This device is meant to simulate Iron Man’s repulsor by emitting an intense light from the palm when the arm is flexed. These tasks were addressed in the EKG Lab and the Speaker Lab, and reviewing these labs proved to be incredibly helpful in our project.
We found that it was relatively simple to use both programs, once the basics were learned. When it is relaxed, the voltage drops off more slowly than it rose, giving the LED the visual effect of slowly shutting off, like Iron Man’s repulsor beam does.
The circuit from the EKG lab provided a reasonable starting point, and with some research we found band pass filter values that are better fitted to our EMG application. At one point we got a signal that would spike at the beginning of every flex, and then anti-spike at the end thereof. While both programs accomplished the same goal, we wanted to gain experience in using multiple tools.

Once we had created an organized circuit diagram, we used our schematic to design and construct two compact versions of our circuit on a permanent protoboard. On this site, students used an Arduino microcontroller to measure the voltage difference across the bicep and used it to open or close a servo driven claw.
After working with our circuit some more, we got a signal that would increase in amplitude proportional to how hard the subject would flex their bicep. We had hoped that by using ExpressSCH to diagram our schematic we would be able to seamlessly use ExpressPCB to design a printed circuit board which we could then order.
While their system is binary and requires the use of a microcontroller, their research suggests that a band pass filter that only allows frequencies from 50Hz to 500Hz to pass through would be the ideal filter for our project. Even though we did not order a PCB to be printed, we did learn what goes into designing a PCB and would be able to do so for any future project. This filter range is not perfect; it still includes the measurable frequencies produced by nearby electronics and fluorescent lights, but our testing has shown that this noise does not drastically interfere with our measurements.

Next, we added a modified voltage envelope detector that would output a non-oscillating voltage corresponding to the peak voltage of the oscillating signal. A voltage envelope detector consists of a diode which rectifies the oscillating signal, and a resistor and a capacitor in parallel connecting the output of the diode to ground. With the correct capacitor and resistor values, the filling and draining cleanly follows the peaks of the signal. With this setup, the LED does not produce any light when the arm is relaxed, and it is supplied with a maximum voltage of 3.0V when the arm is fully flexed. As a final modification, we replaced a resistor with a potentiometer to adjust the sensitivity of the apparatus so that more muscular people were not constantly setting it off and less muscular people could still bring the LED to full brightness.

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