We have already read about how GSM technology had taken over mobile communication technologies and grown to over 214 countries around the world, including the networks Lao Shinawatra Telecom in Laos are to name few. The Switching system is very operative system in which many crucial operations are conducted, SS systems holds five databases with in it which performs different functions.
MSC is also important part of SS, it handles technical end of telephony.It is build to perform switching functionality of the entire system. VLR performs very dynamic tasks; it is database which stores temporary data regarding subscribers which is needed by Mobile Services Switching Center-MSC VLR is directly connected to MSC, when subscribe moves to different MSC location, Visitor location register – VLR integrates to MSC of current location and requests the data about subscriber or Mobile station ( MS ) from the Home Location Register –HLR.
EIR is another important database which holds crucial information regarding mobile equipments.
Subscriber, MS (Mobile Station) or mobile phone connects to mobile network through BTS; it handles communication using radio transmission with mobile station. The Base Station normally controls many cells, it registers subscribers, responsible for MS handovers etc. OMC- Operations and maintenance center is designed to connect to equipment of MSC- Mobile Switching Center and BSC-Base Station Controller.
Biometrics involves the use of physiological and behavioral characteristics to provide the identification of individuals as applied to physical and network security within a business.
The most common biometric system application used today is AFIS, the automatic fingerprint identification systems, used in forensics for the identification of convicted criminals.
Services include, but are not limited to diagnostic services, treatment, consultation, rehabilitation, disposition, and educational services for Veterans.
Our MissionWe are currently trying to meet the mental health needs of the military and Veteran community. We support efforts to deliver community- based services that include trained and certified peers, service navigation, and community outreach. The project is designed to control  speed of a DC motor using an Arduino development board. This project uses the above principle to control the speed of the motor by varying the duty cycle of the pulse applied to it (popularly known as PWM control).
Furthermore, the project can be enhanced by using power electronic devices such as IGBTs to achieve the speed control higher capacity industrial motors. Arduino develop Board Crystal DC Motor Motor Driver IC LED Resistors Capacitors Diodes Transformer Voltage Regulator Push Buttons.


Now it is important to learn how GSM networks work and what the the architecture of GSM networks is. If we talk about major tasks of SS system it performs call processing and subscriber related functions. It’s most important task is to control the calls to and from other telephones, which means it controls calls from same networks and calls from other networks. When subscriber makes a call the Visitor location register-VLR will have required information for making call already and it will not required to connect to Home Register Location – HRL again. Its major task is to authenticate and encrypt those parameters which verify user’s identification and hence enables the confidentiality of each call made by subscriber. EIR helps in restricting for calls been stolen, malfunctioning of any MS, or unauthorized access. BSS are basically out door units which consist of iron rods and are usually of high length.
As name suggests, Base transceiver Station is the radio equipment which receive and transmit voice data at the same time. It creates physical link between subscriber (MS) and BTS , then manage and controls functions of it.
A major aspect of information security is the ability to protect an information resource from both internal and external threats. Identification biometrics identifies an individual user from a large enrollment database (Who am I?)[4], while verification biometrics confirms the identity of an individual by linking their name with the preregistered physiological or behavioral data on file (Am I who I say I am?)[4].
By definition, physiology is “a branch of biology that deals with the functions and activities of life or of living matter (as organs, tissues, or cells) and of the physical and chemical phenomena involved" [5]. Recent advancements in biometric sensors and matching algorithms have resulted in widespread employment of biometrics in numerous civilian and government establishments. More than half a million Iraq and Afghanistan war Veterans have not sought care from the VA.
In addition, we support an integrated, holistic model of health, recognizing mental health needs cannot be separated from other critical needs, such as housing and employment, resource coordination, duplication of effort and ineffective services. Speed of the DC motor is directly proportional to the voltage applied across its terminals. The project has two input buttons interfaced to the Arduino board, which are used to control the speed of the motor.


The average voltage given or the average current flowing through the motor will change depending on the duty cycle (ON and OFF time of the pulses), so the speed of the motor will change. It contains subscriber service profile, status of activities, information about locations and permanent data of all sorts.
Toll ticketing, common channel signaling, network interfacing etc are other tasks which MSC is responsible for.
Authentication center – AUC makes sure mobile operators are safe from different frauds most likely to happen when hackers are looking for even smallest loop wholes in systems. It performs the function of high quality switch by handover over the MS to next BSC when MS goes out of the current range of BTS, it helps in connecting to next in range BTS to keep the connection alive within the network.
It helps in managing, centralizing, local and regional operational activities required for GMS networks.
The field of biometrics serves as the means of protecting both the physical building of a business and the IT tools that serve as its information resource. This division of biometrics includes the following: fingerprints face recognition, iris recognition, hand and finger geometry, and DNA analysis.
Hence, if the voltage across the motor terminal is varied, then the speed can also be varied. PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) is generated at the output by the microcontroller as per the program. A motor-driver IC is interfaced to the Arduino board for receiving PWM signals and delivering desired output for speed control of a small DC motor. When new connections are purchased, these subscribers are registered in HLR of mobile phone companies. These IT tools include the computers housed within a building and the network by which these computers communicate information amongst users. All businesses around the world utilize information as a resource in its daily operational activities, protecting that information is the goal of biometric technologies.
Behavioral biometrics deals with the identification or verification of individuals based on the manner in which they conduct themselves through various activities.



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