Officer Myrone Grady, a School Resource Officer for South Middle School, has served the Lawrence community as an officer since 2003; he began his duties as an SRO in 2008. South Middle School Assistant Principal, Lynn Harrod, wrote the following as part of Grady's nomination: "He is committed to our school on many levels. Prior to joining the Lawrence Police Department, Officer Grady coached college football at Fort Hays State University and the University of Nebraska-Kearney. School Resource Officers serve as a resource to all members of the community by providing education, intervention, counseling and deterrence of criminal activity.
SROs are committed to working with educators and administrators to maintain an atmosphere where teachers feel safe to teach and students feel safe to learn. Officer Grady graduated from Fort Hays State University in 1997 with a Bachelor of Science Degree and in 2001 with a Masters in Political Science and Justice Studies, also from Fort Hays State University. Every year, more than 3,000 people die in home fires in the United States; most of whom are in homes without a working smoke alarm. When both smoke alarms and fire sprinklers are present in a home, the risk of dying in a fire is reduced by 82%, when compared to a residence without either. The Police Department's Community Services Division has two officers, known as Neighborhood Resource Officers (NROs), dedicated to acting as a liaison between the Lawrence Police Department, the community and a variety of city agencies.
The officers work with citizens, civic groups, schools, and property owners in organizing and evaluating effective crime prevention programs. Innovations and Developments in Psychology and Education: Do Literacy Difficulties in Namibian Herero-English Bilingual School Children Occur in One or Both Languages? Two competing theoretical perspectives, namely, the script dependent hypothesis and the central processing hypothesis provide opposing accounts for the development of literacy and the nature of literacy difficulties in different languages. In a multilingual context, a child’s first language background is an important factor in developing literacy in an alternative language. This evidence may be consistent with the script dependent hypothesis (literacy difficulties will vary from one language to another given the differences in the orthographic depth of the languages).
In the case of the cohort studied here, for example, literacy difficulties may exist in Herero, their L1, only but not in English, their L2, or only in English but not in Herero. The process of literacy development in bilingual children may have implications to the literacy difficulties they may encounter in the languages in which they are developing literacy.
There is some evidence to suggest that knowledge and skills acquired in the L1 can transfer to the L2 and facilitate the development of L2 literacy. A child who already knows how to read in L1 and who has a high level of phonological awareness in L1 is more likely to perform well on L2 word and pseudo-word recognition tests. Furthermore, studies by (Cummins, 1991) and (Bialystok, 1997) have shown that some cognitive and linguistic skills and knowledge also do transfer between languages even if they differ orthographically (e.g. On the basis of these findings, it may suffice to say that cross-transfer of phonological processing skills seems to support bilingual children develop L2 literacy faster and perhaps earlier than they otherwise would have. The original sample, from which the five cases of literacy difficulties reported here were selected, consisted of 117 children in Grades 2-5 selected from three Namibian elementary schools, one rural and three urban. To be selected, the children in this grade had to have data on literacy measures in both Herero and English, listening comprehension measures in both languages, and on measures of general non-verbal reasoning at time 1 and time 2. From these 30 children those that showed poor literacy skills either at time 1 or time 2 in either language were selected. Selection of five cases for detailed discussion based on potential categories of difficulties: From these 8 cases, five cases that presented with literacy difficulties in both languages were selected. Measures used for this study included measures of word reading, decoding, phonological awareness, verbal and spatial memory, rapid naming, semantic fluency, sound discrimination, listening comprehension, and non-verbal reasoning (for a detailed description of these measures the reader is referred to Veii & Everatt (2005)) Herero and English versions of tests were developed for use with the cohort tested. For each graph, on the x-axis of each graph lie the measures used, and on the y-axis are the levels of skills acquired on each measure based on the z-scores. Five single cases that presented evidence of literacy difficulties were selected for discussion. The case presented in this category describes a child with evidence of literacy difficulties that may be based on deficits in non-verbal reasoning. Case 52 is a 10-year old boy at the Omatjete Primary School who presented evidence of persistent difficulty in measures of non-verbal reasoning (Raven’s Progressive Matrices), which may be indicative of deficits in general intellectual functioning. The case presented in this category describes a child with evidence of language comprehension problems in both Herero and English. By time 2, however, there is some evidence of literacy difficulties, but these are confined to English Word Reading (see Graph 4) and the problems with listening comprehension also seem to be restricted to English (the second language).
This category describes two children who seem to present with persistent literacy difficulties in both L1 and L2. Case 114 is an 8-year old boy at the Okakarara Primary School who presented with evidence of poor performance on measures of semantic fluency in both Herero and English, which may be indicative of an underdeveloped vocabulary in both languages. Case 103 is an 11-year old girl attending the Okakarara Primary School who seems to present with evidence of deficits in L2 phonological processing skills and L2 and L1 verbal memory. The evidence provided in this chapter seems to suggest slightly mixed results regarding literacy difficulties, or differential dyslexia. The rest of the cases discussed here seem to present with literacy difficulties in both languages, indicating that if literacy difficulties occur in one language, they are also likely to occur in the other, consistent with the views of the central processing hypothesis. Of great importance here is the observation that the same cognitive-linguistic factors seem to be related to literacy difficulties in both languages. These skill areas in which the children in this study show deficiencies constitute various phonological processes and, weakness in them might be indicative of these children’s inability to establish new phonological representations. All of the five children who make up the cases with literacy difficulties showed deficient phonological awareness in the L1, L2 or both L1 and the L2.
As Scarborough (1998) has shown, verbal short-term memory has been found to be deficient in many reading disabled children, although not necessarily all the time. According to Wolf, Bally, & Morris (1986), disabled readers, or dyslexics, are slower than same-age normal readers in completing tasks requiring naming familiar objects under timed conditions. At least two of these four children are in their early teens (12 and 13 years old respectively) and are still in primary school. One of the objectives of this research project was to identify those factors that may predict the development and failure of literacy skills among Namibian school children. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. With the passing of dyslexia laws in the state of New Jersey in 2014, there has been an increased focus on reading disabilities and dyslexia particularly in the area of effective assessment and remediation.
In this particular post I would like to accomplish two things: dispel several common myths regarding dyslexia testing as well as discuss the first step of SLP based testing which is a language assessment. A doctor does not have adequate training to diagnose learning disabilities, the same way as a doctor cannot diagnose speech and language problems.
SPEECH LANGUAGE PATHOLOGISTS TRAINED IN IDENTIFICATION OF READING AND WRITING DISORDERS ARE FULLY QUALIFIED TO PERFORM SIGNIFICANT PORTIONS OF DYSLEXIA BATTERY. Prior to initiating an actual face to face assessment with the child, we need to take down a thorough case history (example HERE) in order to determine any pre-existing risk factors. History of impaired phonological awareness skills (difficulty remembering children’s songs, recognizing and making rhymes, confusing words that sound alike,  etc). After that we need to perform language testing to determine whether the child presents with any deficits in that area. Here it is important to assess the student’s ability to listen to short passages and answer a variety of story related questions vs. Here it is important to assess the student’s vocabulary ability via manipulation of words to create synonyms, antonyms, multiple meaning words, definitions, etc.
A hugely important part of a language assessment is an informal spontaneously produced narrative sample, which summarizes a book or a movie.
Usually I don’t like to use any standardized testing for assessment of this skill but use the parameters from the materials I created myself based on existing narrative research (click HERE).
Given my line of work (school in an outpatient psychiatric setting), no testing is complete without some for of social pragmatic language assessment in order to determine whether the student presents with hidden social skill deficits.
Read part III of this series which discusses components of Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension testing HERE. Tatyana Elleseff is a bilingual speech-language pathologist who specializes in working with multicultural, internationally and domestically adopted as well as at-risk children with complex communication disorders. What do Auditory Memory Deficits Indicate in the Presence of Average General Language Scores?
School Resource Officers work closely with school social workers, counselors and administrators to ensure students have access to all available resources. NROs provide positive, proactive interactions within the community and assist with public education, crime prevention, neighborhood-specific problems, and coordination of other city services to ensure a professional response to the citizens of Lawrence.
You can cut your weekly fuel costs in half and save wear on your car if you take turns driving with other commuters.
As a bonus, site members have access to a banner-ad-free version of the site, with print-friendly pages.Click here to learn more. The script dependent hypothesis posits that reading development in different languages varies in accordance with the transparency or regularity of a particular orthography. It is equally important in informing the relevant educational authorities as to whether or not literacy difficulties occur in one or more of the languages in which a child is developing literacy skills.
This is all due to the fact that literacy difficulties are attributable to different underlying cognitive and linguistic causes and that cognitive and linguistic deficits that impact upon one language may not necessarily have the same effect in another language (Smythe, 2002).
However, a different interpretation of these findings may be reflecting different manifestations of literacy difficulties (dyslexia) across different orthographies; that is, literacy difficulties can occur in different languages or in two languages at the same time as a result of the same deficient cognitive-linguistic processing skills that may occur in both languages. If, for example, cross-linguistic transfer of phonological processing skills can influence the development of biliteracy or multiliteracy, it may be plausible to argue that literacy difficulties that occur in one language may also occur in the other language, for if the prerequisite cognitive and linguistic processing skills can affect literacy development in the L1, then they could also have the same effect on L2 literacy development. Durgunoglu, Nagy, & Hancin-Bhatt (1993) conducted a correlational study with first grade Spanish-speaking children to this effect. In contrast, a child who has some L2 word recognition skills but low phono-logical awareness tends to perform poorly on L2 transfer tests. Therefore, from the findings of such studies, it seems plausible to hypothesize that bilingual children transfer their phonological awareness from their L1 to their L2 during literacy development. The empirical evidence presented confirms the benefits that L2 literacy development accrues from developing, strengthening, and consolidating L1 skills.

From the point of view of the central processing hypothesis, literacy difficulties arise when a child has defective underlying cognitive and linguistic skills common in all languages. The rationale for selecting this grade was that at this stage the children would have had at least two years of formal literacy instruction in both Herero and English. Hence, all cases with missing data at both times 1 and 2 were excluded; thus, reducing the pool from which children with potential literacy difficulties would be selected to 30 children.
For each single case, z-scores were calculated by taking the difference between the single case’s score on a test and the average of their year group and dividing by the standard deviation of the year group. These cases were representative of the four different categories of literacy difficulties identified.
There seems to be further evidence of more deficits in semantic fluency, which may reflect this child’s poor vocabulary in both Herero and English (see Graph 1). These L2 literacy deficits may be attributed to the fact that Case 85’s L2 proficiency is still not well developed, or is still developing. For one child, the literacy difficulties may be accompanied by deficits in semantic fluency in both Herero (L1) and English (L2), verbal memory and language comprehension in L2 and an inability to process a sequence of novel sounds in L1. These deficits may be indicative of deficient phonological processing and working memory skills. His listening comprehension skills in both Herero and English and his non-verbal general reasoning skills are well within and above average.
Out of the five cases of literacy difficulties presented here, two (cases 85 and 86) seemed to experience persistent difficulties in L2 literacy, thereby confirming the views of the script-dependent hypothesis (that literacy development in less transparent orthographies is delayed and that literacy difficulties are more pronounced).
But given that the two languages studied here vary in their orthographic depth one would perhaps expect the patterns of the literacy difficulties to vary accordingly, with more severe literacy difficulties occurring in English, the less transparent orthography than in Herero, the more transparent orthography. Thus, on the basis of the presented evidence, and despite the differences in their orthographic depth, Herero and English seem to place more or less the same degree of cognitive demands on the three single cases presented in this study because, what the children seem unable to process in one language they also seem unable to process in the other. Thus, all of the five cases that exhibited poor literacy skills were those that differed from the good readers on the basis of cognitive and linguistic processing skills which influence the development of literacy.
Given that phonological awareness is transferable between languages, and as such influences the development of literacy across languages, it may be plausible to argue that poor phonological awareness in one language might curtail the development of literacy in another language.
The majority of children who presented with literacy difficulties in this study also presented with deficits in rapid naming of objects they were expected to be familiar with.
Earlier, Snowling (1981) had shown that dyslexic children four years older than their controls had difficulty repeating non-words, but not with the repetition of words.
This is obviously a serious delay in progressing through the educational system that may be attributed to the literacy difficulties these children seem to experience.
This objective may have been achieved, or at least, this study may have laid the foundation for identifying these problems.
Air Namibia supported travelling to Vienna, Austria to present the findings of this study as a paper at the IRICS Conference held in December 2005. More and more parents and health related professionals are looking to understand the components of effective dyslexia testing and who is qualified to perform it. A comprehensive battery of tests from multiple professionals including neuropsychologists, psychologists, learning specialists, speech language pathologists and even occupational therapists needs to actually be administered in order to confirm the presence of reading based disabilities. Please note that while children with language impairments are at significant risk for dyslexia not all children with dyslexia present with language impairments. It is important to note that I’ve seen time and time again students acing the general language testing only to bomb on the social pragmatic tasks which is why this should be a mandatory part of every language test in my eyes. She received her MA from NYU, her Bilingual Extension Certification from Columbia University and 4 ACE awards for continuing education from ASHA (to date).
Different languages, depending on the depth and regularity of their orthographies, place a certain degree of cognitive and linguistic processing demands on the child.
How these literacy difficulties manifest themselves, however, will be a function of the orthographic depth of a given language. For example, phonological deficits in Herero may be reflected in rapid naming deficits in English. Considering the fact that bilingual or multilingual children are exposed to two or more language systems at more or less the same time and, at an early age, it is possible that they develop sensitivity to the sounds of the two or more languages they are exposed to. Results showed that phonological awareness in Spanish and Spanish word recognition predicted word and word recognition in English.
Comeau et al (1999) provided further evidence of the cross-linguistic transfer of phonological awareness. This observation may further strengthen the case for the likely occurrence of literacy difficulties in both language systems of the bilingual, for L2 literacy skills may not develop optimally if L1 language skills are not fully developed. For diagnostic purposes, this grade would allow the researcher to identify those children who are at least two years behind in reading and writing skills in either language.
For non-verbal measures, only the instructions needed to be in both languages; however, for the remaining tests, different Herero and English materials were required. Each of the sessions took two days to complete and lasted approximately 40 minutes per day.
Differences were calculated such that a negative value always indicated a poor performance in comparison to the year group.
Scores within the range of 1 or –1 represent the average range for the grade from which the single case was selected.
A description of the nature of the literacy difficulties each case presents is given below.
These deficits are apparent despite her general reasoning and non-verbal abilities appearing to be within the average range. According to Cummins (1984), sufficient second language skills may take anywhere from five to seven years to come to fruition before literacy skills, particularly in the L2, can be evaluated. For the other child, the literacy difficulties seem to be coupled with problems in phonological processing in L2 and deficits in non-verbal memory skills. However, these L2 literacy difficulties may be related to poor L2 language skills, especially in the case of Case 85, which in turn, may be related to the fact that this cohort could be considered, by Namibian standards, to still be in the early stages of L2 and L2 literacy development. However, the prevalence of literacy difficulties seen here seems to be similar along the assessed cognitive-linguistic measures in both Herero and English. Simply put, the differences in the orthographic depth of Herero and English do not seem to matter in influencing literacy difficulties in this group of children.
The hypothesis went on to state that literacy difficulties were more likely to be more severe in English, the less transparent orthography, than in Herero, which has a highly transparent orthography. In turn, this implies that individual differences in these skill areas are indeed indicative of difficulty in developing literacy difficulties not only in the L1 but in L2 as well. Thus, deficient L1 phonological awareness, as is presented in these cases, may have negatively affected literacy development in the L2 and vice versa.
Again, this study may further confirm earlier findings that disabled readers are slow at naming familiar objects.
At least three of the five children with literacy difficulties in this study also exhibited difficulty with repeating strings of non-words.
While teachers and parents may be wondering as to what causes this delay, the answer, or part thereof, may lie in the cognitive-linguistic deficiencies these children seem to present.
Furthermore, it is hoped that the cognitive and linguistic factors that may be related to the literacy difficulties these children seem to present with will become part of the arsenal of tools authorities and all others involved in the delivery of special educational services will use in delivering the right kind of special educational services to those children who need them the most. Theoretical links among naming speed, precise timing mechanisms and orthographic skills in dyslexia. Issues in the assessment of reading disabilities in L2 children - Beliefs and research evidence. Automaticity, retrieval processes, and reading: A longitudinal study in average and impaired readers.
The author would like to thank the editor(s) and referee(s) of the IRICS Conference Publications. Veii (Department of Psychology, University of Namibia, Windhoek, Namibia): Innovations and Developments in Psychology and Education: Do Literacy Difficulties in Namibian Herero-English Bilingual School Children Occur in One or Both Languages?
It gives the definitions of the quantities percentage, rate, and base, and how they are related to each other through sample problems.
So I decided to write a multi-part series regarding the components of comprehensive dyslexia testing in order to assist parents and professionals to better understand the steps of the testing process (Infographic courtesy of TES Resources).
A doctor can listen to parental concerns and suggest an appropriate plan of action (recommend relevant assessments)  but they couldn’t possibly diagnose dyslexia which is made on the basis of team assessments. In other words, the child may be cleared by language testing but still present with significant reading disability, which is why comprehensive language testing is only the first step in the dyslexia assessment battery. I personally like to use the Listening Comprehension Tests for this task but any number of subtests from other tests have similar components. Her articles have been published in several magazines including Adoption Today, ASHA Perspectives SIG 16 and 17, as well as Advance for Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists.
These differences in the letter-sound correspondence rules lead to variations in the prevalence and patterns of reading difficulties from one language to another, as well as to differences in the development of reading processes and skills between languages (Gholamain & Geva, 1999). For example, transparent, regular, or shallow orthographies such as Herero, may place less demands on the cognitive and linguistic processing systems of a child in the process of developing literacy. Other studies examining differential dyslexia have provided some evidence for this phenomenon.
Thus, the question this study attempted to answer is whether the degree of transparency or defective cognitive-linguistic processing skills of Herero and English will influence the patterns and severity of literacy difficulties in these two languages among the Herero-English bilingual school children and, ultimately, determine whether or not literacy difficulties would occur in Herero or in English or in both Herero and English.
Specifically, the five single cases were selected from the original sample of grade 3 children for whom data were available at Time 1 and Time 2 of testing. Therefore, for each test, a single case is represented by the number of standard deviations that their score differs from the average for their year group. However, the deficits seem to have an impact on his literacy skills in both languages, particularly at time 2 (see Graph 2).
However, at time 1, these comprehension deficits seem to have only a slight impact upon her literacy skills in both Herero and English. These deficits appear to impact more upon L1 literacy skills, particularly on decoding and reading skills at time1 (see Graph 5). The deficits, however, seem to have an impact on Case 103’s literacy skills in both Herero and English at time 1 (see Graph 7).

Hence, it can be argued that the L2 literacy difficulties they experience may not be genuine but transitional and, as such, may be overcome with time and proper literacy instructions.
The cognitive-linguistic factors that seem to be related to literacy difficulties in Herero seem to be the same in English literacy difficulties as well. However, this finding cannot be said to be conclusive until further research can confirm it. The five cases of children presenting with literacy difficulties described here appear to have deficiencies in the key areas associated with the development of literacy and literacy difficulties, namely, phonological awareness, verbal short-term memory, rapid naming, and repetition. Disabled readers’ memory impairment is attributable to impaired representations of the phonological forms of words, which in turn, limits the number of verbal items disabled readers can retain in their memory (Snowling, 2000). The slowed rate of naming familiar objects can slow down the rate at which these children can read at both the word and sentence levels. This finding seems to have confirmed previous findings that children with reading problems do indeed experience difficulties with the repetition of words unfamiliar to them, or with make-up words.
Of course, further research with Namibian children of the other language groups not included in this study is necessary to confirm with a higher degree of certainty the role these cognitive and linguistic processing skills play in the development of literacy across the various Namibian language groups. A longitudinal study of phonological processing skills in children learning to read in a second language. Orthographic and cognitive factors in the concurrent development of basic reading in two languages. Orthographic and cognitive factors on the concurrent development of basic reading skills in English and Persian. A transcultural study of dyslexia: Analysis of language disabilities in 277 Chinese children simultaneously learning to read and write in English and Chinese. The presentation also shows the use of translation - translating sentences to mathematical expressions or equations.
For quick results I typically tends to use the Social Language Development Tests as well as portions of the Social Thinking Dynamic Assessment Protocol®. The deeper the orthography, the more complicated the process of phonetic encoding, the slower the acquisition of literacy and, ultimately, the more prevalent and severe the reading problems. In contrast, however, less transparent, deep, or irregular orthographies such as English may place much greater demands on a child’s cognitive and linguistic processing systems. For example,Leker & Brian (1999) described a patient who had an acquired reading difficulty in Hebrew but not in English. The concurrent development of phonological processing skills in bilinguals’ languages may put them at an advantage when learning to read and write in these different languages because of the potential for cross-linguistic transfer of phonological awareness. That is, L1 phonological awareness can transfer to L2 literacy development and L2 phonological awareness can transfer to L1 literacy development and, in so doing, facilitate the development of literacy between and within languages.
Thus, underlying cognitive and linguistic processing skills such as phonological skills, memory, orthographic processing skills, and the speed of processing, can somehow predict individual differences in the development of decoding skills in both L1 and L2 (Geva & Wade-Woolley, 1998). These children were selected to provide information about the development of literacy over the course of the study as well as to ensure that the child had experienced at least one year of literacy teaching prior to initial testing.
For example, tests that measured the ability to recognize phonemes required items with the same beginning and items with the same end sounds. These data were then presented graphically to show the profile of performance of the cases selected.
Indeed, her performance on the Herero literacy measures seems typical of her peer group (see Graph 3). By time 2, there continues to be evidence of literacy difficulties in both L1 and L2, with deficits in L2 verbal memory skills and in non-verbal memory skills still persisting at this time (see Graph 8). These deficits seem to have an impact on his literacy skills in both Herero and English at time 1 (see Graph 9). However, it is evident that literacy difficulties are present in both Herero and English at Time 1 of testing.
For example, verbal (phonological) memory, sound discrimination, semantic fluency and rapid naming occur simultaneously in both Herero and English as the underlying cognitive-linguistic factors that may be related to literacy difficulties in either language in the majority of the cases, even in those cases with persistent literacy difficulties in L2 only.
As such, these findings seem to provide evidence for the central processing hypothesis that literacy difficulties are a function of deficient underlying cognitive and linguistic processing skills. Furthermore, utilizing these measures might be likely to minimize over-identification and under-identification of literacy disabilities and other learning disabilities among L2 users such as Namibian bilingual school children. Consequently, this affects their working memory such that remembering the sequence of sounds that can be coupled together to form a word becomes difficult.
They may be slow in automating their reading process, thereby heavily influencing their reading (Bowers & Wolf, 1993) and eventually, the comprehension of what they read.
The inability to repeat non-words may indicate that the critically important phonological processes that are necessary for the ability to repeat non-words or unfamiliar words may be impaired, and therefore possibly lead to the literacy difficulties these children seem to experience. Cognitive and linguistic predictors of literacy in Namibian Herero-English bilingual school children. In contrast, consistent, transparent orthographies permit a simple, direct one-to-one correspondence between letters and sounds of words. A situation where a child is developing literacy in two or more languages differing in orthographic depth may result in an uneven development of literacy in each or one of the languages. Wydel & Budderworth (1999) reported a single case of a child who showed evidence of dyslexia in English (L1) but not in Japanese (L2).
More recently, Veii (2003) and Veii & Eveartt (2005) not only confirmed the findings of the previous studies alluded to above, but they also extended these findings by showing the reverse transfer of phonological awareness from L2 to L1 and how this reversed cross-linguistic transfer of phonological processing skills influences the development of literacy in both L1 and L2 in their cohorts. The L2 phonological deficits, deficits in L1 and L2 working memory, and deficient non-verbal memory skill all seem to combine in contaminating and cross-contaminating both L1 and L2 literacy skills.
By time 2, however, there is still evidence of literacy difficulties being confined to L2 only.
Other factors such as phonological processing skills and nonword repetition occur alternately in the one or the other language. However, the findings (Cases 85 and 86) also lend credence to the script-dependent hypothesis in that when these two children presented with L1 and L2 literacy difficulties at Time 1, by Time 2 only L2 literacy difficulties still persisted, confirming the view that literacy in less transparent orthographies takes longer to develop and are more severe. According to Snowling (2000), defective skills in processing non-words or unfamiliar words can have long-term effects on the nature of the lexical representations that disabled readers can build for words. Without these two skills, higher levels of education become difficult if not totally impossible to attain. A child inherently at risk for literacy difficulties developing literacy in an irregular orthography may be at an even much greater disadvantage and, may as a result, be delayed in developing appropriate literacy skills, perhaps more so in the less transparent orthography.
Kline & Lee (1972) assessed children who were acquiring literacy in English and Chinese and found that the majority of the children had no problems with reading and writing in both languages, some had trouble with English but not with Chinese while others had trouble with Chinese and not with English. At the same time, L1 phonological awareness may transfer to L2 literacy development while L2 phonological processing skills may also generalize to L1 literacy development.
With empirical evidence for the transfer of phonological skills between and across languages to aid with literacy development between and within languages, an argument may be advanced that when phonological awareness fails in either language, literacy development may fail in both languages. Pilot work and consultation with teachers ensured that items were appropriate for the cohort tested.
Similarly, the language listening comprehension problems that arise at time 2 also seem to be confined to L2 only (see Graph 10). As can be seen from these cases, all the children who showed deficiencies in verbal working memory in either L1 or l2 also showed poor literacy skills in either language. These children, and many others in Namibian schools who encounter literacy problems, are an example of what happens when literacy fails to develop either due to lack of proper educational opportunities or genuine cognitive and linguistic deficits. Hence, the central processing hypothesis assumes a universal approach to literacy development, proposing that reading development is not contingent upon the type and the nature of the orthography. Finally, Miller-Guron & Lundberg (1997) have identified Swedish children who presented with dyslexia-like deficits in their L1 but presented no such deficits in English (L2). Finally, second language phonological awareness may facilitate the development of literacy in the second language.
The primary concern of test development was appropriate levels of familiarity with materials, rather than controlling for factors such as word length and structure. Those that were used at Time 1 and Time 2 are abbreviated in the same manner, although the digit 2 has been added to the end of a label to denote that the score is derived from testing at Time 2.
At the same time, although fewer children showed poor visual information processing skills, the majority also showed strong skills for processing visual information, as is reflected in their performance on the spatial span (CORSI blocks) tasks, particularly at time 1. Of course, the particular child with literacy problems ends up being the most disadvantaged victim of an educational system that does not have the capability (probably due to a lack of financial or human resources or both) to provide the necessary and relevant services to children with special educational needs. Thus, if L1 phonological awareness does indeed contribute to L2 literacy development, and L2 phonological awareness facilitates L1 literacy development, then cross-linguistic transfer of phonological awareness is indeed a reality (Comeau, Cormier, Grandmaison, & Lacroix, 1999). Hence items were based on reading lists taken from graded text books and were not matched across languages in terms of numbers of letters or sounds within words. Thus, these results may confirm previous findings that disabled readers have difficulty with verbal short-term memory but not with information requiring visual memory span. Furthermore, the prediction of L1 and L2 literacy development within and across languages may be an indication that similar cognitive processes possibly underlie literacy development in both L1 and L2. As recognized by Geva and Siegel (2000), it is often impossible to design parallel tests in two different languages that are matched along a variety of dimensions such as word length, word frequency, syllabic length and structure. As such, individual differences in phonological processing skills can be an indication of smooth or problematic development of L2 literacy skills (Geva, 2000).
This is particularly the case when comparing a language with predominantly one and two syllable words (English) with a language where three or more syllables are the norm (Herero). This argument can be taken further to advance the notion that when literacy difficulties occur in the one language system of the bilingual, they are more likely to occur simultaneously in the other language system of the bilingual child. However, the lack of ability to control for these phonological-based factors across languages needs to be acknowledged by this study (for details of word and non-word materials, please refer to Veii & Everatt (2005)).

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