FeaturesLifeStraw® Water Purification: This powerful device filters dangerous bacteria and protozoa, exceeding EPA standards for water filtration. Describe the strengths and limitations of the psychodynamic approach to explaining personality. Although measures such as the Big Five and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) are able to effectively assess personality, they do not say much about where personality comes from. One of the most important psychological approaches to understanding personality is based on the theorizing of the Austrian physician and psychologist Sigmund Freud (1856–1939), who founded what today is known as the psychodynamic approachAn approach to understanding human behavior that focuses on the role of unconscious thoughts, feelings and memories. Freud was influenced by the work of the French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot (1825–1893), who had been interviewing patients (almost all women) who were experiencing what was at the time known as hysteria. Freud and Charcot also found that during hypnosis the remembering of the trauma was often accompanied by an outpouring of emotion, known as catharsis, and that following the catharsis the patient’s symptoms were frequently reduced in severity.
Freud used the observations that he and Charcot had made to develop his theory regarding the sources of personality and behavior, and his insights are central to the fundamental themes of psychology. In Sigmund Freud’s conceptualization of personality, the most important motivations are unconscious, just as the major part of an iceberg is under water. In stark contrast to the id, the superegoIn psychodynamic psychology, the component of personality that represents our sense of morality and oughts. In contrast to the id, which is about the pleasure principle, the function of the ego is based on the reality principle—the idea that we must delay gratification of our basic motivations until the appropriate time with the appropriate outlet.
Freud believed that psychological disorders, and particularly the experience of anxiety, occur when there is conflict or imbalance among the motivations of the id, ego, and superego. A student who is angry at her professor for a low grade lashes out at her roommate, who is a safer target of her anger. A man with powerful unconscious sexual desires for women claims that women use him as a sex object. A drama student convinces herself that getting the part in the play wasn’t that important after all. Jane is sexually attracted to friend Jake, but she claims in public that she intensely dislikes him.
A person who witnesses his parents having sex is later unable to remember anything about the event.
The most controversial, and least scientifically valid, part of Freudian theory is its explanations of personality development.
Pleasure comes from the genitals, and the conflict is with sexual desires for the opposite-sex parent.
In the first of Freud’s proposed stages of psychosexual development, which begins at birth and lasts until about 18 months of age, the focus is on the mouth.
The anal stage, lasting from about 18 months to 3 years of age is when children first experience psychological conflict. The phallic stage, which lasts from age 3 to age 6 is when the penis (for boys) and clitoris (for girls) become the primary erogenous zone for sexual pleasure.
The fifth and last stage, the genital stage, begins about 12 years of age and lasts into adulthood. Freudian theory was so popular that it led to a number of followers, including many of Freud’s own students, who developed, modified, and expanded his theories. Alfred Adler (1870–1937) was a follower of Freud who developed his own interpretation of Freudian theory. Carl Jung (1875–1961) was another student of Freud who developed his own theories about personality. Karen Horney (the last syllable of her last name rhymes with “eye”; 1855–1952), was a German physician who applied Freudian theories to create a personality theory that she thought was more balanced between men and women.
Fromm believed that the primary human motivation was to escape the fear of death, and contemporary research has shown how our concerns about dying can influence our behavior.
Then the participants read the essay that had supposedly just been written by another person.
At this point the participants moved on to what they thought was a completely separate study in which they were to taste and give their impression of some foods. As you can see in Figure 12.9 “Aggression as a Function of Mortality Salience and Provocation”, McGregor et al.
Participants who had been provoked by a stranger who disagreed with them on important opinions, and who had also been reminded of their own death, administered significantly more unpleasant hot sauce to the partner than did the participants in the other three conditions.
Freud has probably exerted a greater impact on the public’s understanding of personality than any other thinker, and he has also in large part defined the field of psychology. Nevertheless, Freud’s theories, as well as those of the neo-Freudians, have in many cases failed to pass the test of empiricism, and as a result they are less influential now than they have been in the past (Crews, 1998).Crews, F.
A particular problem for testing Freudian theories is that almost anything that conflicts with a prediction based in Freudian theory can be explained away in terms of the use of a defense mechanism. In terms of the important role of the unconscious, Freud seems to have been at least in part correct. Taken together, it is fair to say that Freudian theory, like most psychological theories, was not entirely correct and that it has had to be modified over time as the results of new studies have become available.
Psychoanalytic models of personality were complemented during the 1950s and 1960s by the theories of humanistic psychologistsAn approach to psychology that embraces the notions of self-esteem, self-actualization, and free will..
One of the most important humanists, Abraham Maslow (1908–1970), conceptualized personality in terms of a pyramid-shaped hierarchy of motives (Figure 12.10 “Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs”).
Maslow studied how successful people, including Albert Einstein, Abraham Lincoln, Martin Luther King Jr., Helen Keller, and Mahatma Gandhi had been able to lead such successful and productive lives. One personality dimension that has recently been found to have an important influence on a variety of everyday activities is based on the regulatory focus theory proposed by E.
Promotion-focused people focus on gain and advancement and the rewards they will get when they achieve their goals. Perhaps you can see the differences more clearly if we take a specific example: Consider two students, both of whom wish to earn an A grade in a class they are taking. In the end, both William and Wendy may well succeed in the course, and both may get the A grade they are hoping for, but the way they get there will be dependent on their underlying motivations and desires as determined by their promotion and prevention personality orientations. One of the most important psychological approaches to understanding personality is based on the psychodynamic approach to personality developed by Sigmund Freud.
For Freud the mind was like an iceberg, with the many motivations of the unconscious being much larger, but also out of sight, in comparison to the consciousness of which we are aware. Freud proposed that the mind is divided into three components—id, ego, and superego—and that the interactions and conflicts among the components create personality. Freud proposed that we use defense mechanisms to cope with anxiety and to maintain a positive self-image. Freud argued that personality is developed through a series of psychosexual stages, each focusing on pleasure from a different part of the body. The neo-Freudian theorists, including Adler, Jung, Horney, and Fromm, emphasized the role of the unconscious and early experience in shaping personality, but placed less evidence on sexuality as the primary motivating force in personality. Psychoanalytic and behavioral models of personality were complemented during the 1950s and 1960s by the theories of humanistic psychologists, including Maslow and Rogers. Based on your understanding of psychodynamic theories, how would you analyze your own personality? Based on your understanding of humanistic theories, how would you try to change your behavior to better meet the underlying motivations of security, acceptance, and self-realization?
Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! Id, ego, and super-ego are the three parts of the psychic apparatus defined in Sigmund Freud's structural model of the psyche; they are the three theoretical constructs in terms of whose activity and interaction mental life is described. Even though the model is "structural" and makes reference to an "apparatus", the id, ego, and super-ego are functions of the mind rather than parts of the brain and do not necessarily correspond one-to-one with actual somatic structures of the kind dealt with by neuroscience.
The id comprises the unorganized part of the personality structure that contains the basic drives.
It is the dark, inaccessible part of our personality, what little we know of it we have learnt from our study of the dream-work and of the construction of neurotic symptoms, and most of this is of a negative character and can be described only as a contrast to the ego. The mind of a newborn child is regarded as completely "id-ridden", in the sense that it is a mass of instinctive drives and impulses, and needs immediate satisfaction. Freud divided the id's drives and instincts into two categories: life and death instincts—the latter not so usually regarded because Freud thought of it later in his lifetime. The Ego comprises that organised part of the personality structure that includes defensive, perceptual, intellectual-cognitive, and executive functions. The word ego is taken directly from Latin, where it is the nominative of the first person singular personal pronoun and is translated as "I myself" to express emphasis. In a diagram of the Structural and Topographical Models of Mind, the ego is depicted to be half in the consciousness, while a quarter is in the preconscious and the other quarter lies in the unconscious.
When the ego is personified, it is like a slave to three harsh masters: the id, the super-ego, and the external world.
Denial, displacement, intellectualisation, fantasy, compensation, projection, rationalisation, reaction formation, regression, repression, and sublimation were the defense mechanisms Freud identified. The Super-ego can be thought of as a type of conscience that punishes misbehavior with feelings of guilt. The Super-ego's demands oppose the id’s, so the ego has a hard time in reconciling the two.[6] Freud's theory implies that the super-ego is a symbolic internalisation of the father figure and cultural regulations. The super-ego retains the character of the father, while the more powerful the Oedipus complex was and the more rapidly it succumbed to repression (under the influence of authority, religious teaching, schooling and reading), the stricter will be the domination of the super-ego over the ego later on — in the form of conscience or perhaps of an unconscious sense of guilt (The Ego and the Id, 1923). In Sigmund Freud's work Civilization and Its Discontents (1930) he also discusses the concept of a "cultural super-ego". The partition of the psyche defined in the structural model is one that "cuts across" the topographical model's partition of "conscious vs. Freud, Sigmund (1910), "The Origin and Development of Psychoanalysis", American Journal of Psychology 21(2), 196–218. Freud, Sigmund (1923), Das Ich und das Es, Internationaler Psycho-analytischer Verlag, Leipzig, Vienna, and Zurich. The text of the above Wikipedia article is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.


On day 30 we will charge 50% of the remaining balance, followed by the final payment on day 60. In this section we will consider two major theories of the origin of personality: psychodynamic and humanistic approaches. Although it is no longer used to describe a psychological disorder, hysteria at the time referred to a set of personality and physical symptoms that included chronic pain, fainting, seizures, and paralysis. For instance, some women experienced a loss of feeling in their hands and yet not in their arms, and this seemed impossible given that the nerves in the arms are the same that are in the hands. These observations led Freud and Charcot to conclude that these disorders were caused by psychological rather than physiological factors. In terms of free will, Freud did not believe that we were able to control our own behaviors. The egoIn psychodynamic psychology, the component of personality that is the largely conscious controller or decision-maker of personality.
When the ego finds that the id is pressing too hard for immediate pleasure, it attempts to correct for this problem, often through the use of defense mechanismsUnconscious psychological strategies used to cope with anxiety and to maintain a positive self-image.—unconscious psychological strategies used to cope with anxiety and to maintain a positive self-image. Freud argued that personality is developed through a series of psychosexual stages, each focusing on pleasure from a different part of the body (Table 12.5 “Freud’s Stages of Psychosexual Development”). During this stage children desire to experience pleasure through bowel movements, but they are also being toilet trained to delay this gratification. During this stage, Freud believed that children develop a powerful but unconscious attraction for the opposite-sex parent, as well as a desire to eliminate the same-sex parent as a rival.
During this time, Freud believed that sexual impulses were repressed, leading boys and girls to have little or no interest in members of the opposite sex.
According to Freud, sexual impulses return during this time frame, and if development has proceeded normally to this point, the child is able to move into the development of mature romantic relationships.
Taken together, these approaches are known as neo-Freudian theoriesTheories based on Freudian principles that emphasize the role of the unconscious and early experience in shaping personality but place less evidence on sexuality as the primary motivating force in personality and are more optimistic concerning the prospects for personality growth and change in personality in adults.. Adler proposed that the primary motivation in human personality was not sex or aggression, but rather the striving for superiority.
He argued that children who are either overly nurtured or overly neglected by their parents are later likely to develop an inferiority complex—a psychological state in which people feel that they are not living up to expectations, leading them to have low self-esteem, with a tendency to try to overcompensate for the negative feelings. Jung agreed with Freud about the power of the unconscious but felt that Freud overemphasized the importance of sexuality. Horney believed that parts of Freudian theory, and particularly the ideas of the Oedipus complex and penis envy, were biased against women. Fromm’s focus was on the negative impact of technology, arguing that the increases in its use have led people to feel increasingly isolated from others. In this research, people have been made to confront their death by writing about it or otherwise being reminded of it, and effects on their behavior are then observed. Furthermore, they were told that it was necessary for the participants in the research to administer the food samples to each other. Although Freudian psychologists no longer talk about oral, anal, or genital “fixations,” they do continue to believe that our childhood experiences and unconscious motivations shape our personalities and our attachments with others, and they still make use of psychodynamic concepts when they conduct psychological therapy. A man who expresses a lot of anger toward his father may be seen via Freudian theory to be experiencing the Oedipus complex, which includes conflict with the father. More and more research demonstrates that a large part of everyday behavior is driven by processes that are outside our conscious awareness (Kihlstrom, 1987).Kihlstrom, J. But the fundamental ideas about personality that Freud proposed, as well as the use of talk therapy as an essential component of therapy, are nevertheless still a major part of psychology and are used by clinical psychologists every day.
In contrast to the proponents of psychoanalysis, humanists embraced the notion of free will. At the base of the pyramid are the lowest-level motivations, including hunger and thirst, and safety and belongingness.
Rogers was positive about human nature, viewing people as primarily moral and helpful to others, and believed that we can achieve our full potential for emotional fulfillment if the self-concept is characterized by unconditional positive regardBehaviors including being genuine, open to experience, transparent, able to listen to others, and self-disclosing and empathic.—a set of behaviors including being genuine, open to experience, transparent, able to listen to others, and self-disclosing and empathic. Promotion-focused people are comfortable taking chances, like to work quickly, and think primarily about possibilities for achievement and success. Are there aspects of the theory that might help you explain your own strengths and weaknesses?
This view equates a newborn child with an id-ridden individual—often humorously—with this analogy: an alimentary tract with no sense of responsibility at either end.
It is amoral and selfish, ruled by the pleasure–pain principle; it is without a sense of time, completely illogical, primarily sexual, infantile in its emotional development, and is not able to take "no" for an answer.
Life instincts (Eros) are those that are crucial to pleasurable survival, such as eating and copulation.
Conscious awareness resides in the ego, although not all of the operations of the ego are conscious. Its task is to find a balance between primitive drives and reality (the Ego devoid of morality at this level) while satisfying the id and super-ego. The Latin term ego is used in English to translate Freud's German term Das Ich, which literally means "the I". It could mean one’s self-esteem, an inflated sense of self-worth, or in philosophical terms, one’s self. It has to do its best to suit all three, thus is constantly feeling hemmed by the danger of causing discontent on two other sides. However, his daughter Anna Freud clarified and identified the concepts of undoing, suppression, dissociation, idealisation, identification, introjection, inversion, somatisation, splitting, and substitution. It comprises that organised part of the personality structure, mainly but not entirely unconscious, that includes the individual's ego ideals, spiritual goals, and the psychic agency (commonly called "conscience") that criticises and prohibits his or her drives, fantasies, feelings, and actions. The Super-ego strives to act in a socially appropriate manner, whereas the id just wants instant self-gratification.
The super-ego tends to stand in opposition to the desires of the id because of their conflicting objectives, and its aggressiveness towards the ego.
The concept of super-ego and the Oedipus complex is subject to criticism for its perceived sexism.
English translation, The Ego and the Id, Joan Riviere (trans.), Hogarth Press and Institute of Psycho-analysis, London, UK, 1927. Charcot was experimenting with the use of hypnosis, and he and Freud found that under hypnosis many of the hysterical patients reported having experienced a traumatic sexual experience, such as sexual abuse, as children (Dolnick, 1998).Dolnick, E. Rather, he believed that all behaviors are predetermined by motivations that lie outside our awareness, in the unconscious. The superego tell us all the things that we shouldn’t do, or the duties and obligations of society. Freud believed that the defense mechanisms were essential for effective coping with everyday life, but that any of them could be overused (Table 12.4 “The Major Freudian Defense Mechanisms”). Freud believed that sexuality begins in infancy, and that the appropriate resolution of each stage has implications for later personality development. Infants who receive either too little or too much gratification become fixated or “locked” in the oral stage, and are likely to regress to these points of fixation under stress, even as adults.
Freud believed that if this toilet training was either too harsh or too lenient, children would become fixated in the anal stage and become likely to regress to this stage under stress as adults. Freud based his theory of sexual development in boys (the “Oedipus complex”) on the Greek mythological character Oedipus, who unknowingly killed his father and married his mother, and then put his own eyes out when he learned what he had done.
But if earlier problems have not been appropriately resolved, difficulties with establishing intimate love attachments are likely. The neo-Freudian theories are theories based on Freudian principles that emphasize the role of the unconscious and early experience in shaping personality but place less evidence on sexuality as the primary motivating force in personality and are more optimistic concerning the prospects for personality growth and change in personality in adults.
According to Adler, we desire to be better than others and we accomplish this goal by creating a unique and valuable life.
People with an inferiority complex often attempt to demonstrate their superiority to others at all costs, even if it means humiliating, dominating, or alienating them. Jung argued that in addition to the personal unconscious, there was also a collective unconsciousAccording to Carl Jung, a collection of shared ancestral memories., or a collection of shared ancestral memories.
Horney argued that women’s sense of inferiority was not due to their lack of a penis but rather to their dependency on men, an approach that the culture made it difficult for them to break from. Fromm believed that the independence that technology brings us also creates the need “escape from freedom,” that is, to become closer to others. Thus one-half of the participants were provoked by the other person by reading a statement that strongly conflicted with their own political beliefs, whereas the other half read an essay in which the other person’s views supported their own (liberal or conservative) beliefs. At this point, the participants found out that the food they were going to be sampling was spicy hot sauce and that they were going to be administering the sauce to the very person whose essay they had just read. On the other hand, the participants who were both provoked by the other person and who had also been reminded of their own death administered significantly more hot sauce than did the participants in the other three conditions. People who are exposed to traumatic experiences in war have been found to remember their traumas only too well (Kihlstrom, 1997).Kihlstrom, J.
But a man who expresses no anger at all toward the father also may be seen as experiencing the Oedipus complex by repressing the anger.
Maslow argued that only when people are able to meet the lower-level needs are they able to move on to achieve the higher-level needs of self-esteem, and eventually self-actualizationThe motivation to develop our innate potential to the fullest possible extent., which is the motivation to develop our innate potential to the fullest possible extent. When we treat ourselves or others with unconditional positive regard, we express understanding and support, even while we may acknowledge failings. Prevention-focused people, on the other hand, are focused more on their duties and responsibilities, and they concentrate on staying safe. William is particularly focused on the potential rewards that he will receive if he succeeds in the course and imagines the A grade on his transcript.
Freud himself wrote of "das Es," "das Ich," and "das Uber-Ich"—respectively, "the It," "the I," and the "Over-I" (or "Upper-I"); thus to the German reader, Freud's original terms are more or less self-explanatory.
It is filled with energy reaching it from the instincts, but it has no organisation, produces no collective will, but only a striving to bring about the satisfaction of the instinctual needs subject to the observance of the pleasure principle.
Death instincts, (Thanatos) as stated by Freud, is our unconscious wish to die, as death puts an end to the everyday struggles for happiness and survival. Its main concern is with the individual's safety and allows some of the id's desires to be expressed, but only when consequences of these actions are marginal.


However, according to Freud, the ego is the part of the mind that contains the consciousness. It is said, however, that the ego seems to be more loyal to the id, preferring to gloss over the finer details of reality to minimize conflicts while pretending to have a regard for reality. The super-ego acts as the conscience, maintaining our sense of morality and proscription from taboos. Women, who are considered to be already castrated, do not identify with the father, and therefore form a weak super-ego, leaving them susceptible to immorality and sexual identity complications.
Its value lies in the increased degree of diversification: although the Id is unconscious by definition, the Ego and the Super-ego are both partly conscious and partly unconscious. Early in the development of his theory Freud saw sexual energy as the only source of energy for the id.
For instance, crime usually happens where there are only few people in the area, but not where is crowded. These forces show themselves in our dreams, in neurotic symptoms such as obsessions, while we are under hypnosis, and in Freudian “slips of the tongue” in which people reveal their unconscious desires in language.
The superego strives for perfection, and when we fail to live up to its demands we feel guilty. The ego serves as the intermediary between the desires of the id and the constraints of society contained in the superego (Figure 12.8 “Ego, Id, and Superego in Interaction”).
Freud argued that boys will normally eventually abandon their love of the mother, and instead identify with the father, also taking on the father’s personality characteristics, but that boys who do not successfully resolve the Oedipus complex will experience psychological problems later in life. We may attempt to satisfy our need for superiority through our school or professional accomplishments, or by our enjoyment of music, athletics, or other activities that seem important to us. According to Adler, most psychological disorders result from misguided attempts to compensate for the inferiority complex in order meet the goal of superiority.
Jung believed that the collective unconscious contains a variety of archetypes, or cross-culturally universal symbols, which explain the similarities among people in their emotional reactions to many stimuli.
For Horney, the underlying motivation that guides personality development is the desire for security, the ability to develop appropriate and supportive relationships with others. In addition, the participants read some information about the other person that indicated that he very much disliked eating spicy food. Because Freud hypothesized that either was possible, but did not specify when repression would or would not occur, the theory is difficult to falsify. Unconditional positive regard allows us to admit our fears and failures, to drop our pretenses, and yet at the same time to feel completely accepted for what we are. They worry about what might go wrong if they don’t work hard enough or are not careful enough.
William works hard, does extra reading, and asks plenty of questions in class, but he also turns in some of his papers a bit late and forgets to attend an extra study session that was scheduled. Freud noticed the death instinct in our desire for peace and attempts to escape reality through fiction, media, and drugs. Ego defense mechanisms are often used by the ego when id behavior conflicts with reality and either society's morals, norms, and taboos or the individual's expectations as a result of the internalisation of these morals, norms, and their taboos.
Originally, Freud used the word ego to mean a sense of self, but later revised it to mean a set of psychic functions such as judgment, tolerance, reality-testing, control, planning, defense, synthesis of information, intellectual functioning, and memory.
But the super-ego is constantly watching every one of the ego's moves and punishes it with feelings of guilt, anxiety, and inferiority. The super-ego and the ego are the product of two key factors: the state of helplessness of the child and the Oedipus complex. Only the ego is visible or on the surface, while the id and the superego remains below, but each is part of the personality. After the tragedy of World War I, however, Freud felt it necessary to add another instinct to the id. Freud argued that we rarely understand why we do what we do, although we can make up explanations for our behaviors after the fact.
We may wish to scream, yell, or hit, and yet our ego normally tells us to wait, reflect, and choose a more appropriate response. On the other hand, the child who was overfed or overly gratified will resist growing up and try to return to the prior state of dependency by acting helpless, demanding satisfaction from others, and acting in a needy way. On the other hand, if the parents had been too lenient, the anal expulsive personality results, characterized by a lack of self-control and a tendency toward messiness and carelessness.
Although it was not as important in Freud’s theorizing, in girls the phallic stage is often termed the “Electra complex,” after the Greek character who avenged her father’s murder by killing her mother. Important archetypes include the mother, the goddess, the hero, and the mandala or circle, which Jung believed symbolized a desire for wholeness or unity. Participants were given a taste of the hot sauce (it was really hot!) and then instructed to place a quantity of it into a cup for the other person to sample. Terror management and aggression: Evidence that mortality salience motivates aggression against worldview-threatening others.
Prevention-focused people work slowly and carefully on the projects they need to accomplish. To overcome this the ego employs defense mechanisms.The defense mechanisms are not done so directly or consciously. For Freud the mind was like an iceberg, with the many motivations of the unconscious being much larger, but also out of sight, in comparison to the consciousness of which we are aware (Figure 12.7 “Mind as Iceberg”). Freud believed that girls frequently experienced penis envy, the sense of deprivation supposedly experienced by girls because they do not have a penis.
For Jung, the underlying motivation that guides successful personality is self-realization, or learning about and developing the self to the fullest possible extent. When we are concerned about dying we become more motivated to defend these important beliefs from the challenges made by others, in this case by aggressing through the hot sauce. The problems are first, that it has proved to be difficult to rigorously test Freudian theory because the predictions that it makes (particularly those regarding defense mechanisms) are often vague and unfalsifiable, and second, that the aspects of the theory that can be tested often have not received much empirical support.
And since the time of Freud, the need to repress sexual desires would seem to have become much less necessary as societies have tolerated a wider variety of sexual practices. They tend to have a few deep friendships rather than many superficial ones, and are generally private. Wendy is particularly focused on the potential costs of not doing well in the course and imagines the C grade that she might receive if she does not work hard enough. For example, teachers do not expect a 10-year-old student to solve complex formula, but they expect them to know how to solve easy math problems. Both parts of the super-ego develop through experience with others or via social interactions. The id is entirely unconscious, and it drives our most important motivations, including the sexual drive (libido) and the aggressive or destructive drive (Thanatos). And yet the psychological disorders that Freud thought we caused by this repression have not decreased. And yet, although our unconscious motivations influence every aspect of our learning and behavior Freud probably overestimated the extent to which these unconscious motivations are primarily sexual and aggressive. He felt that these individuals do not need to conform to the opinions of others because they are very confident and thus free to express unpopular opinions. Higgins proposes that people attempt to find a “fit” between their own personality orientations and the situation around them. Obviously, the rest of the personality would have somehow to deal with these two instincts. According to Freud, a strong super-ego serves to inhibit the biological instincts of the id, while a weak super-ego gives in to the id's urgings.
According to Freud, the id is driven by the pleasure principle—the desire for immediate gratification of our sexual and aggressive urges. Self-actualized people are also likely to have peak experiences, or transcendent moments of tranquility accompanied by a strong sense of connection with others. When the situation “fits” their personality style they experience positive emotions, but when there is less “fit,” they then experience negative emotions.
She is detail-oriented, pays careful attention to completing all of the course requirements on time, and makes sure to avoid missing any classes or extra sessions. The id is why we smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, view pornography, tell mean jokes about people, and engage in other fun or harmful behaviors, often at the cost of doing more productive activities. The type of fit that is important in this theory is based on individual differences in two underlying personality dimensions—promotion focus and prevention focus. Freud is probably the best known of all psychologists, in part because of his impressive observation and analyses of personality (there are 24 volumes of his writings). As is true of all theories, many of Freud’s ingenious ideas have turned out to be at least partially incorrect, and yet other aspects of his theories are still influencing psychology. The participants in the study had been selected, on the basis of prior reporting, to have either politically liberal or politically conservative views.
When they arrived at the lab they were asked to write a short paragraph describing their opinion of politics in the United States.
In addition, half of the participants (the mortality salient condition) were asked to “briefly describe the emotions that the thought of your own death arouses in you” and to “jot down as specifically as you can, what you think will happen to you as you physically die, and once you are physically dead.” Participants in the exam control condition also thought about a negative event, but not one associated with a fear of death. A new look at defensive projection: Thought suppression, accessibility, and biased person perception. It is true that children remember little of their childhood experiences, but this seems to be true of both negative as well as positive experiences, is true for animals as well, and probably is better explained in terms of the brain’s inability to form long-term memories than in terms of repression. On the other hand, Freud’s important idea that expressing or talking through one’s difficulties can be psychologically helpful has been supported in current research (Baddeley & Pennebaker, 2009)Baddeley, J. Fisher (Eds.), General principles and empirically supported techniques of cognitive behavior therapy (pp.



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