High blood pressure puts a strain on all the blood vessels in your body, including the delicate blood vessels inside your eyes. Vessels react by forming abnormal scar products, causing thickening of the vessel wall and narrowing of the inner space. The longer you’ve had high blood pressure, the more likely you are to develop hypertensive retinopathy. There are usually no symptoms until the very late stages, when your blood vessels may develop outpouchings (called aneurysms) or become blocked off altogether. Aneurysms can burst and cause bleeding inside the eye – this can cause floaters or vision loss. Blocked off vessels will cut off the blood supply to parts of the eye – this may lead to partial or complete vision loss. You may not notice any changes to your vision until the very late stages, when the damage is often irreversible. Aside from eye disease, having chronic high blood pressure also puts you at risk for heart disease, vessel disease, and stroke. Purpose: This test tells us how the blood is moving through the blood vessels in the back of your eye.
Immediate symptoms may include headache, eye pain, blurry vision, change in mental status, shortness of breath, chest pain, and decreased urine output. If you have malignant hypertension, you will most likely stay in the hospital and take medications to lower your blood pressure until it is under control. Prepared in partnership with Lily Huang, MD, Class of 2013, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. Please note: only your personal physician or other health professional you consult can best advise you on matters of your health based on your medical history, your family medical history, your medication history, and how information from any of these databases may apply to you. Edema is the medical term for excessive fluid accumulation within the interstitial space (between cells) or within the cavities of the body.
Fluid in the body exists within cells (intracellular fluid), within the tissue space between cells (interstitial fluid), within the blood vessels (blood) or lymphatic vessels (lymph or lymphatic fluid).
Fluid within our blood vessels are at a higher pressure than the fluid in the tissue spaces. Fluid is pushed away from an area of high hydrostatic pressure but is pulled into an area of high osmotic pressure. Anasarca is the medical term for simultaneous swelling throughout the body (generalized edema). There are various diseases that cause edema, some of which result in localized swelling while others can lead to anasarca. Ask a Doctor Online Now!Anasarca gives the appearance of being swollen or bloated throughout most of the body and should not be mistaken for weight gain.
Reduced osmotic pressure within the vessels will not pull fluid from the tissue spaces into the vessel. Fluid retention (water retention) where there is excessive fluid within the blood vessel and tissue spaces. Increased vascular permeability is when blood vessel wall allows fluid to pass out of the blood vessel unabated. Lymphatic obstruction is where the lymph vessels are blocked at some point and the interstitial fluid cannot be drained from the tissue spaces. Pleural effusion is the term for edema in the pleural space between the outer layers of the lung. Pericardial effusion is the term for edema within the pericardial space between the outer layers of the heart. Lymphedema is the excessive fluid accumulation within tissues because the tissue fluid cannot be drained by the lymphatic vessels in that area.
Hepatic edema is the term for excessive fluid accumulation in tissues due to  a liver dysfunction.


Cardiac edema is the term for excessive fluid accumulation in tissues due to heart failure. Renal edema is the excessive fluid accumulation in they body’s tissues due to kidney disease or failure.
Pitting edema is the swelling of a body part where an indentation will persist after pressure is applied to the area. Non-pitting edema is where there is swelling of a body part with no indentation upon applying pressure. Please note that any information or feedback on this website is not intended to replace a consultation with a health care professional and will not constitute a medical diagnosis. The disease Petechiae is the result of hemorrhage that causes red or purple spots on the body. Facial Cellulitis refers to a particular skin infection that reflects swelling or inflammation, redness, pain and warmth. A herpetic whitlow is a whitlow or a lesion on the thumb or finger caused by herpes simplex virus.
SymptomsThe symptoms of gout are; swelling, redness, hot to touch, stiffness, inflammation, and of course, excruciating pain. DiagnosisThe problem in diagnosing gout is that the symptoms can be similar to other conditions such as an injury or infection for example.The doctor will normally use a physical examination in concert with the knowledge of the patient's medical history and family history. Quickly end your gout suffering using 3 simple grocery items you probably already have in your kitchen. Eyelids that are swollen do not only make it hard for some individual to see, but can as well be quite annoying. Commonly known as pinkeye, this is red, itchy and swelling of the conjunctiva of the eye which is the protective membrane lining the eyelids as well as the exposed regions of the eyeball. This is inflammation of the margin of the eye and is usually caused by seborrheic dermatitis which is a skin disorder or bacterial infection.
Styes are normally caused by infections from bacteria that occur in the oil or sweat producing glands at the base of the eyelashes.
Depending on the reason as well as the severity of the swollen eyelid, an individual may or may not need to seek attention from their eye physician. This website is for informational purposes only and Is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Although you may not notice any symptoms for many years, this can cause permanent damage to your eyes – even resulting in blindness. You have high blood pressure if the top number of your blood pressure is higher than 140, or if the bottom number of your blood pressure is higher than 90. These changes cause blood vessels to become leaky, weak, and abnormal – they may have areas of narrowing and outpouchings called aneurysms. Dye will be injected into one of your veins and pictures will be taken of the inside of your eye. It can cause blurry vision, headaches, change in mental status, shortness of breath, chest pain, and decreased urine output. Your doctor will also order some tests to see if damage has been done to your kidneys, heart, lungs, eyes, and brain.
Neither University of Cincinnati (NetWellness) nor any party involved in creating, producing or delivering this web site shall be liable for any damages arising out of access to or use of this web site, or any errors or omissions in the content thereof. This fluid is not just water but there are  also cells, nutrients, electrolytes and waste products existing with water in these areas.
Therefore the blood vessels which have a higher hydrostatic and a higher osmotic pressure will push out some fluid into the tissue spaces and draw other fluids from the tissue spaces. The fluid accumulates within the subcutaneous tissue of the skin and gross swelling of the body is evident.
This may vary from cardiovascular (heart and blood vessels) to kidney and liver diseases, certain pharmaceutical drugs and different types of autoimmune diseases like SLE (lupus).


If the body is not able to pass out this excess fluid, it will be retained within the tissue spaces thereby resulting in  edema. Fluid from the tissue spaces are not drawn into the blood vessel fast enough and fluid remains in the tissue space thereby resulting in edema.
Treatment varies and you should speak to your doctor who can diagnose the cause and prescribe the most appropriate treatment. It can affect people of any age and if left untreated, can result into severe complications by spreading across other tissues of the body, including the blood and lymph nodes. These can appear in almost any part of the body, but the big toe joint is the most common by far.
Eventually, the inner layer of the blood vessel breaks, and blood products leak into the vessel wall. This can be a life threatening condition, and you should call 911 or go to the emergency room if you have symptoms of malignant hypertension. Edema may be localized, affecting only one organ or area of the body or it can be generalized where it affects many areas or the whole body simultaneously.
Hydrostatic pressure is the force that pushes fluid from an area of high pressure to low pressure. Blood does not just ooze out of the vessels unless the vessel wall becomes permeable and allows it to exit. There may also be other types of edema occurring simultaneously like ascites, which is fluid accumulation within the abdominal cavity (swollen stomach).
Anasarca usually indicates severe illness and may often be seen in the end stages of serious chronic conditions.
The facial infection that specially affects around the eyes results from hard attack of coughing, crying or vomiting and is easily cured. Facial cellulitis is basically caused due to bacteria; the commonest one affected adults are staphylococcus and streptococcus. The sooner the condition is diagnosed the sooner you can start working on relieving discomfort and shortening the length of the attack. Osmotic pressure is the force that draws fluid from an area of low electrolyte concentration to one of a higher electrolyte concentration. Fluid within the tissue spaces also have a hydrostatic force but this is usually smaller than the pressure within the vessels so very little fluid flow from the tissues spaces into the vessel due to hydrostatic pressure. The lymphatic system also plays an essential part here as the interstitial fluid is pulled from the tissue spaces into the lymphatic vessels which then empties into the blood vessels. At first, Haemophilus influenzae bacterium (Hib) type B was the most common cause of facial cellulitis in children, after whose vaccine was developed; there was no single form of bacteria that could be linked with this particular skin infection among children. In children, the orofacial area is the main source of infection and may be caused by sucking or chewing of fingers or thumbs. Usually fluid from the tissue spaces enters the blood vessel due to a difference in osmotic pressure.
The genital area is the main source for infection in adults.The commonly observed symptoms in herpetic whitlow are reddening, swelling and tenderness of the skin on the infected thumb or finger. This disease may also be a result of few malignancies which need special treatment facilities. This can also be a symptom of fatal diseases like leukemia, meningococcemia which may cause death.



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