We are also providing full multidisciplinary consulting engineering services for the new research building in the area of Nano-Biotechnology. Spanish edition designing effective literacy centers for, Designing effective literacy centers for the second-grade classroom includes spanish student materials spanish edition designing effective literacy centers. Second grade lesson big questions about informational text, Why we have thanksgiving** by margaret hillert you could use any informational text that has clear illustrations and is at the 2nd grade reading level. Walt whitman's notebooks and poetry: the sweep of the, How does whitman's poetry reflect his attempt to combine universal themes with the individual experiences and feelings? Many studies have been performed on the mechanics of throwing a ball with arm motions above shoulder level or “over-hand.” Researchers identify four to five specific phases of movement that occur during the act of throwing a ball. The further the shoulder can be externally rotated while it is abducted, the greater the ball can be thrown with force and speed, providing all other body parts and movements are in synch. The entire motion of throwing a ball takes approximately 2 seconds to complete, and the wind up consumes almost 1.5 seconds of that time. When the ball is released, the posterior quadrant musculature begins to contract eccentrically and violently to slow down and control the rotational speed of the Humeral head.
If any aspect of these mechanics is “off,” an injury can occur to the shoulder or elbow that can lead to the inability to throw a ball. It is the beginning of the throwing motion, preparing the “body parts” for the act of throwing a ball.


The posterior shoulder musculature is extremely active and the position of the shoulder is in extreme external rotation. The anterior upper quadrant muscles are concentrically active and begin to move the arm from extreme external rotation to internal rotation. In theory, if the eccentric control of the Humeral head did not occur the arm would continue to rotate internally and “spin” out of control.
If the mechanics are performed properly, the ball can be thrown with great velocity and accuracy.
Accurate pitching with force or speed requires the entire body and not just the shoulder and arm. The head of the humerus rests on the Glenoid fossa of the scapula where it articulates when the muscles of the shoulder contract to move the arm. Motion occurs in the lower extremities and torso where the vast majority of “power” to throw a ball is generated. This shoulder position places the anterior upper quadrant musculature on a “stretch” and prepares it to contract forcefully when the arm begins to move forward in the next phase of the throwing motion. As the ball moves forward towards the target, the speed of rotation of the humeral head can exceed 7000+ degrees per second. If the body is trained correctly, the act of throwing can be performed repetitively without causing an injury to the throwing shoulder.


The head is held “against” the glenoid surface via the four Rotator Cuff (RTC) muscles, which act in unison and form a force couple when the arm is moved. Proper body mechanics places the shoulder in the proper position during the acceleration phase to generate great velocity and accuracy without causing an injury to the throwing shoulder. The amount of eccentric contractile force that occurs can damage the posterior musculature if they are not trained properly. If this phase is completed correctly, the thrower’s body position is “under control” and balanced. If any of these movements “break down,” they can make the ball go somewhere that it is not intended to go. The lead shoulder is directed at the target and the throwing arm continues to move into extreme external rotation.



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