Eight months total knee replacement booktoots, It is one week and eight months after my total knee replacement surgery. The Small 3? Dr.Cool wrap can be used on your wrist, ankle or foot and can also be used as a dry compression wrap to support and protect your body. Ligaments and muscles comprise the force-producing soft tissues available in LifeMOD™. All of the muscles contain both trainable and active elements that allow you to run either inverse or forward dynamics simulations on any given muscle group.
Simple muscles fire with no constraints except for the physiological cross-sectional area (pCSA), which designates the maximum force a muscle can exert.
Hill-based muscles operate on the traditional combination of an active contractile element (CE) and a passive parallel elastic element (PE). LifeMOD automatically generates a full-body set of 178 muscles and attaches them to the bones at anatomical landmarks. The muscles created for each muscle set do not wrap or bend around geometric features such as other bones, but you may set up each tissue to wrap around features using either the slide-point based wrapping or the contact-based wrapping features. When LifeMOD creates the muscle set, it attaches each muscle to a particular standard body segment (see appendix).
To identify a particular muscle, right click on the muscle to bring up the name of the outline element. Figure 5: The full body set muscle creation panel for both the trainable elements and the Hill-based elements. Figure 6B: Table Editor window that allows you to change the type of muscles used on the model.
Figure 7: Model with a combination of Closed Hill muscles (brown color) and Open Hill muscles (pink color) on the right leg. In the first phase, the training element records contractions when external forces are applied to the body to manipulate it.
After generating the muscles, you may manipulate the body and limbs using motion agents in an inverse dynamics simulation to train the muscles and record reaction information. After the inverse dynamics simulation has been performed the model is ready for a forward dynamics simulation using the muscle forces as drivers in the simulation.
Use the Soft Tissues > Training panel to replace each training element with a trained contractile element. Figure 12 shows an example of muscle force calculation, the forward dynamics simulation results for the vastus lateralis muscle. Figure 13 displays the effect of changing the Pgain and Dgain from 1e6 and 1e4 (blue curve) respectively to 1e5 and 1e3 (red curve). This is typically done for parametric simulations like the Muscle Relocation Tutorial and the Cervical Spine Tutorial. Unlike the Controlled Muscle elements, the Activated muscle groups do not require inverse dynamics training and you may use them immediately in a forward dynamics simulation.
The panel in Figure 15 is used to create the muscle-tendon base tissue sets for the right leg. Non-standard muscle forces are individual muscles, ligaments, and tendons that are not included in the base set of soft-tissues provided by LifeMOD.
You may create individual muscles on the model to supplement an existing base set of muscles or just add new ones. Figure 17: Original base-set of muscles for the gluteus maximus and the gluteus medius muscles (left), individual muscles added to the set to provide better coverage (right).
Figure 19: Panel used to create trainable muscles between part_1 and part_2 at the attachment locations displayed. Figure 20: Panel used to create Hill-Type muscles between part_1 and part_2 at the attachment locations displayed. Ligaments are spring forces used to stabilize joints (see the Total Knee Replacement tutorial for a detailed example). Figure 22: Left leg mode with a total knee replacement illustrating the patellar tendon, the medial and lateral collateral ligaments.
You may model co-contraction, or antagonistic muscular effects, using either of the Hill-based muscle sets or a combination of trainable and Hill-based muscles.
Figure 23: Right arm modeled with both the trained Simple Controlled elements (brick red color) and open-loop Hill Activated elements (pink color). When LifeMOD generates muscles, it attaches them to the bones based on geometric landmarks on the bone graphics. LifeMOD displays each muscle as a cylindrical tube with two rounded ends that indicate the attachment points -- orange for the origin and indigo for the insertion. If you refine the body segments for greater number or detail, you may have to reassign muscle attachments on the standard body segments to the new non-standard body segments (see Cervical Spine example). The soft tissues generated in LifeMOD are straight and do not wrap or bend around the bone segments; in order to permit proper lines of action for muscle forces, two convenient methods are available in LifeMOD.
Figure 28 displays the panel you use to create the contact-based tissue wrapping and tissue-wrapped model itself.


The second tissue-wrapping method is the slide-point based method, which you use to model tissues sliding or bending around geometric features (tendon wrapping) using slide points.
Figure 29: The flexor digitorum profundus muscle group before slide points are introduced (left) and after (right). LifeMOD allows for slide-point creation at the same time as the generation of individual soft tissues, by entering multiple locations in the origin attachment location field.
Figure 30A: Panel that allows for creation of individual tissues and slide points simultaneously. Figure 30C: Forearm model with the flexor digitorum profundus set up to slide with respect to the third metacarpal bone. The figure below displays the panel used to delete soft tissues; You may delete soft tissues individually or as sets. The wrap replaces traditional bags of ice and combines cold therapy with compression that can help to reduce swelling and speed recovery mid or post-workout.
Cool wrap can be used on your knee, elbow or thigh and can also be used as a dry compression wrap to support and protect your body. Cool wrap can be used on your shoulder, back and thigh and can also be used as a dry compression wrap to support and protect your body. We are committed to serving the needs of our patients by providing the highest quality care. True to the actual physiological limitations of muscles and ligaments, soft tissues in LifeMOD can only transmit tension forces. To use them, you must add them manually using the Adding Individual Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons section. As a result, graphs of simple muscle activation curves will generally peak at a flat force ceiling value.
The contractile element contains an muscle activation state which controls the active muscle force capability, while the parallel elastic element exerts opposing forces that more accurately simulate the movement and force exertion of real muscles. It generates each set automatically and attaches them to the 19 base segments at predefined, scalable attachment points. You can change the attachment point by reassigning it to another body segment or a non-standard body segment (see the cervical spine example). When you select either Hill-type or Trainable muscle elements, LifeMOD displays a sub-panel with global parameter information. LifeMOD allows you to specify either the Updated 45 muscle set for the legs, which is the default, or select the Legacy 16 Muscle Set.
The model may be manipulated with a single motion agent (see total knee replacement tutorial) or by using a mechanical system to drive the model (see rehabilitation tutorial and bicycle tutorial), or by using motion data from a motion capture system (see golfing tutorial, dancing tutorial, hip replacement tutorial, gait analysis tutorial).
Select the light bulb icon, select either Closed-loop Simple or Closed-loop Hill, and enter the values for the servo controller proportional gain (Pgain) and derivative gain (Dgain). These values influence how the muscle will produce the displacement recorded in the proceeding inverse dynamics simulation. The forward dynamics simulation was run using Pgain and Dgainvalues of 1e6 and 1e4 (blue curve) and and again with values of 1e5 and 1e3 (red curve). Global parameters in the sub-panel consist of Hill passive and contractile element properties and the activation data spline. To generate the Simple Activated muscle group, simply repeat the process illustrated in Figure 6. For certain activities, the 178 muscles included in the base set must be supplemented, either by substituting multiple strands for a muscle group or by adding additional muscles to the muscle set for better muscle coverage in the model. The trainable muscle created using this panel spans part_1 and part_2 at the locations selected on the screen with the cursor. The muscle will span part_1 and part_2 at the locations selected on the screen with the cursor. Use the panel in Figure 21 to create ligaments between part_1 and part_2 at the locations selected on the model with the cursor. Figure 23 displays a right arm model with both trainable muscle elements (in the trained state) in red and Hill-based muscle elements in pink.
Since the Hill-based triceps is based on an activation, user-input activations create a resistance (antagonistic) force to the biceps driving the elbow flexion.
The location of the attachment affects its force magnitude during a particular activity (see the Muscle Relocation example).
To change the attachment locations, bring up the Soft_Tissues->Edit Properties panel and use the tools to move the attachment.
To reassign the attachment point to a new body segment, bring up the Soft_Tissues -> Edit Properties panel and use the tool displayed in Figure 27, and enter a new global location or use the increment tools. Figure 29 displays a model of the hand and forearm with the flexor digitorum profundus muscle group before slide points are introduced (left) and after (right).
Figure 30 displays the panels used to create the slide-point based wrapping and a model of the wrapping. Muscles are the primary soft tissues used in LifeMOD and produce tension forces between bone attachments.


The elements then repeat those patterns and serve as actuators for the forward-dynamics simulations.
The combination introduces the F-V and F-L muscle physics laws into the formula, thus refining the activation curves. Choosing Model Parameters offers more information on data sources and on how to select the parameters mentioned in this section. You may scale the muscles and attachments with the skeletal geometry when creating the body segments. There may be some cases where a muscle set must be expanded to provide better coverage than available with the standard muscle set. Figure 3 displays several segments in an exploded view to illustrate the topology of the muscles. Simulations involving the closed loop muscle groups will nearly always require the use of the recording muscle. The motion agents are directed to move using time-displacement curve data for each axis of motion.
During this simulation, LifeMOD records records the muscular contraction for each muscle in the leg. These values are user-defined constants that contribute to the muscle formulations listed in the appendix. Note how the force does not exceed 850 N which is the physiological maximum for this muscle. Once the elements are replaced, you may rerun the inverse dynamics simulation using new motion data, muscles, ground reaction force parameters, etc. You may set up the muscles and ligaments to wrap around tissues using either the slide-point based wrapping or the contact-based wrapping features.
When the individual muscles are added to the model they become part of the total body muscle set during training and functioning. When you specify an activation history to control the triceps muscle, they produce a counter reaction to the biceps which flexes the elbow joint. LifeMOD automatically creates surface contact forces between the idealized muscular geometry and any bone or structure in the model. The medial quad tendon tissue (1), is segmented into wrapping elements starting at tissue attachment (2).
The flexor digitorum profundus muscle (1), is specified to wrap at part (2) rigid location (3). The muscle actuators are programmed not to exceed the physiological limits of the individual muscle. This is accomplished by adding new muscles to the model (see Adding Individual Muscles Section). In the second phase, the individual muscle contractile histories are used to generate a muscular force that maintains the desired contraction pattern.
In a second simulation, the Ffilter for this muscle is reduced to 25% and is displayed as the red curve in Figure 12 where the force output is significantly decreased.
You can switch between the inverse dynamics and the forward dynamics simulations as often as desired.
Figure 17 displays a model with a base-set of muscles and an augmented base-set of muscles.
This methodology may be extended throughout the body for both the base set muscles and the individual muscles.
Be sure that the number of anchors in the Origin field matches the number of locations in the Attach Loc. To gain a feel for the effect of these values, run simulations after altering values of the Pgain and Dgain on the parameters panel and view the muscle forces using the strip chart displays from the results panel.
Figure 18 displays a model consisting exclusively of individual muscles (see Grasping Tutorial). You may also list specific muscles to convert from training to trained in the Select Muscles field. A wide variety of effects can be discovered and explored simply by altering the force capability of the muscle. The default is all muscles, which you will get if you leave the Select Muscles field blank.
See the Total Knee Replacement and the Muscle Relocation tutorials for examples of these effects.



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