You’ll want to use a drill to drill holes 1 or 2 inches wide in the lids of the containers.
Notice there is a two inch hole drilled into the lid of the container with a two inch diameter PVC joint connector put through it as a drain hole. To seal the PVC elbow drains in place you can get water proof silicone or a type of strong water proof caulking and apply it with a caulking gun.
Let the sealant set long enough that its not loose – this could take up to 24 hours so BE PATIENT. Home canning gives you a chance to preserve the bounty of your garden, orchard, or local farmers' market. I started thinking about a pressure canner when I realized how much freezer space I was taking up with little containers of roasted tomato sauce. For safe processing, the canner needs a "venting" period, where air and steam escape at full blast for at least 10 minutes before you start the actual processing. Some foods are processed at a higher pressure than others, so check the chart to know how to set the counterweight on the valve. The first couple of times you use your canner, you'll need to pay close attention and fiddle with the heat a lot, especially on an electric stove. I'm an impatient cook, so for me the hardest part of pressure canning is waiting for the canner to cool down and depressurize before opening it. Most of the time, when home cooks talk about "canning," they're really talking about putting things up in glass jars. Some things may need to be canned in a slightly different form than you'd find them on your grocery shelf.
For additional information, move your mouse over images and links (let the cursor hover for a few seconds, and a pop-up caption will appear). For pressure canning the roasted tomato sauce mentioned above, I used the recommended processing time for "spaghetti sauce with meat" (60 minutes at 11 pounds with my canner, in half-pints).
Check out this upcoming article by Angela Carson for excellent instructions on pressure canning green beans! My thanks to Darius and others for the great suggestions and encouragement posted in DG's Canning, Creezing and Drying forum. Please note: The introductory information and tips in this article are NOT a substitute for thoroughly reading the manufacturer's information for your pressure canner. Seal coating is an important tool in extending the life of pavement and should not be overlooked.
What leads to the deterioration of asphalt?A  The number one offender is water!A  Water causes clay expansion, washes away dirt and can erode rock supporting asphalt.A  This is why it is imperative that a site is properly graded and drained at installation. Other factors that can deteriorate an asphalt surface include oxidative properties of ultraviolet light which can denature the surface of asphalt. We recommend year round scheduled maintenance with inspections in spring and fall and crack sealing and repair as indicated. Although the terms cement and concrete often are used interchangeably, cement is actually an ingredient of concrete.
So, there is no such thing as a cement sidewalk, or a cement mixer; the proper terms are concrete sidewalk and concrete mixer.
Materials that contain appropriate amounts of calcium compounds, silica, alumina and iron oxide are crushed and screened and placed in a rotating cement kiln. The kiln resembles a large horizontal pipe with a diameter of 10 to 15 feet (3 to 4.1 meters) and a length of 300 feet (90 meters) or more.
Curing is one of the most important steps in concrete construction, because proper curing greatly increases concrete strength and durability. Good concrete can be obtained by using a wide variety of mix proportions if proper mix design procedures are used. Concrete is tested to ensure that the material that was specified and bought is the same material delivered to the job site. The real indicator is the yield, or the actual volume produced based on the actual batch quantities of cement, water and aggregates.
Portland cement is a hydraulic cement which means that it sets and hardens due to a chemical reaction with water. It is concrete that is strong enough to carry a compressive stress of 3,000 psi (20.7 MPa) at 28 days. Stains can be removed from concrete with dry or mechanical methods, or by wet methods using chemical or water.
Common dry methods include sandblasting, flame cleaning and shotblasting, grinding, scabbing, planing and scouring. Wet methods involve the application of water or specific chemicals according to the nature of the stain. To remove blood stains, for example, wet the stains with water and cover them with a layer of sodium peroxide powder; let stand for a few minutes, rinse with water and scrub vigorously. Color may be added to concrete by adding pigments-before or after concrete is place-and using white cement rather than conventional gray cement, by using chemical stains, or by exposing colorful aggregates at the surface.
Each country has its own standard for portland cement, so there is no universal international standard. Alkali-silica reactivity is an expansive reaction between reactive forms of silica in aggregates and potassium and sodium alkalis, mostly from cement, but also from aggregates, pozzolans, admixtures and mixing water.
White portland cement is made from raw materials containing little or no iron or manganese, the substances that give conventional cement its gray color.


If you have a question that was not answered in this section, please contact us and we will be happy to answer it! The steam, the rattling noise, the fear that the whole thing will blow up and redecorate your kitchen in ?marinara red,? Although an empty pressure canner is heavier than a water bath canner, they may weigh about the same when full. When you've found the setting that seems to work out well on your stove, it's a good idea to make a note of it.
Pumpkin, for example, is unsafe to can as a puree (it's too thick and might not get hot enough in the center of the jar), so the chart will say to cut it into chunks for canning. For additional information, or if you have an older canner, the University of Georgia Extension Service has an excellent website on home preserving, with an entire section on pressure canning procedures and recipes for canning vegetables and meats. It's possible that a shorter processing time for "spaghetti sauce without meat" would be safe, but why take chances? Seal coats generally consist of a mixture of emulsified asphalt, water, mineral fillers and various other admixtures. Future applications of seal coat should be applied at intervals of three to five years, or at times when roadway aesthetics are not up to par with the balance of the community. Ingredients used in this process are typically materials such as limestone, marl, shale, iron ore, clay, and fly ash. These air pockets relieve internal pressure on the concrete by providing tiny chambers for water to expand into when it freezes.
There are a dozen different test methods for freshly mixed concrete and at least another dozen tests for hardened concrete, not including test methods unique to organizations like the Army Corps of Engineers, the Federal Highway Administration, and state departments of transportation. If the concrete can't flow because the consistency or slump is too low, there are potential problems with proper consolidation. Three field tests are widely specified: the pressure meter and volumetric method are ASTM standards and the Chace Indicator is an AASHTO procedure. According to Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318), as long as no single test is more than 500 psi below the design strength and the average of three consecutive tests equals or exceed the design strength then the concrete is acceptable. The unit weight test can be used to determine the yield of a sample of the ready mixed concrete as delivered. Too much water in the mix will produce a weaker, less durable concrete that will contribute to early flaking and spalling of the surface.
If this excess water is worked into the concrete because the finishing operations are begun too soon, the concrete on the surface will have too high a water content and will be weaker and less durable. The factor that most predominantly influences concrete strength is the ratio of water to cement in the cement paste that binds the aggregates together.
Steel-wire brushes should be used with care because they can leave metal particles on the surface that later may rust and stain the concrete. The chemical treatment either dissolves the staining substance so it can be blotted up from the surface of the concrete or bleaches the staining substance so it will not show. Follow with the application of a 5 percent solution of vinegar to neutralize any remaining sodium peroxide.
However, there are some aggressive materials, such as most acids, that can have a deteriorating effect on concrete.
The United States uses the specification prepared by the American Society for Testing and Materials-ASTM C-150 Standard Specification for Portland Cement. External sources of alkali from soil, deicers and industrial processes can also contribute to reactivity. They have the same properties as types I, II, and III, except that they have small quantities of air-entrained materials combined with them. Once the bond is tight you will be able to sit your trays on top of the lids and the drain wont fall off under the pressure of your plants plus extra water. I heated up a glass rod with a camp fire starting torch – one similar to what you use to start a grill.
I thought about my grandma's old rattling canner, though, and I worried that pressure canning might be just as dangerous. If your stove has a glass top, the manual will probably advise against using either type of canner on it. You want to maintain the pressure without running the canner dry, so you'll need to turn down the heat.
It's wise to stick with "official" directions and recipes, in order to avoid potential safety problems. Nicolaus Better known as "Critter" on DG, Jill lives in Frederick, MD, where she tries to fit as many plants as possible into a suburban back yard. The process seals the top of the asphalt, preventing water from penetrating the surface of the pavement and protecting the top layer of asphalt from oxidation and wear caused by exposure to the sun.
The thickness of the wearing surface will depend on the number of coats applied and the amount of water added by the contractor. The aggregates are sand and gravel or crushed stone; the paste is water and portland cement.
The raw mix is placed in the high end and as the kiln rotates the materials move slowly toward the lower end. However, hydration occurs only if water is available and if the concrete's temperature stays within a suitable range. Air-entrained concrete is produced through the use of air-entraining portland cement, or by the introduction of air-entraining agents, under careful engineering supervision as the concrete is mixed on the job.


If the concrete won't stop flowing because the slump is too high, there are potential problems with mortar loss through the formwork, excessive formwork pressures, finishing delays and segregation. Conventional concrete has strengths of 7,000 psi or less; concrete with strengths between 7,000 and 14,500 psi is considered high-strength concrete. Geometric patterns can be scored, stamped, rolled, or inlaid into the concrete to resemble stone, brick or tile paving. The first line of defense against chemical attack is to use quality concrete with maximum chemical resistance, followed by the application of protective treatments to keep corrosive substances from contacting the concrete. There are a few other countries that also have adopted this as their standard, however, there are countless other specifications. The reaction forms an alkali-silica gel that swells as it draws water from the surrounding cement paste, thereby inducing pressure, expansion and cracking of the aggregate and surrounding paste. I decided to take the risk, but you may decide you'd rather can outside on a propane burner.
Even with experience, it's a good idea to check on the canner regularly during processing to make sure it's operating in the right pressure range.
When filling jars, be sure to leave the recommended "head space" between the top of the contents and the rim of the jar. The birds are mobbing our feeders lately, so Sunshine Girl and I have a job keeping the Flyby Cafe' open for business! Remember, seal coat is water soluble, so it is important to deal with reputable contractors in the asphalt-maintenance business.
Flame jets are at the lower end and all the materials in the kiln are heated to high temperatures that range between 2700 and 3000 Fahrenheit (1480 and 1650 Celsius).
During the curing period-from five to seven days after placement for conventional concrete-the concrete surface needs to be kept moist to permit the hydration process. The amount of entrained air is usually between 4 percent and 7 percent of the volume of the concrete, but may be varied as required by special conditions. The reason that contractors put joints in concrete pavements and floors is to allow the concrete to crack in a neat, straight line at the joint when the volume of the concrete changes due to shrinkage. The total weight information may be shown on the delivery ticket or it can be provided by the producer.
Every desirable physical property that you can measure will be adversely effected by adding more water. Other interesting patterns are obtained by using divider strips (commonly redwood) to form panels of various sizes and shapesA  rectangular, square, circular or diamond. Principles and practices that improve the chemical resistance of concrete include using a low water-cement ratio, selecting a suitable cement type (such as sulfate-resistant cement to prevent sulfate attack), using suitable aggregates, water and air entrainment.
This often results in map-pattern cracks, sometimes referred to as alligator pattern cracking.
If you really have to devote yourself to a marathon canning session, make a batch of jam and process it in a boiling water bath canner while waiting for your pressure canner to cool down.
This year, we put out a special feeder just for the squirrels, filled with a seed & corn blend. Good looks are an added benefit, but seal coating is not just for aesthetics--it will actually extend pavement life.
Portland cement is not a brand name, but the generic term for the type of cement used in virtually all concrete, just as stainless is a type of steel and sterling a type of silver.
This high heat drives off, or calcines, the chemically combined water and carbon dioxide from the raw materials and forms new compounds (tricalcium silicate, dicalcium silicate, tricalcium aluminate and tetracalcium aluminoferrite).
In general, the temperature of new concrete should not be allowed to fall below 50 Fahrenheit (10 Celsius) during the curing period. This would be impractical, so a time period of 28 days was selected by specification writing authorities as the age that all concrete should be tested. A large number of chemical formulations are available as sealers and coatings to protect concrete from a variety of environments; detailed recommendations should be requested from manufacturers, formulators or material suppliers.
ASR can be avoided through 1) proper aggregate selection, 2) use of blended cements, 3) use of proper pozzolanic materials and 4) contaminant-free mixing water.
When you see spurts of steam several times a minute, you're in the zone for perfect processing. Check the seal, remove the ring band, and wash down the outside of the jar before putting it in your pantry. We still see them acrobatically snatching food from the other feeders, but at least now they let the birds get a beak in edgewise!
For each ton of material that goes into the feed end of the kiln, two thirds of a ton the comes out the discharge end, called clinker. But other producers may not even realize that a mix designed for one cubic yard might only produce 26.5 cubic feet or 98 percent of what they designed. Through a process called hydration, the cement and water harden and bind the aggregates into a rocklike mass.
This hardening process continues for years meaning that concrete gets stronger as it gets older.
A small amount of gypsum is added during the grinding process to control the cement's set or rate of hardening.




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