1Department of Post-graduate Studies and Research in Microbiology, Jnana Sahyadri campus, Kuvempu University, Shivamogga, Karnataka, India. Maintenance of scorpions under laboratory conditions is ideal for long-term venom collection to explore the therapeutic applications of scorpion venom. Four different scorpion species were collected, among which three species were maintained in the laboratory in containers that mimic their natural habitat.
A total of 373 scorpions including Hottentotta rugiscutis, Hottentotta tamulus, Lychas tricarinatus and Heterometrus swammerdami were collected, identified and maintained successfully, achieving a 97 % survival rate. As shown by an internal survey, Hottentotta rugiscutis (Pocock, 1897) scorpions are prevalent, live alongside the human habitat in the Chirathagundu village (Karnataka, India) and are known to cause considerable public health problems due to envenomations compared to three other regions – namely Hiriyuru, Nandihalli and Hindaskatte – where human activity is limited. Scorpion venom is a complex mixture of mucopolysaccharides, hyaluronidase, phospholipase, serotonin, histamine, enzyme inhibitors, and toxins, mainly neurotoxins that affect the function of Na+, K+ and other ion channels – and is used as investigatory tool in physiological and pharmacological research. To study the biological importance of venom and for the preparation of antivenom to treat human envenomations, a substantial amount of venom is needed and can be obtained by in-field venom collection or from scorpions maintained under laboratory conditions. There are three main methods for the extraction of venom, namely maceration of the telson, manual stimulation and electrical stimulation of scorpions. Given this context, the present study was conducted to develop a convenient method for scorpion maintenance and venom extraction for toxicity studies with the aid of a modified restrainer and stimulator. The scorpions were collected from four different locations namely, Hiriyuru, Hindaskatte, Nandihalli (Chitradurga district) and Chirathagundu (Bellary district) of Karnataka, India (Fig. Based on the morphological characteristics such as body color, the shape and size of pedipalps, shape of sternum, color of telson and number of pectine teeth, the collected scorpions were identified to the species level [10, 11]. Scorpions were fed once weekly such insects as grasshoppers, crickets and occasionally cockroaches [12]. Extraction of venom was performed at monthly intervals by the electrical stimulation method using a restrainer developed by Deoras and Vad [15] with slight modifications.
Toxicity of venom from Hottentotta rugiscutis of Chirathagundu region was studied by estimating the LD50 value under in vivo conditions. A total of 351 brown scorpions and 22 black scorpions were collected at different time intervals from different regions of eastern Karnataka (Table 1). The scorpions maintained in cages and plastic tubs were active and healthy with a survival rate of 97 %.
Feeding of scorpions once a week was noteworthy as it was observed that most of them did not consume insects when supplied at an interval of 3–4 days. During the period of captivity, molting was observed at least twice in Heterometrus swammerdami, and only once in few Hottentotta rugiscutis and Hottentotta tamulus. In total, 6.0 mL of venom was obtained from Hottentotta rugiscutis species at monthly intervals for the duration of 18 months (data not shown).
The stimulator used in the present study for the extraction of venom was more affordable than the one mentioned by Lowe and Farrell [8] and can be employed in the field if connected to a small battery.
The restrainer used herein was simple, cheap and effective, which eliminated any possibility of injury to the animal or the handler. NBT, SKN and PD collected and maintained the scorpions in the laboratory during the study period. The Curiosity rover performed the first-ever age measurement made on another planet, while examining the powdered samples drilled from the Cumberland rock on Mars. A team of scientists working on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity mission, have announced their latest findings of their studies of Yellowknife Bay, the area that the Curiosity rover is currently investigating on Mars. Even before the rover had arrived on Mars on August 5, 2012, the planetary science community knew that following a succesful landing, the mission would provide crucial data concerning the habitability of the Red Planet. The age measurement results come from a study led by Kenneth Farley, a participating scientist on the MSL mission. The results of the first-ever age measurements of rocks made on another planet, from the Curiosity rover on Mars, were presented in the recent 2013 Fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union.
These age determination measurements are very important to the search for organic molecules on Mars as well. A diagram of the volatile gases that were released when the Curiosity’s SAM instrument heated powdered samples from the Cumberland rock. While Curiosity examined the powdered rock samples from Cumberland with its SAM instrument, it detected an abundance of chlorine oxides, like hydrogen chloride (HCl) and perchlorate (ClO4? ).
Scientists at first thought that the presence of carbon and nitrogen, was a result of its delivery from Earth inside the SAM instrument. This conclusion was reinforced by independent studies, made by David Vaniman of the Planetary Science Institute in Tucson, Ariz.
Even if life has never flourished on Mars, clay minerals are very good agents for the preservation of organic compounds inside rocks, deposited either by meteorites, or by other geological processes. One of the findings that the scientists unveiled at the AGU meeting, were the radiation measurements on the surface of Mars made by RAD, during the first 300 Sols after Curiosity’s landing.
A chart comparison of different radiation exposure levels, including those encuntered during an interplanetary transit to Mars and stay on the Red Planet. More important to the prospect of future human exploration of Mars, Curiosity’s results helped scientists to calculate the total radiation exposure an astronaut would get from a turnaround trip there. The fascinating discoveries that were presented in the recent AGU meeting, not only helped to expand our knowledge and understanding of the Martian environment, but proved to be a turning point in Curiosity’s mission as well.
SpaceFlight Insider is a space journal working to break the pattern of bias prevalent among other media outlets. Aclaro que no es mio el articulo, lo redacto Yhele, asi que: ?gracias grosa!stupidcar dijo:che como es eso de que la cocaina es menos mortal que el alcohol? No es subjetivo, tus amigos con 500 cc de birra se entonan, con 5 litros ponen en riesgo la vida. A full metal 9+1 BB ball with a powerful rolling gear daiwa baitcasting reels on the hand rod is a great helper for you fish lovers. Return Policy details Buyers can receive a partial refund, and keep the item(s) if they are not as described, or possess any quality issues by negotiating directly with seller. Note: Due to possible delay of exchange rate update, price in various currencies is for reference only. Collection of venom by electrical stimulation requires a reliable stimulator and effective restrainer. Venom was extracted from Hottentotta rugiscutis by electrical stimulation at 8 V for 18 months and LD50 was estimated by the graphic method of Miller and Tainter. Herein we have also documented a simple, cost-effective method of venom extraction by electrical stimulation using a modified restrainer. Globally, 1988 species are known, among which 113 species from 25 genera belonging to six families have been recorded in India [1].
The therapeutic properties of scorpion venom includes anticancer, antimicrobial, antiepileptic, analgesic, antimalarial, pesticidal and insecticidal activities and also may be used in modulating cardiovascular effects and autoimmune diseases [5].
In comparison with the former, the latter ensures that copious venom can be extracted at frequent intervals for a longer time. Five groups of female Swiss albino mice aged two months (weighing 20–25 g), with each group containing five mice, were used for testing each dose of venom for toxicity and a sixth group was used as control. 2 A scorpion habitat in the laboratory (left) and a black scorpion drinking the water (right). The size of the insects fed to the scorpions was directly proportional to that of the scorpions themselves.
Scorpions were restrained over a rectangular shaped thermocol board (20 ? 16 cm) affixed at the center with a thick layer of cotton.
Transporting the scorpions in containers mimicking their natural habitat was apparently helpful in minimizing any sort of stress on them.

Employment of a Petri dish as a water reservoir makes water easily available to all scorpions (Fig. It was crucial that insects be smaller than the scorpion to ensure that the latter can grab the prey easily with its pincers. Few scorpions gave birth to offspring, which may have been conceived after captivity, as we observed spermatophores (sperm containing tube-like structures) attached to mud particles or stones (Fig.
The venom was also collected from other species for a short period in order to validate the stimulator and modified restrainer used. The spontaneous expulsion of venom is a concern that was avoided by anesthetizing the scorpion with 5 % CO2 or by placing it in a refrigerator (0 °C) for 3 to 5 minutes prior to venom collection [13, 16]. The modified restrainer and stimulator are significantly efficient in venom extraction for both smaller and larger scorpions. Deshabhushan Bastawade, Retired Scientist, Zoological Survey of India, Western Regional Station, Pune, for helping us in the identification of collected scorpions. SKN and PD worked in the extraction of venom by the electrical stimulation method and drafted the manuscript.
These include the first-ever age measurements of rock formations on the surface of another world. By carefully studying the geomorphology of  Yellowknife Bay, scientists came to the conclusion that the landscape is constantly reshaped by wind erosion.
Considering the age of 4.2 billion years of the Cumberland rock itself, it turns out that it was only exposed at the surface in very recent geologic times. The heating revealed significant amounts of carbon and nitrogen, which scientists believe were indigenous to Mars. The presence of such oxi-chlorinated compounds on the Cumberland samples was to be expected, since the soil on the surface of Mars had been found to be rich in perchlorate, by NASA’s Phoenix mission in 2008.
Yet, these two compounds were detected in far larger quantities than those believed to have been carried from Earth, making scientists confident that most of the carbon and nitrogen that was detected, was of Martian origin.
But the surface exposure of rocks, would be a fatal threat for any organics, which would be destroyed by galactic cosmic rays and solar radiation, over a period of hundreds of millions of years.
What the results showed, was that the Martian surface was dominated by the presence of galactic radiation only, with just one solar particle event being recorded. It turns out that the total radiation exposure an astronaut would get during a 6-month transit to Mars, would be in the range of 650-700 mSv. Working off a budget acquired through sponsors and advertisers, SpaceFlight Insider has rapidly become one of the premier space news outlets currently in operation. Vos con un litro te entonas, con 10 pones en rieso tu vida.Igual, como es imposible tomarse 10 birras al ritmo necesario, pasamos el alcohol a militros o centimetros cubicos (que es lo mismo) y veamos un poco cuanto alcohol posta estan tomando. Aajaj asi que capas lo escribiste vos o un colega Aguante ZN , proximamente el Pelu cannabicultor tambien no?
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Thus, the present study was conducted to develop a convenient method to maintain scorpions and to extract their venom for toxicity studies via a modified restrainer and stimulator. Scorpions of the family Buthidae are of prime importance due to the lethality of their venom to humans, especially to children in many tropical regions [2].
Long-term extraction or milking of venom from a pool of scorpions requires an efficient maintenance of scorpions, which otherwise would exhibit a difference in both the quantity and quality of venom obtained.
It is a reliable method but has the obvious drawback of allowing only one extraction per individual animal.
The mice were kept under room temperature where they had ad libitum access to rodent chow and tap water throughout the experiment.
Brown colored scorpions (Hottentotta rugiscutis,Hottentotta tamulus and Lychas tricarinatus) were found underneath the stone and wood materials over damp soil.
A plastic tub having soil substrate and stones mimicking scorpion habitat along with water-filled petri dish at the center as a water supplement. At three-day intervals, the water content in the Petri dish was checked and, if necessary, refilled. Above this, a Petri dish lid with cotton inside and an opening on its side sufficiently large for protrusion of the scorpion tail, was placed in an inverted position. Brown scorpions collected from the Hindaskatte and Chirathagundu regions were identified as Hottentotta rugiscutis, whereas the scorpions from Nandihalli and Hiriyuru were identified asHottentotta tamulus. However, during this study, proper handling and use of the modified restrainer drastically reduced the problem of spontaneous expulsion of venom. The action of red scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus coconsis, Pocock) venom and its isolated protein fractions on blood sodium levels. Preparation of a potent anti-scorpion-venom serum against the venom of red scorpion (Buthus tamulus).
Taxonomic studies on a collection of scorpions (Scorpiones: Arachnida) from Western Ghats in Kerala, India with two new distribution records.
Diversity and identification key to the species of scorpions (Scorpiones: Arachnida) from Jaffna Peninsula, Sri Lanka.
General biochemical and immunological characterization of the venom from the scorpion Tityus trivittatus of Argentina.
Maintenance of scorpions of the genus Tityus Koch (scorpiones, buthidae) for venom obtention at Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Purification of the immunogenic fractions and determination of toxicity in Mesobuthus eupeus (Scorpionida: Buthidae) venom.
Black scorpion (Heterometrus longimanus) as a laboratory animal: maintenance of a colony of scorpion for milking of venom for research, using a restraining device.
Procoagulant property of venoms of some medically important scorpion species from Sindh Region, Pakistan. After Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL), Curiosity set out to begin its 2-year primary mission of characterising possible past habitable environments around its landing site, inside Gale crater.
In essence, Mars’ surface is sand-blasted by wind, constantly exposing previously underground layers of rock to the surface. But the scientists detected strong signs of carbon and nitrogen as well, in the form of chemical compounds like carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitric oxide (NO) respectively. That doesn’t necessarily mean that something was alive inside the Cumberland samples, but it shows that the rock outcrops of Yellowknife Bay could easily preserve organic compounds. Yet, the discovery that the Cumberland rock has been exposed to the surface for approximately only 80 million years, makes scientists feel confident that enough organics could still be present, for Curiosity to detect. In addition, the recorded levels of galactic radiation on the surface varied significantly, showcasing daily and seasonal variations.
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Furthermore, to date, not much information is available on the effective maintenance of scorpions under laboratory conditions.
In the manual stimulation method, the animal is provoked manually to secrete the venom on a piece of parafilm [6].
Black scorpions (Heterometrus swammerdami) were found burrowed in soil at depths of 5–10 inches. About 8–10 brown scorpions such as Hottentotta rugiscutis (Pocock, 1897), Hottentotta tamulus (Fabricius, 1798), and the black scorpion, Heterometrus swammerdami (Simon, 1872), were housed in cages and plastic tubs respectively, and then covered with a mosquito net of proper dimensions.
Whenever necessary, soil was moistened with adequate water and unused dead insects and debris were removed.

The tail was held firmly using forceps and electrically stimulated by pointing two electrodes connected to a step-down transformer (Chandra Scientific Industries, India) at junctions between the tail segments, one next to the telson and the other at the junction between IV and V metasomal segment (Fig. This has proved to be a more efficient and easier method than the use of wet cotton balls placed in a container [13, 14].
Although it was not our motive to rear the scorplings, they were maintained on moral grounds, but ended up with only a 2 % survival rate.
Although the use of thermocol in the restrainer does not cause any problem, in the future it should be replaced with a wooden base to which a petri dish can be fixed with a spring holder to enable an easy restraining process. During its first months on Mars, Curiosity had already achieved this goal, consistently revolutionizing our view of the Red Planet along the way. Mars also doesn’t have a global magnetic field like Earth, so it is constantly bathed in lethal galactic cosmic rays, and ultraviolet radiation coming from the Sun.
This surface age exposure measurement, gives a baseline to scientists for determining the best places to look for organic compounds, from calculating the surface exposure of rocks. Even though the Sun is currently at its Solar maximum, this maximum is amongst the weakest of the past 60 years, thus having a minimal effect on the radiation environment on Mars that RAD has recorded. That’s not surprising, considering that the Martian surface is better shielded from radiation than interplanetary space. The high-end pflueger baitcasting reels can be customized on your needs, the material, length, and logo of the fishing rod shakespeare baitcasting reel can all depend on your needs.
But disadvantages include difficulty in provoking the scorpions [7], low venom yield and less toxicity as compared to the venom obtained by the electrical stimulation method [7–9]. These were captured carefully using long forceps by holding the tip of their tail without harming the animal. Scorpions found to be weak and mother scorpions with their young brood were housed in separate plastic containers to avoid any cannibalistic activity on the part of other scorpions. The animals were monitored for 24 hours and the LD50 was calculated by the graphical method of Miller and Tainter [18]. Adequate spraying of water restores the moisture content of the soil bed and is also helpful in the molting of scorpions [19]. Rearing of scorplings in captivity is a difficult task with a much lower success rate as compared to the maintenance of adult scorpions [20], as also reported by Candido and Lucas and Gopalakrishnakone [14, 21]. NBT provided the idea, gave supervision for experimental designs and finalized the manuscript. The rover then took samples of the resulting powdered rock and inserted them into its Sample Analysis at Mars, or SAM instrument, to investigate the rock’s chemical and isotopic composition. This is an absolutely critical part of establishing Mars’ history – to have an age determination of crater-counting, and the radiometric method actually confirms for the first time, that these models are valid,” he added during his presentation at the recent AGU meeting.
All this radiation penetrates to a depth of 3 meters below the surface, producing isotopes of various noble gases after colliding with the molecules on the ground and rocks. Clay minerals are known to be formed in the presence of water, and their abundance at Yellowknife Bay hinted at a past wet and habitable environment, conducive to life. In the third method, stimulation via mild electric shock results in contraction of muscles around the telson causing the venom to squeeze out of the vesicle. Black and brown scorpions were then transferred into separate containers with soil of about two inches in depth upon which small stones were placed. After 2 to 3 weeks, mother scorpions were placed in the common cage and scorplings were fed tiny insects.
Specimens of Hottentotta tamulus, Hottentotta rugiscutis and Heterometrus swammerdami were stimulated twice at 8 V and 10 V respectively, for 2 to 3 seconds, with a short interval between two stimulations. As it was observed, such factors as the size and type of feed, moisture content of soil and temperature of the environment may affect the survival of these scorplings. But this secretion pattern was not consistently observed in all the scorpions of the particular species stimulated. Now, Curiosity completed another historic first, by making the first-ever age measurement of a rock, in-situ on the surface of another planet.
The results showed that the samples were somewhat rich in potassium-40, an isotope of potassium that is known to decay into argon-40, with a half-life of 1.2 billion years.
By measuring the amount of these isotopes inside Cumberland, and by knowing the half-life of their radioactive decay, scientists can estimate how long the rocks at Yellowknife Bay have been at, or within 3 meters from the surface. The important discovery from the new studies, is that those minerals were formed in-situ inside the rocks on Yellowknife Bay, after the latter had been deposited there from the rim of Gale Crater, carried by flowing water.
It is calculated that 1000 mSv of radiation would increase a person’s risk of getting cancer, by 5 percent. However, extracting the venom by this method requires not only a cost-effective and reliable stimulator but also a restrainer. A maximum of 15 scorpions were kept in each container, which contained tiny holes for adequate ventilation.
Molted scorpions were not fed insects for 3 to 4 days to avoid any physical damage to themselves, nor were subjected to venom extraction for about 20 days. The venom was allowed to secrete over a piece of parafilm placed at the base of its tail and then transferred to a vial.
Although this study was focused on the collection of scorpions from the regions previously stated, we also collected another scorpion species haphazardly from the premises of Kuvempu University, Shivamogga district, with the aim of displaying the diversity of scorpions in Karnataka; it was identified as Lychas tricarinatus (Simon, 1884), but maintenance and venom collection were not carried out for this species (Fig. However,Heterometrus swammerdami secreted relatively more viscous and whitish venom in all the stimulations. This in-situ formation means that habitable environments were present in broader areas on Mars and persisting for much more time than previously thought, maybe more than millions to tens of millions of years.
The space agency’s current limit for astronauts on the International Space Station, is 3 percent. The scorpions were manipulated only on the day of venom extraction and during the replacement of soil, which was carried out once every two months. The venom obtained in a single episode from many scorpions of a species were pooled, mixed with excess double-distilled water and centrifuged at 15,000 rpm for 20 minutes to remove the mucus; the supernatant was lyophilized and stored at –20 °C until use. The symptoms observed in the experimental animals after venom injection included agitation, hyper-excitability, sweating, paralysis, salivation, squeaking, hunched back movements, convulsions, weakness and death. The venom was not extracted on the day immediately after feeding and also no food was added until three days after the venom extraction [13, 14].
For protein estimation and toxicity studies, venom was resuspended in phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.0 [16, 17].
The average amount of venom secreted from each individual scorpion in a single extraction procedure was ~ 8 ?L during the period of first 12 months, but reduced to ~ 5 ?L per scorpion for the next six months.
The expression time reported in this study (2–3 s) was shorter than the finding of 15 s by Gopalakrishnakone et al. Knowing the rate of potassium to argon decay and the amount of argon in the samples, Falray’s team used potassium-argon radiometric dating, a method that is commonly applied on Earth, but had not been used in space before.
Thus, maintaining the scorpions for more than 18 months may not be sufficiently productive in the context of venom yield, which was also noted by Candido and Lucas [14]. Radiometric dating came up with an age of approximately 4.2 million years, give or take 400 million. These variations can also be due to different stimulators and conditions used in those studies.
In an extensive survey of the literature, we found hardly any reports on the lethality of this species.

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Comments to «Ratio of ld50 to ed50»

  1. 665 on 27.11.2014 at 20:42:21
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