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Tell a friend about us, add a link to this page, or visit the webmaster's page for free fun content. This accumulation can occur in the cells (cellular edema), in the intercellular spaces within tissues (interstitial edema), or in potential spaces within the body. Edema may also be classified by location, such as pulmonary edema or brain edema; types found in certain locations have specific names, such as ascites (peritoneal cavity), hydrothorax (pleural cavity), or hydropericardium (pericardial sac).
Classification by location does not indicate whether the edema is cellular or interstitial or occupies a potential space (for example, brain edema may be either cellular or interstitial). Edema can be caused by a variety of factors, including conditions that affect osmotic pressure, such as hypotonic fluid overload, which allows the movement of water into the intracellular space, or hypoproteinemia, which decreases the concentration of plasma proteins and permits the passage of fluid out of the blood vessels into the tissue spaces. With trauma, increased capillary permeability and dilation cause leaking into tissue space.
Initially clear, exudate in the tissue space becomes more viscous with an increase in plasma protein.

This may occur because of decreased osmolality of the fluid surrounding the cells, as in hypotonic fluid overload, or increased osmolality of the intracellular fluid, as in conditions that decrease the activity of the sodium pump of the cell membrane, allowing the concentration of sodium ions within the cell to increase.cerebral edema swelling of the brain caused by the accumulation of fluid in the brain substance.
It may result from head injury, stroke, infection, hypoxia, brain tumors, obstructive hydrocephalus, and lead encephalopathy; it may also be caused by disturbances in fluid and electrolyte balance that accompany hemodialysis and diabetic ketoacidosis. The most common type is vasogenic edema, which may result from increased capillary pressure or from increased capillary permeability caused by trauma to the capillary walls.
Because the brain is enclosed in the solid vault of the skull, edema compresses the blood vessels, decreasing the blood flow and causing ischemia and hypoxia, which in turn result in further edema. See also nonpitting edema.pulmonary edema diffuse extravascular accumulation of fluid in the tissues and air spaces of the lung due to changes in hydrostatic forces in the capillaries or to increased capillary permeability.
It is most often symptomatic of left ventricular heart failure, but can also be a complication of mitral stenosis, aortic stenosis, altitude sickness, acute hypertension, volume overload during intravenous therapy, or reduced serum oncotic pressure, as in patients who have nephrosis, cirrhosis, or hypoalbuminemia.During the initial stage of pulmonary edema, patients may complain of restlessness and anxiety and the feeling that they are getting a common cold.
As fluid continues to fill the pulmonary interstitial spaces the dyspnea becomes more acute, respirations increase in rate, and there is audible wheezing.
Eventually, if the condition persists, the patient becomes less responsive to stimuli as levels of consciousness decrease.

In some patients these phases are telescoped as the pulmonary edema develops rapidly and the final stages of respiratory insufficiency are evident in a very short period of time.Treatment is aimed at enhancing gas exchange, reducing fluid overload, and strengthening and slowing the heart beat. To accomplish these goals the patient is often given oxygen by mask or through mechanically assisted ventilation. Drug therapy includes diuretics to remove excess alveolar fluid and morphine to relieve anxiety and reduce the effort of breathing.
Usually due to metabolic abnormality, such as increased glycosaminoglycan content, like that which occurs in Graves disease (pretibial myxedema) or in early phase of scleroderma.

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Drug-induced pulmonary edema and acute respiratory distress syndrome

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