Successful use of trees and shrubs in landscapes is dependent on selecting a plant that will fulfill a desired landscape function. The decision to add a plant to a garden or landscape usually starts with the recognition that there is a space waiting to be filled and that a tree or shrub planted in this space will perform a specific job or function in the landscape.
Accent plants have unique form, texture, or color and are placed strategically to move the viewer's eye through the landscape and to highlight or frame features such as an entryway or a pathway (Figure 1). Border plantings divide spaces within a landscape or are used to accent the division between adjacent properties. Foundation plantings are located in beds surrounding the base of a building and soften building edges or provide transition from the building to patios, gardens, or other landscape features near the building.
Screen plantings create a sense of enclosure, provide privacy, or block wind, noise, or unwanted views (Figure 2). Specimen plants are very prominent in the landscape because of outstanding ornamental features that draw the eye. Wildlife plantings are comprised of plants that provide habitat or food for birds and other wildlife. Once the function or job of a new plant is identified, the second step is to select a or tree shrub that can both fill this function and has growth requirements that match the growing conditions at the planting site.
Healthy plant growth requires adequate space for plants to reach their mature height and width.
A tree or shrub should be planted into a space which allows it to reach its mature size without being crowded against structures, pathways, or other plants. Mature height and width describe the plant size at maturity rather than its much smaller height and width at the time of purchase. Growth rate, which is a plant's increase in height during one growing season, is also a consideration as trees and shrubs are placed in landscapes. Mounded plants have a broad elliptic plant form because they are at least twice as wide as they are tall. Oval plants are elliptic to egg-shaped and they are at least twice as tall as they are wide. Pyramidal plants are shaped like a pyramid and narrow gradually to a point at the top of plants. Rounded plants have a rounded circular form because their height and width are close to equal.
Spreading plants have an erect, upright branching structure through the lower and middle parts of their canopy and then branch at a 45-degree angle in the upper crown.
Upright plants have main branches that are stiffly vertical and diverge at a slight angle from vertical.
Vining plants trail on the ground or when given support, climb by twining, tendrils, aerial roots, or other means.
Mature plant size, growth rate, and plant form are found on labels attached to plants for sale in garden centers.
Shrubs and trees have specific preferences for light and may fail to thrive when these conditions are not provided. Part-day sun: A site receiving distinct periods of sun and shade each day (Figure 5) as the sun's angle changes the location of shade.
Partial shade or filtered shade: The amount of shade under the canopies of large trees varies depending on the density of their leaf canopy. Full shade: Trees with dense canopies such as sugar maples and Norway maples allow very little or no light to reach the ground below them. Light requirements of trees and shrubs are found on labels attached to plants for sale in garden centers, in garden catalogs, in reference books on woody plants, and on trusted websites. Much like a sponge, the soils we garden in are a blend of solids and different sized pore spaces between the solids.
Soil texture is the term used to describe the proportion of large-sized sand, intermediate-sized silt, and small-sized clay particles in any one soil.


Soil structure and its influence on nutrient, water, and oxygen levels can be improved through the addition of organic matter (compost, manure, grass clipping, etc.) to native soils. On the other hand, soil texture and its influence on these resources is a fixed trait that is difficult if not impossible to alter. The sand group (blue) in the bottom left-hand corner includes soils whose sand particles make up 70% or more of their mineral material by weight.
Loam soils (orange) in the center and bottom right portions of the triangle are the largest group of soils in the textural triangle. Clay soils (green) at the top of the triangle have the highest proportion of clay particles. Drainage refers to the length and frequency of soil saturation and is largely determined by soil texture (Table 1). Available water capacity and drainage are soil traits that can be difficult to change and improve. Soil pH indicates a soil's acidity or alkalinity and has enormous impact on the availability of soil nutrients to plants.
Soil Testing: All plant species have preferred soil textures, soil moisture conditions, and soil pH values that provide for optimal growth. A routine soil test provides information on soil texture, organic matter, and soil pH that gardeners can use as they select plants. Armed with information on soil preferences of plant species and soil test results, gardeners and landscapers are well equipped to select trees and shrubs that will have long and healthy lives in the landscape.
Shrubs and trees used in Minnesota landscapes must be able to survive Minnesota's low winter temperatures and to grow and thrive in the subsequent growing season. Cold hardiness information can be found on labels attached to plants for sale in nursery centers, in woody plant references, and on trusted websites.
Another consideration in the selection of woody plants is the prevalence of disease and insect pests common to trees or shrub species grown in Minnesota.
Many gardeners are interested in landscaping with plants native to the United States or to Minnesota. Rabbits must be at least 8 weeks old and fully weaned before they can leave their mothers.If you believe this advertiser is letting their rabbits go before 8 weeks of age, please report them to us. All rabbits should be vaccinated and have their vaccinations kept up-to-date, this is part of being a responsible rabbit owner and will be your responsibility.Rabbits should receive 2 initial vaccinations against 2 common dieseases, Viral Haemorrhagic Disease (VHD) and also Myxomatosis. Do your research firstGetting a new rabbit is a massive commitment, so make sure you have researched the breed fully and have the time and commitment necessary to care for the rabbit. Confirm that the advertiser is genuineYou should verify this by arranging to visit the rabbit at the advertisers home, if they make excuses or try to ask for money or a deposit without seeing the rabbit, or if the advertiser attempts to deliver the rabbit or meet you at any other location than their own home, then please do not agree to this.
Is the rabbit over 8 Weeks of age?Rabbits must be at least 8 weeks old and fully weaned before they can leave their mothers.
Check the Health of the rabbitIt can be difficult for the average person to check if a rabbit is healthy or not, so if you decide to adopt or buy the rabbit, make sure that the seller agrees that you can return them within 48 hours for a full refund after taking the rabbit to a Vet of your choice for a health check. Samara McPhedran receives funding from the Australian Research Council (ARC) and project partners including Queensland Health, New South Wales Department of Health – Hunter New England Local Health District, New England Division of General Practice and Queensland Department of Communities.
AISRAP, in partnership with the University of Newcastle, is undertaking a three year Australian Research Council Linkage Project examining influences on farmer suicide in Queensland and New South Wales. Around 40% of farmers who died by suicide had accessed some type of professional mental health service.
Henry Lawson’s characterisations of colonial Australia have found an enduring place in our social history.
Moving to the present, Lawson’s Australian rural man – and, particularly, the farmer - has become a subject of concern within health research, policy, and practice.
One of the most commonly proposed contributors to farmer suicide is a lack of access to, or use of, mental health services, along with cultural factors such as stigma and “traditional masculinity.” While the latter concept is not well defined, it generally refers to attributes such as self-reliance, individualism, and stoicism - characteristics we stereotypically associate with farmers. The theory runs that, over and above the other structural and cultural barriers that prevent farmers seeking help, their propensity to seek help if they are feeling suicidal will be impeded by their notions of masculinity.


Although there are many possible and probable risk factors for farmer suicide, comparatively few are backed by robust evidence. There is a great deal of information about protective factors in the general population, but to date, very little effort has been made to understand what factors are most likely to be protective for farmers. It’s all very well to talk about mental health literacy or social support, but the best protective factors for farmers may be practical things like the ability to hire staff to harvest a crop, or being able to get a decent price for livestock and produce. Adding to this complex situation, it seems many common assumptions about farmers and suicide need to be re-examined. These findings cast doubt on the assumption that farmers generally avoid seeking formal help. This prompts us to ask whether the help those farmers received was appropriate for their specific needs.
Untreated mental illness is unlikely to adequately explain farmer suicides; many Queensland farmers who died by suicide had no recorded signs of a psychiatric condition.
A substantial amount of international evidence suggests that life events and occupational stress play an unusually strong role in farmer suicide. These knowledge gaps impact on our ability to design and implement effective suicide prevention programs in farming communities.
The pathology lies in society discriminating against transgender people, not in transgender people themselves.
In attempting to avoid labelling killers as terrorists, some have shifted focus to their mental health issues. From act of terrorism to mental health symptom: we’re shifting blame but at what cost?
Rural workplaces are marked by an expectation of regular drinking and long and irregular work hours.
Mass plantings provide a strong unifying effect and are used as connections between other planting groups or as groundcovers. The composition of a silt loam soil is often considered the "ideal" soil for growth of most plants with 45% mineral particles, 5% organic matter, and 50% pore space evenly occupied by water and air. We use a Creative Commons Attribution NoDerivatives licence, so you can republish our articles for free, online or in print.
His depiction of pioneering men captures what has become a great Australian stereotype: the tough and self-sufficient rural man, isolated, suffering in silence against great personal and environmental adversity.
Farmers have a higher rate of suicide than people with other occupations, and reducing suicide rates among farmers and farm workers is an ongoing challenge. Consequently, there is no clear picture of which factors have the strongest influence on farmer suicide. Based on a preliminary investigation into help-seeking behaviour among adult male farmers who died by suicide in Queensland, it appears a sizeable proportion of those men – around 40% – had accessed some type of professional mental health help prior to death. And is it possible that the type of professional help accessed by those farmers was a poor match? This year - the Australian Year of the Farmer – I hope we researchers can start putting some facts about farmer suicide on the table.
A gentleman in his 60s who has always lived on the land may not feel comfortable talking to a 23-year-old female mental health nurse who has just moved to the area. We don’t know why one farmer affected by drought takes his own life, while his neighbour – who is equally affected – does not. New plants establish as seeds are passed through the digestive tracts of these animals, become widely dispersed into new areas, and germinate.




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