In a close combat situation, many people consider the fists as the only weapon of the body.
To minimize injury to the fists, use your fists as weapons to target soft tissue areas such as the throat. The legs are more powerful than any other weapon of the body, and they are less prone to injury when striking (especially if the feet are protected with shoes). During close combat, you should strive to attack the accessible target areas of an opponent’s body.
The eyes are excellent targets because they are soft tissue areas that are not protected by bone or muscle. Because of major nerve pathways in the area, the jaw region, when struck forcefully, renders the opponent unconscious. The front of the neck, or throat area, is a soft tissue area that is not covered by natural protection.
The cervical vertebrae on the back of the neck, from the base of the skull to the top of the shoulders, contains the spinal cord, which is the nervous system’s link to the brain.
The opponent’s clavicle (or collar bone) can be easily fractured, causing immobilization of the arm. Attacks to the opponent’s solar plexus or center of the chest can knock the breath out of him and immobilize him.
Powerful attacks to the opponent’s kidneys cause immobilization, permanent damage, or death. Rarely will an attack to the opponent’s extremities (arms and legs) cause death, but they are important target areas in close combat. There are nerves in the human body that, when pressure is applied or when they are struck, allow you to control a subject through pain compliance.
The jugular notch is at the base of the neck in the notch formed at the center of the clavicle.
The hands contain a pressure point on the webbing between the thumbs and index fingers where the two bones of the fingers meet. Femoral nerves are on the inside of the thighs along the femur bones and help a person extend their knees. Peroneal nerves are on the outside of the thighs along the femur bones and provided sensation to the front and side parts of the legs and to the top of the feet.
There are pressure points on the feet that, when pressure is applied or when they are struck, serve to soften or distract the opponent. Visit Geek Slop for bite-sized chunks of science and technology news and interesting articles catered to geeks and other superhero types.
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The Feb 27 the New York Times article Honeybees Vanish, Leaving Crops and Keepers in Peril describes the recent poorly understood decline in US honeybee populations. The introduced European honeybees are the major source of pollination for many crops (See graph).
The honeybee decline seems to match Holling’s pathology of natural resource management. Once the domain of hobbyists with a handful of backyard hives, beekeeping has become increasingly commercial and consolidated. A Cornell University study has estimated that honeybees annually pollinate more than $14 billion worth of seeds and crops in the United States, mostly fruits, vegetables and nuts.
The bee losses are ranging from 30 to 60 percent on the West Coast, with some beekeepers on the East Coast and in Texas reporting losses of more than 70 percent; beekeepers consider a loss of up to 20 percent in the offseason to be normal. Beekeepers now earn many times more renting their bees out to pollinate crops than in producing honey. This year the price for a bee colony is about $135, up from $55 in 2004, said Joe Traynor, a bee broker in Bakersfield, Calif. The cost to control mites has also risen, along with the price of queen bees, which cost about $15 each, up from $10 three years ago. To give bees energy while they are pollinating, beekeepers now feed them protein supplements and a liquid mix of sucrose and corn syrup carried in tanker-sized trucks costing $12,000 per load.
One might also consider the effects of multiple pesticides and in particular, genetically modified food crops that contain an pesticide inserted into the plant’s dna. 2) Require producers and our governments to list GMO and pesticides on the labels of food products so consumers have a choice, and know what they are consuming and contributing to. People who don’t see living creatures being integrated part of human environment but flying dollars. What is really dangerous is the absence of local beekeepers in most of communities because they are the first who can alarm people about environmental disasters.
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In the depths of the Amazon rainforest in Brazil live tribes who have no contact with the outside world. Their decision not to maintain contact with other tribes and outsiders is almost certainly a result of previous disastrous encounters and the ongoing invasion and destruction of their forest home.
For example, the uncontacted groups living in the state of Acre are probably survivors of the rubber boom, when many Indians were enslaved.
Stranger in the ForestFirst Contact in the Amazon: Tribes of Brazil recall their experiences of contact and the dangers that followed.
Some, like the uncontacted Awa, are nomadic hunter gatherers constantly on the move, able to build a home within hours and abandon it days later. Others are more settled, living in communal houses and planting manioc and other crops in forest clearings as well as hunting and fishing.
However, other uncontacted groups are teetering on the edge of extinction with no more than a handful of individuals left.

These tiny fragmented groups living mainly in Rondonia, Mato Grosso and Maranhao states are the survivors of brutal land grabs when they were targeted and murdered by loggers, ranchers, and others. Today they are still deliberately hunted down and their forests homes are being rapidly destroyed. Mega dam and road building projects, part of the government’s ‘accelerated growth programme’, pose huge threats. The Jirau and Santo Antonio dams being built on the Madeira river are very near to several groups of uncontacted Indians.
A recent report says that some of them are abandoning their land due to the noise and pollution from the construction sites.
All are extremely vulnerable to diseases like flu or the common cold transmitted by outsiders and to which they have no resistance: good reasons to avoid contact.
The uncontacted peoples of Brazil must be protected and their land rights recognised before they, along with the forests they depend on, vanish forever. There are tribes all over the world who have decided to remain isolated from national society or even other indigenous peoples. Since 1987, FUNAI has had a department dedicated to uncontacted Indians, whose policy is to make contact only in cases where their immediate survival is at risk. They will only survive if their land, which they have a right to under international and national law, is protected. Contact should only happen when and where isolated peoples decide that they are ready for it.
These very isolated peoples have not built up immunity to diseases common elsewhere, which is why they are so vulnerable. It is not unusual for 50% of a tribe to be wiped out within a year of first contact, by diseases such as measles and influenza. The Matis population fell by half following contact, when both young and old, including most of the shamans, died from introduced diseases.
Conflict and violent clashes are one of the most common outcomes of economic activity in areas where uncontacted people live.
The last five surviving Akuntsu suffered brutal attacks, witnessed the massacre of their companions and saw their homes bulldozed by ranchers. It is believed that this lone man is the last survivor of his people, who were probably massacred by cattle ranchers occupying the region of Tanaru in Rondonia state.
He is sometimes known only as ‘the Man of the Hole’ because of the big holes he digs either to trap animals or to hide in. In 1998 two Piripkura men, Mande-i and Tucan, walked out of the forest of their own accord. During the short time he spent in hospital he talked about how in the recent past his people were more numerous and described how they had been massacred by white people, and how he and his sole companion moved through the forest hunting, fishing and gathering. FUNAI has signed a temporary order forbidding anyone to enter the Piripkura’s land without permission and banning all economic activities there. It is believed they stopped having children because they are constantly fleeing loggers and other intruders.
As they are always on the move, they cannot cultivate and must rely solely on hunting and fishing. Their land has not yet been protected and therefore their survival as a people is at great risk. In an unexpected move, a federal prosecutor has launched an investigation into the genocide of these Kawahiva. Evidence suggests that loggers are deliberately targeting them forcing them to abandon their houses and keep on the run. On the border of Brazil and Peru, the Javari valley is home to seven contacted peoples and about seven uncontacted Indian groups, one of the largest concentrations of isolated peoples in Brazil.
Korubo mother and child in the Javari Valley around the time of first contact in the mid nineties, Brazil. One group, the Korubo are known in the area as ‘caceteiros’ or ‘clubmen’ because of the large clubs they use to protect themselves.
In 1996 FUNAI made contact with a group of 30 Korubo who had split off from the main group, which remains uncontacted and repeatedly avoids contact with surrounding groups. Lethal diseases caught from outsiders are affecting contacted groups in the territory and there are fears these could be transmitted to uncontacted groups with tragic consequences. We help tribal peoples defend their lives, protect their lands and determine their own futures.
Terms of Use - The displayed portlet may be used as a link from your website to ARKive's online content for private, scientific, conservation or educational purposes only. MyARKive offers the scrapbook feature to signed-up members, allowing you to organize your favourite ARKive images and videos and share them with friends. Fists are important in close combat, but in fact, there are many other body parts that can be used as an effective weapon in a combat situation. The hands consist of several areas that can be used as weapons: fists, edges of hands, palms, and fingers.
The proper striking surface to use on the fist are the first two knuckles of the hands or the meaty portions of the hands below the little fingers.
Forearms can also be used as striking weapons to damage or break an opponent’s joints and limbs and are especially useful when the opponent is close to you. Because of the short distance needed to generate power and dense bone construction in the elbow, elbows are excellent weapons for striking during the close range of close combat, especially if the combatant is facing you (strike the head, face, or chin of the enemy). Knee strikes are most effective while fighting close to an opponent where kicks are impractical. Attacks to this area may cause the opponent to protect the area with his hands, allowing you to execute a secondary attack..
An attack to this area causes involuntary watering and closing of the opponent’s eyes, rendering him vulnerable to secondary attacks.
But this may not stop or even distract an opponent unless you deliver a particularly powerful strike.

Damage to this region causes the opponent’s trachea to swell, closing his airway, which can lead to death. Strikes to the carotid sinus restrict blood flow to the brain, causing loss of consciousness or death.
The weight of the head and the lack of large muscle mass allow damage to the cervical vertebrae and spinal cord. Any damage to this area causes the opponent to involuntarily protect his injured area, usually with his hands or legs.
Apply inward and upward pressure to this pressure point with the fingers to distract and control the opponent. Strikes and pressure applied with the hand to the radial nerve serve as a softening technique.
Strikes and pressure applied with the hand to the ulnar nerve serve as a softening technique.
To force an opponent to soften or release his grip, apply pressure with your index fingers to this pressure point or strike this pressure point with their fists.
Hard strikes to the femoral nerve serve can make it difficult for the opponent to stand while pressure to the nerve can acts as a softening technique. Strikes to the peroneal nerve serve as a softening technique and cause the opponent to be unable to lift his foot. For side-splitting humor, check out Funny Grins' huge cache of funny jokes, zany videos, and outrageous pictures..
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Over the last two decades, the number of beehives, now estimated by the Agriculture Department to be 2.4 million, has dropped by a quarter and the number of beekeepers by half. The costs to maintain hives, also known as colonies, are rising along with the strain on bees of being bred to pollinate rather than just make honey. Two years ago a lack of bees for the California almond crop caused bee rental prices to jump, drawing beekeepers from the East Coast. There are also specific pesticides and fungicides deemed safe for adult honeybee which are meant to be applied only at the seed level, which are now being used at the foliage level. For our project we have to design a product and we are going to start a self pollinating farm where we rent out our bee hives to local farms to encourage farming in our region, which has a particularly high unemployment rate. There are thought to be at least 100 isolated groups in this rainforest, according to the government’s Indian affairs department FUNAI.
What we do know is that they wish to remain uncontacted: they have shot arrows at outsiders and airplanes, or they simply avoid contact by hiding deep in the forest. Here they live in relative tranquility in several demarcated territories which are largely untouched. Karapiru an Awa man survived an attack by gunmen and lived on his own for ten years hiding in the forest until he finally made contact with some colonists and now lives with other Awa.
Most are already known about and however isolated, all constantly adapt to their changing circumstances. Instead, FUNAI seeks to demarcate and protect their land from invaders with its protection posts. They should be allowed to live in peace, free from fear of extermination and disastrous contact.
But Mande-i and Tucan are in great danger as their land is constantly invaded by illegal loggers who are blocking their forest trails to prevent them from hunting. But unless the government takes urgent action to map out and sign their land into law now, the last known Piripkura survivors may disappear for ever.
Their forests are constantly being invaded by loggers many of whom operate out of Colniza, one of Brazil’s most violent frontier towns in one of the most deforested regions in the Amazon. Located on the border of Brazil and Peru, the Javari Valley is home to seven contacted peoples and about seven uncontacted Indian groups, one of the largest concentrations of isolated peoples in Brazil.
The opponent’s groin area is an ideal target for the knee strike if he is standing upright. The target areas are divided into five major groups: head, neck, torso, groin, and extremities. However, through training, individuals can condition themselves to withstand attacks to the nose. In male opponents, the scrotum is the main target since even a near miss causes severe pain, contraction of the lower abdominal muscles, deterioration of his stance, and possible internal trauma. You can also use pressure points to soften or distract an opponent so a lethal or nonlethal technique can be employed. And beekeepers are losing out to suburban sprawl in their quest for spots where bees can forage for nectar to stay healthy and strong during the pollination season. Bradshaw figures, in recent years he has spent $145 a hive annually to keep his bees alive, for a profit of about $11 a hive, not including labor expenses.
Knee strikes can deliver a devastating secondary attack to an opponent’s face following an initial attack that caused him to bend at the waist.
The last three years his net income has averaged $30,000 a year from his 4,200 bee colonies, he said. Hardcore beekeeping requires extensive knowledge of botany, bee biology, genetics, local environment and so on.
Since then, contact has been re-established with three members of the tribe, but no one knows if there are any more survivors.
You can execute attacks to these pressure points by rapidly kicking or striking pressure points or slowly applying steady pressure to pressure points. At the other side of the token is the Bee Industry trying to fulfill the need for super-bee, so they produce artificially enhanced bee stock in order to create a colony able to withstand inhuman environment and deadly conditions bees are working in.

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