Patella fracture is a injury the involves the patella bone which is located in the front of the knee joint. Function of the patella is to increase the leverage of the quadriceps muscle protect the quadriceps and patellar tendons Fractures of the patella are more common in males between the age of 20 to 50 years. This x ray of patella fracture shows 3 pieces of bone, but during surgery there were 4 pieces. A type of osteochondral patella fracture that occurs in children is called a sleeve fracture. This is a x ray of a 11 year old girl who sustained a osteochondral fracture following fall from a roof.
This is a x ray of a patient with a fracture patella with multiple pieces, which he sustained from a fall from height. These conditions have also been referred in the past as gastrocnemio-semimembranosus bursae, semimembranosus burse, synovial cysts, posterior herniae of the knee joint. The cysts are medially located mostly but  rarely they are laterally located and occasionally extend into the calf of the leg. Infiltration by lymphocytes, plasma cells, histiocytes, and even polymorphonuclear cells may be seen in varying degrees. The examination reveals a swelling which is located distal to the popliteal crease, which becomes prominenet when knee is hyper extended but disappears on flexion. Ultrasonography helps in assessing the swelling and  can distinguish between fluid and solid mass. CT scanning can easily delineate secondary findings, such as intracystic osseous fragments, mass effect, wall thickening, and bony erosion.
MRI offers  superior soft-tissue contrast resolution and help to determine the extent and composition of the Baker cyst.
Computed tomography and MRI will show the lesion in better way and can reveal its relationship to adjacent soft tissues and knee joint. Lipoma, aneurysm, thrombophlebitis, neuroma, nerve ganglia, semimembranosus hypertrophy, and enlarged lymph nodes are other conditions to consider in the differential diagnosis. Fibrosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, and fibrous histiocytom, pigmented villonodular synovitis , rheumatoid arthritis, tuberculosis, brucellosis, or a pyogenic abscess may as well cause a cystic swelling in the Popliteal area. Observation should be carried in children for a period as Baker cyst is known to regress in children.
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About Dr Arun Pal SinghArun Pal Singh is an orthopedic and trauma surgeon, founder and chief editor of this website.
This website is an effort to educate and support people and medical personnel on orthopedic issues and musculoskeletal health. Quantitative Ultrasound or QUSQuantitative ultrasound is an ultrasound based modality to measure bone mineral density in osteoporosis. Bed bugs do not just appear out of nowhere, the most common way of getting an infestation is through used beds and furniture.
If you have signs of constant itching at night and even blood on your bed sheet, chances are you have a bed bug problem. If you encounter the above problem in the future, do not hesitate to contact professional companies. In this fracture one of the fragments of the fracture is mainly or entirely made of cartilage. Initially it was suspected to be a sleeve fracture but during surgery it turned out to be a large and loose bone piece (yellow arrow) with cartilage.
In the following x ray you can see the same fracture treated by tension band wiring method.
During surgery all the small pieces were removed and the two major pieces were stabilized by tension band wiring (see below).
It provides the necessary knowledge and guide to bridge the gap caused by the bits of (mis)information given on most sites.
Conventional radiography in the anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique projections is done to check fluid density and to rule any other lesion that might give rise to poplliteal swelling. Surgery may be carried out to treat an underlying problem at the same time – for example, repairing a meniscal tear. Although they do not pose any immediate health threats, they can potentially result in severe allergic reactions. It is very hard for you to determine what causes bed bugs to appear at the first place because sometimes travellers unknowingly bring them back to their home from hotels.
Bed bugs are the most active during night time and feed on human and animals blood to survive.
In the x rays below, taken 6 weeks after surgery, the same fracture was fixed by stainless steel wires and is healing well.
The loose pieces were then used as bone graft to fill a defect in the outer or superficial part of the patella.


If you have any query about patella fracture you can ask me at the contact me page. Want to over come your knee injury and prevent further injury then Click Here! This page was last updated on 2nd March 2011. Your expertise and easy to understand explanations are helping to train the next generation of health care professionals across the world.
Most common location of Baker cyst is distal the popliteal crease under the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle.
They can severely get in the way of your sleep, causing you to feel exhausted and restless all the time. Clear out all the items and check the hidden cracks and areas to ensure a careful inspection. What you can do at least to prevent the problem from breaking out again is examining your furniture and mattresses regularly, and make sure that everything you bring back from travels are disinfected and cleaned.
It is usually seen during high, long jump and other games that require jumping such as basketball. This fracture has is difficult to recognize on x rays and can be missed. It not only guides the user, it also provides fundamental knowledge for researching the topic.
Color Doppler imaging can confirm the absence of vascular flow within the mass to exclude a popliteal artery aneurysm or cystic adventitial degeneration of a popliteal artery. Contrary to popular belief, bed bugs do not thrive on dirty environments; instead, as long as they have plenty of room to hide in a warm place, they will continue to survive and flourish. Studies have shown that these little creatures cannot carry diseases, but continuous itching and sleeplessness are already irritating enough.
If you do discover a problem, the best solution is to hire professional help from a pest control company. Bed bugs travel and spread fast – once your home gets infested, you are in for some serious trouble.
In some cases, serious itching can also cause allergic reaction, which has to be treated right away to prevent a skin infection. Doing it yourself is possible, but if the examination is not through enough, the problem could still persist.



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