth.
Stone AxeOur Stone Age ancestors made a giant leap when they invented the stone axe somewhere between 250,000 and 1.2 million years ago. ShelterAmazingly, the earliest evidence that our ancestors built fixed shelters is from around 2,000,000 years ago. These shelters showed evidence of a hearth or fireplace and separate rooms representing a major improvement in living conditions for people using the shelter. The Controlled Use of FireFire wasn’t discovered as such as it existed before Homo Erectus harnessed its power, however the ability to control fire was the greatest step forward in the history of mankind and our ancestors.Fire enabled us to cook food meaning we were better nourished, keep warm which meant we were better rested, migrate into colder climates which saw us diversify across the globe, fight away predators, clear forests for agriculture and bake clay to make utensils. Evidence clearly places the earliest wheels in the Middle East and Central Europe between 3,400 BC and 3,000 BC. Our Stone Age friends did not have the wheel.Interestingly, homo sapien (mankind) faced extinction as recently as 75,000 years ago when the total population of homo sapien on earth was as low as 600 individuals.
Perversely, this low base allowed strong genes to come through and according to some archaeologists, mankind took a ‘great leap forward’ at this time, resulting in our rapid rise to dominance. It is a genius invention of the highest order.ReplyLeave a Reply Cancel replyYour email address will not be published. 2013 Actors Air travel Animals Art Beaches biggest people Cars Ceramic Art Comedy Driverless Car End of The World Engineering European Union Exercise Flowers Food Health Hotels Insects Inventions Investment Love moms and babies Money Most Beautiful Most Populated Motivation Music Of All Time Pacific Oceanscape Politics Quotes Shopping Soccer Solar Technology Speeches Stone Age The Universe Travel Turkey TV Shows Weather Wine Women TOP 10 MOST POPULAR MARATHONS IN THE WORLD24 Apr, 2016 TOP 10 THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT PTSD9 Aug, 2015Top 10 Facts About Eyes3 Sep, 2014Google May Be About To Change The World.



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