The Latin root of communication is communis meaing "common." So a first definition of communication is attempting to establish "commonness" with another. 3.Messages are symbolically encoded and decoded by people based on the meanings they assign. Aristotle, writing circa 300 BCE, produced an explanation of oral communication that is to this day worthy of study. In 1949 Claude Shannon, an electrical engineer with Bell Telephone, and Warren Weaver, of the Rockefeller Foundation, published a book on communication theory entitled "The Mathematical Theory of Communication".
The message sender selects an appropriate and accurate message out of a range of possible messages. The message sender encodes a message into a signal that is transmitted over the communication channel to the receiver. The message receiver decodes the transmitted signal thereby reproducing and interpreting the message. This message is then sent to the destination which may be someone other than the receiver (or it may be the receiver him- or herself). It is a small conceptual leap to go from the "noise" concept introduced by Shannon and Weaver and arrive at the concept of "semantic noise." Just as electronic noise interferes with communication, so to does semantic noise. Attitude: This includes the sender's attitude toward the receiver, the subject, the setting, etc. Knowledge: This includes the sender's knowledge of the receiver, the subject, the situtation, etc.
Social system and Culture: This includes the sender's social background, economic status, values, beliefs, culture, religion, etc. Treatment: The method in which the message sender chooses to modify or alter the construction and combination of the elements and structure, either subtly or emphatically. Code: The language of the sender and receiver, including grammatical structure, spelling, and other language rules and conventions. Social system and Culture: This includes the receiver's social background, economic status, values, beliefs, culture, religion, etc.
A shortcomming of the Berlo model is that it does not account for "noise" in the communication process. The Osgood and Schramm circular model (see below) emphasizes the circular nature of communication thus addressing the shortcomings of linear models. Humans do not just take information in as is, we must actively engage in the process of interpretation. An important emphasis of the Osgood-Schramm model (not present in the Berlo model) is its focus on the message sender’s and message receiver’s behavior rather than on the channels of communication. When communicating verbally (or in writing), any personal communicative shortfalls of the communicating participants - such as inequality of attitudes, common skills, knowledge, cultural or social systems or cultural foundations, etc.
There is an unexpected benefit of sending a message, interpreting it, and then responding with another message in order to gain clarity further comprehension: it reduces semantic noise while maintaining the flow of communication. Some communication models portray the communication process as a linear or circular process.
Unlike the helical model, a circular model implies that communication returns to the same place. Structured Communication provides a basis to build a partnership and make reciprocal, shared understanding a reality. A client's early impression of us influences the outcome of a planning opportunity, and that impression is formed in the initial client interview. The best financial planners use a consultative approach to interviewing propsective clients. The initial interview involves two distinct evaluations: the planner is discovering what the propsective client's driving need is and the propsective client is evaluating the planner's problem solving suitability. The function of attending to prospective and current clients is to get the client to open up, get things 'off their chest.' In other words, talk.
L- lean towards the your client: moving backward can communicate lessened availability or involvement. E- eye contact: this is normal behavior of two individuals who are involved in conversations. R- relax: avoid exhibiting nervous habits including restlessness, fidgeting, tapping a pencil, etc. Paraphrasing: This allows your client to feel you understood the essence of what has just been said. Summarizations: Unlike paraphrasing, this step is generally used at the end of a conversation to clarify what the client has expressed over the course of the interview. Reflection of meaning: The purpose of summarizations and encouragers is to reflect on feeling and meaning. Personal Communication Style: This communication model provides direction and skills that can assist planners with communicating with propsective and current clients, colleagues, and supervisors. Note: The adviser should use these basic listening skills to draw out of the client strengths and resources and then reflects them back to the client rather than letting the client focus on the negative.
3) Mutual Goal Setting: Work with the client to set goals for the initial interview and post-interview period. 5) Follow-up: Planner or team members should follow up with the client to check-in or their progress. Ivey and Ivey (2007) recognize that implementing these basic microskills (attending behaviors, basic listening skills, and interview skills) can help a client feel heard and validated.
Clients often are intimidated by the thought of meeting with a financial planner (or any other professional), and that feeling can be exacerbated by the prospect of an interview involving very personal topics.
Research the background of the client and formulate special questions to be asked at the interview.
Build rapport with the client by sharing the overall purpose of the interview, the objectives of the questions you will be asking, and the importance of his or her answers. Repeating a question implies you have not been listening or do not consider your client's answers important. In the course of a financial planning engagement, not only is it important to counsel your clients on investment management and tax management, for example, but it is also critical to counsel them about skills required to maintain financial behavior changes for a lifetime. Stimulus control: Clients can modify their environment to control exposure to disruptive influences.
Goal setting: Goal-setting skills allow clients to develop realistic expectations for retirement savings goals and attainable strategies for achieving those goals. Cognitive restructuring: Through cognitive restructuring, clients learn that thoughts influence both mood and behavior and that positive thoughts are more constructive than negative thoughts. Problem solving: Problem-solving skills allow clients to identify a current or potential problem, devise a solution, implement it, and evaluate its effectiveness.
Although you may feel inclined to label your clients as “undisciplined,” “non-compliant,” “difficult,” or “lacking willpower” for failing to adhere to recommendations, this can lead to more frustration and damage the client–planner partnership.
After you and your clients have determined the cause for their non-adherence, apply problemsolving skills to develop an effective solution. Careers in visual arts, performing arts, and areas of journalism, broadcasting, and film call for strong creative talents.
There are six career pathways in this cluster: audio-video technology and film, journalism and broadcasting, performing arts, printing technology, telecommunications, and visual arts. People in this area work with equipment that transmits audio and video images to people through television, film, radio, and other means of communication. Working from a story idea that they are either assigned or come up with themselves, journalists gather information on the topic from various sources, check and verify all of their facts, and write stories for print, radio, television, or online release. This category includes all of the careers that make films, plays, and music and dance performances a reality. Careers in this area deal with the creation of books, magazines, and newspapers from raw manuscript or electronic files to printed pages. Workers in this area install, monitor, and repair the equipment that transmits audio and video data across communication lines.


Most jobs in the arts and communications field require at least an associate’s degree, but many (such as journalists and broadcast engineers) require a bachelor’s degree or higher, especially for upper-level and supervisory positions. Although the jobs in this field are varied, they all require excellent communication skills and an appreciation for how messages are received by various audiences. The arts and communications industry is one of the most popular fields—and therefore one of the most competitive. A sociological definition of communication is: the mechanism through which human relations exist and develop.
That is, the communication flows only from the speaker (message sender) to the person addressed (message receiver).
Unlike most communication model theorists, Shannon and Weaver were not primarily interested in the sociological or psychological aspects of communication. Semantic noise is identified as differences in meaning that the message sender and receiver assign to words, voice quality and speech inflection, and to gestures, expressions and body language. The message sender must address the ways in which the parties can effectively communicate the message. The same elements can produce different interpretations dependent upon the way in which they are formed.
The communication process will be informed by the several factors (same factors as for sender above) described next.
The message receiver must feel comfortable with the ways in which the message sender is communicating the message. The element of noise serves to alter the message received from the message that was originally transmitted. In other words, we must make sense of what we are taking in – it must be integrated with what we already know, the context must be understood, the intent and attitude of the message sender must by estimated, etc. Schramm commented that, “It is misleading to think of the communication process as starting from somewhere and ending somewhere.
This process would even assist communication where the message sender were communicating to a message receiver who has little or knowledge of the subject at hand because the receiver has the ability to repeatedly question the message sender on any misinterpretations they believe they may have.
But Frank Dance's helical model illustrates the continuousness of the process as represented by the infinity sign (see below) as none of the other models can. The helical model, on the other hand, suggests that relational interactions are constantly changing, progressing and evolving. Yet, even though slowly, the helix can gradually free itself from its lower-level distortions. Frank Dance created a model of communication which some claim is not an actual model at all since it has too few variables and particular hypotheses are not testable because of its abstractness.
It should be practiced not only with our propsective and existing clients but also with our team members that will be involved with our clients. A client's early impression may not last forever, but beginning the planning process with a suitable impression improves the odds of taking the relationship to the next level.
Although use of structured communication elements such as prepared questions, checklists, empathic body language, etc., are appropriate they are not substitutes for communicating your unconditional acceptance of your clients and their situations. Begin by attempting to understand the client’s culture, then work towards the top of the pyramid, utilizing the communication skills discussed below. Culture includes one's religion or lack thereof, economic class, ethnic background, gender, sexual orientation, geographic location, and lifestyle differences. Research shows that non-verbal communication is as important or more important than actual verbal communication. Sometimes a propsective client’s thoughts, behaviors, and words are not clearly communicated. A prospective client is in your office for a reason, usually a negative reason such as their current adviser never calls, or is always buying and selling in the account, or never buys or sells in the account, etc. In order for advisers to do their jobs, they must know their clients' full and complete financial history as well as their clients' needs and desires. By carefully planning how you will approach the interview (as discussed above), a financial planner can help lessen the intensity or severity of a client's anxiety by fostering mutual trust and tacit understanding by means of asking effective questions. Be sure to let the client know that he or she will be able to ask questions of you as well.
Note: intentionally rephrasing a question to gain clairity is appropriate providing the client is aware of why you are rephrasing the question. Also avoid statements that are prejudicial, can be perceived to exclude or marginalize or insult groups who are socially disadvantaged or discriminted against, religious, or biased.
This is not the time to impress yourself or the client with your gift of gab - stick to your structured interview process. Clients should first learn to accept that certain “magical” savings goals, such as saving $1,000 a month or saving enough to retire in three years, may be unrealistic or achievable only through winning the lottery. For example, if your clients did not complete an expenditure diary because they did not understand the directions, re-explain them to your clients and use the teach-back method to ensure that they understand.
Keep in mind that many clients find it difficult to adhere to their planner’s advice and that financial lifestyle changes, in particular, are very challenging.
Through means as varied as dance, writing, and broadcasting, our basic need to communicate keeps us entertained, informed, and connected to one another and the world around us.
Workers in these areas must be able to invent or work with a concept or idea and convey it to a wide audience in a clear and understandable way. Workers in this area can design, install, repair, or monitor the use of such equipment in film and television studios, businesses, concert venues and stadiums, and many other settings.
Broadcast workers purchase, install, test, and operate the equipment that makes television, radio, film, and Web broadcasts happen. This includes the production companies that plan the events, the agents that hire talent, the performers themselves, and the technicians that create the lighting, makeup, and costumes that a performance requires. Fine artists express their own thoughts and emotions through a variety of media and methods, such as painting, sculpture, and drawing. For example, many community colleges offer two-year associate’s degree programs in printing technology that would enable you to get an entry-level position in the field, but combining this degree with an internship and advanced coursework in desktop design or business management would provide more opportunities for advancement.
If you are interested in this field, become involved with clubs and activities such as your school newspaper, yearbook, drama club, or audio-visual club.
Employment growth in the radio and television broadcasting and newspaper industries should be slower than the average through 2016, according to the U.S. There is, however, no singular definition of communication that has been agreed upon by communication scholars. Gibberish, for example, is incapable of relaying coherent thoughts to the recipient of the communication because the recipient lacks the ability to decode the message. Rather they purposed to devise a communications system with 100 percent efficiency, if possible.
Words and phrases chosen by the message sender have a certain meaning to him or her may have a completely different meaning to the message receiver. Berlo contended that communications consist of the transmission of messages; not the transmission of meanings.
For example, in discussing a financial plan of action, if the message receiver objects to the message sender's proposed solution, a break-down in communication occurs and a discussion becomes difficult or impossible. The message sender must also ascertain that the message receiver is competent enough to decode the message as formatted and transmitted.
Both message sender and receiver must share similar values, rules and beliefs within the context of their society and the culture.
The message receiver must believe that the message sender is competent enough to encode, format and transmit the message. As with the Berlo model the Osgood – Schramm model incorporates the very important role of active interpretation that occurs whenever a message is decoded.
This results in both the message sender and message receiver becoming both educator and learner. Dance's model embraces the idea that you can’t go back in time and erase the ill will caused by past mistakes and misunderstandings.


The communication process, like the helix, is constantly moving forward and yet is always to some degree dependent upon the past, which informs the present and the future. It is functionally different from casual personal communication which may be characterized by spontaneity having little or no structure or focus. An undesirable impression may preclude the opportunity of working with the prospective client. We all have multiple ways of responding to situations that we are confronted with but a multiculturally competent person will generate alternate ways of responding to situtations of clients of different cultures from a variety of different perspectives. For example, 'Could you please tell me about what you like about your current adviser?' or 'What are the strengths of your current financial plan?' or 'Is there anything else you would like to add?
The planner can use this tool to help clarify these sometimes indaequately conveyed messages and make them clear. Advisers' abilities and skills in using the basic microskills will allow them to get the full 'picture' from their clients so that they may create a comprehensived financial plan (or simply provide specific financial advice) that will accomplish the clients' financial and life goals.
Such remarks can restrict or prevent the flow of information and make the client uncomfortable.
Other strategies include reviewing one's financial plan on a monthly basis, or changing the subject at a cocktail party when hot stock tips are mentioned. As clients identify these problems, have them draw on their past experiences and understanding of the current situation to devise personalized solutions.
Also, it is possible that your clients did not understand the importance of adhering to recommendations, that the recommendations were unrealistic, or that there were unanticipated barriers.
Your encouragement and support can go a long way toward helping your clients achieve success. Although the field of arts, audio-video technology, and communication offers career opportunities that range from playwright to audio engineer, they all share one thing in common: a desire to improve our understanding of one another through communication. On the other hand, people who work in audio and video technology, printing, and telecommunications need to have the strong technical (math and science) skills that keep these systems running. Careers in audio-video technology and film include audio engineers, electronics service technicians, and multimedia sound workers. Jobs in this category include audio recording engineers, broadcast engineers, news anchors, newspaper editors, and radio and television program directors. Careers in this area include actors, costume designers, music agents and scouts, and music conductors and directors.
Careers in printing technology include desktop publishing specialists, graphic designers, prepress workers, and printing press operators.
Commercial artists, such as illustrators and graphic designers, use their creative talents to create packaging, logos, annual reports, and other projects for corporate and individual clients. Although it is possible to pursue a career in the performing arts, such as acting, without an advanced degree, most people in the field have some sort of formal training or a bachelor’s degree in fine arts, which can provide increased opportunities within and outside of the field.
Not only will you acquire some of the technical and performance skills this field requires, but you will learn the value of teamwork and group decision-making, which are also important aspects of this field. According to Em Griffin, author of A First look at Communication, communication is the relational process of creating and interpreting messages that elicit a response.
Aristotle identified three three components of of the speech process: speaker (the message sender), subject (the message), and person addressed (the message recipient).
Shannon and Weaver's Communication Model has five basic factors, arranged in a linear format. In other words, meanings are not in the message; they are personal and internal to the message sender and receiver. The message sender also needs to possess confidence in the message being conveyed as well as in his or her ability to deal competently with the subject matter at hand.
The sender's and receiver's social and cultural inputs will likely affect the channels they will choose to use to communicate, the code (see below) they choose to construct the message, and the meanings they ascribe to the words used in the communication process. The message receiver also needs to possess confidence in the message being conveyed as well as in his or her ability to understand the subject matter at hand. We are little switchboard centers handling and rerouting the great endless current of information…” quoted in “Mass Media and Society. It depicts the ever-expanding range of the relationships as communicating participants reencounter each other on an ongoing basis that continues indefinitely. As with Osgood and Schramm's model, Frank Dance's helical model conceptually enhances the idea that the message sender and message receiver are interchangeable teachers and students of each other.
A structured conversation unfolds in such a way as to intentionally increase the likelihood of understanding important messages expressed by the parties involved. By ethics, reference is made to adhering to professional standards, such as the code of conduct and practice standards promolgated by a professional organization.
It is important to not ask too many questions thus making the client feel like they're being interogated. For example, a self-employed client who has difficulty being frugal on work travel may, while out of town, resolve to rent a smaller model car or stay in a less exspensive hotel, and a client who enjoys eating out a lot may visit a favorite restaurant less often substituting a less expensive restaurant or resolving to eat at home more often.
In each case, work together with your client to either develop strategies for adherence or develop new recommendations. Careers in this area include communications equipment technicians, fiber optics technicians, and telecommunications technicians. Careers in this category include artists, cartoonists and animators, fashion designers, interior designers and decorators, and medical illustrators and photographers. Major broadcasters and newspapers have consolidated in recent years to cut costs, thereby creating fewer new jobs. Meaning is applied to the message in the encoding or decoding (reducing the message to language, for example) process of message transmission and reception. It could be the sound of your staff talking in the hallway outside the client conference room or the sound of your cell phone ringing or the sound of the groundkeeper mowing grass. We use feedback all the time to improve and refine our understanding, to expand our knowledge. The helical model also forces upon our attention aspects of the communication process that are not found in other models. Structured communication will vary from one setting to another depending on the participants involved, the circumstances, and the time available. Working in a smaller market to gain experience is a good idea; most larger markets, such as Chicago and New York, prefer to hire experienced workers. In other words, the person at the end of the communication process holds the critical component in the communication process - it is he or she (the message recipient) that determines whether or not communication actually takes place. People can have similar - but not identical - meanings but only to the extent that they have had similar experiences. However, most people can learn to integrate their history with others effectively through focusing on positives, discussing areas of conflict, and acting in ways that bind them together.
Employment in the visual arts and printing industries should be a bit better, as changes in technology will create positions for workers with the right blend of technical and creative skill.
The code (see above) the sender uses to communicate may be too technical or jargonistic which results in the receiver’s loss of attention and misunderstanding of the message. The message sender can limit semantic noise through his or her ability of being able to retain the receiver's attention during the message communication period and the message sender's skill at formating the message in such a way as to keep the message receiver's focused attention.
In essence, the pre-encoded message sent could differ to lesser or greater extent from the de-coded message received. The meaning you attach to my message may be very different from the meaning I attached to my message because of our differing experiences.



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