The average age of onset in cats varies, but middle-aged and old cats are most commonly affected. This is an inflammation of the kidney – specifically in the area referred to as the glomerulus. An attempt should be made to diagnose and treat any underlying disease process that might have resulted in the development of GN.
This is the deposition in organs and tissues of a protein called amyloid that compromise normal function. Chronic interstitial nephritis is a common morphologic diagnosis and may represent the end result of several different renal diseases including chronic glomerulonephritis and chronic pyelonephritis. Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) often affects the kidneys, liver, mesenteric lymph nodes, central nervous system, and eyes.
Acute treatment requires diligent potassium supplementation by both oral and intravenous routes. HAE is characterised by huge swelling of the tissues (angioedema) which last from 3 to 5 days. Some patients can identify warning symptoms (prodomal symptoms) in the 24 hours before an attack. The frequency of attacks can vary from once or twice a year to every few days in the most severely affected patients. Swelling of the face and tongue can lead to swelling of the airway which is life threatening. Eye irritations can be a symptom of a number of serious conditions that require quick medical treatment for the sake of your pet’s continued health.
A cloudiness in the eye is often present in older dogs and is simply a sign of the formation of cataracts. If your cat is like most, you often find him perched atop the refrigerator, wardrobe or other lofty places.
Like CPR or the Heimlich Maneuver, breaking up a dogfight is one of those skills you hope you never use. Your dog’s decision to nap under the table or behind the sofa may seem odd, but to him it is perfectly natural. Every cat owner has come home to find his favorite feline sleeping in shoeboxes, dresser drawers, or behind the sofa. Technically known as “paresthesia”, this syndrome is caused by the compression of specific nerves.
Nerve impulses require a healthy energy supply, known as the axonal transport system.  This well developed micro-vascular distribution method provides the blood flow needed to maintain the cells in good working order. Studies have shown that it doesn’t take much to cause the axonal transport system go haywire. Any discussion of what causes limbs to fall asleep would be remiss without talking about the common misconception that a limb falling asleep is caused by a lack of blood flow to the entire limb involved.
In 2009, the only US supplier of Sodium Thiopental stopped production of the drug forcing several states to postpone some executions because they had to adjust their protocol for putting to death the accused. The use of tourniquets to stop blood loss in trauma patients was once thought to be a staple life-saving treatment.
The use of tourniquets does have a place in certain situations, though.  For instance, the most common use of tourniquets today is in the military.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome occurs more often in women than men and is most common between the ages of 30-60. Prolonged numbness, tingling or loss of motor control, to any limb, should be evaluated by a medical professional. During a neurological examination for neuropathy, my doctor informed me, that I had severe carpel tunnel syndrome. Yesterday night while coming back to home after having dinner with my friends, one hand and feet was suddenly losing the power and I stopped near a shop. Find Us On YouTube!Subscribe today to check out our free Daily Knowledge Youtube video series!
In most cases, a proliferative glomerulonephritis is an underlying cause of nephrotic syndrome[1]. Renal function should be evaluated after rehydration before judgment is made about the ultimate disposition of the cat.
There is renal involvement in many of these cats and they may be presented for evaluation of enlarged, irregular kidneys.


Histopathologic findings observed in the kidneys of cats with chronic renal failure and presumed potassium depletion, include interstitial fibrosis, lymphoplasmacytic interstitial inflammation, tubular dilation, tubular atrophy, and variable glomerular sclerosis. These swellings can occur on any part of the body; hands and feet, arms and legs, trunk, intestines, genital organs, face, tongue, neck and airway. A mild irritation, caused by an irritant such as a seed blowing into the pet’s eye, may cause a squint with accompanying tear production until it is dislodged.
Without veterinary examination it may not be possible to tell what the squinting signifies, so a visit to a professional animal health expert is always the best option. Speaking broadly, clear discharge with no other apparent issues points to a problem with the tearing mechanism. However in younger dogs and other cases, it may be a symptom of keratitis, glaucoma, uveitis or corneal edema. When you sit cross-legged, sleep with your arm above your head, or position any limb in such a way to put excess pressure on a nerve, that nerve will stop sending impulses normally.
They have what are known as “axons” that branch out to your limbs (and other parts of the body, but we will focus on the limbs) and carry nerve impulses out from the spinal cord. If pressure is put on the correct spot, though, all the tiny arteries, veins and capillaries that supply the nerves’ nutrients become pinched off and the nerve cells begin to function abnormally.
External pressures of as little as 20 mmHg (about ? pound per square inch) caused intermittent paresthesia due to the veins supplying the nerve having their blood flow reduced.  When you get to around 1 pound per square inch for around 2 minutes, this can cause numbness, impaired dexterity, and result in muscle weakness. While blood flow is blocked to the nerve specifically, if the entire limb were to be cut off from blood, severe life threatening problems would arise every time we sat “crisscross applesauce” in grade-school (see the problems with tourniquet use in the bonus factoids below). The resulting induced compartment syndrome, created by their use, has shown the risks of using them far exceed the benefits, in most cases. The need for the rapid control of blood loss in a hostile environment has been shown to reduce battlefield deaths, despite the potential risk factor in using a tourniquet. It usually pops up in people who perform repetitive motion activities like typing, sewing, or playing musical instruments and gets its named from the “tunnel” that provides the pathway for the median nerve being narrowed. It could be a sign of a more serious problem like a tumor, peripheral neuropathy, or stroke.
The most common historical findings in cats with endstage renal disease are weight loss, anorexia, and lethargy. Cats with non-effusive FIP and renal involvement may be presented for vague signs of systemic illness such as fever, lethargy, anorexia, and weight loss.
Frequently, clinical signs result primarily from gastrointestinal involvement and the extent of renal involvement is insufficient to cause signs of renal failure. Infusion of potassium-containing crystalloid fluids initially may be associated with a decrease in serum potassium concentration as a result of dilution, increased tubular fluid flow in the distal renal tubules, and cellular uptake of potassium.
Family members who have been tested and who do not have HAE will not pass the disease on to their children. Together with another cellular protrusion known as a dendrite, these projections allow us to feel the world around us.
If you doubt me, hit the Ulnar nerve (the funny bone) on something and see how sudden, extreme pressure makes you scream! Operating hand-held vibrating tools is an extremely common cause of this.  For example, dirt bike racers who need to grip handlebars tightly, while jumping frequently, experience this and commonly refer to these symptoms as “arm pump”. Once applied, a strict protocol of reperfusion (restoring blood flow) must be followed to ensure fatal metabolites will not be introduced into the bloodstream. Once the fight has ended, the need for such a method of bleeding control is then reconsidered.
This creates a problem when repetitive activities cause minor swelling in the area surrounding the nerve. Then I saw my friend was going, my eyesight is good but that time I also couldn’t see him properly.
In most reports of GN in the cat, no predisposing factors have been found and the disease has been classified as idiopathic. Cats with azotemia and end-stage renal disease due to GN should be treated for chronic renal failure. The type, number, and severity of clinical signs associated with the nephrotic syndrome are variable. This effect may be minimized by selecting a fluid that does not contain glucose, administering fluids at an appropriate rate, and beginning oral potassium gluconate (4 to 8 mEq q24h) as soon as possible.
The process that causes these symptoms in the presence of vibration hasn’t yet been fully clarified, but these pulsations have been shown to injure the entire neuron.


Pressure is then placed on the nerve and symptoms like numbness tingling and pain are the result. Signs may be associated with an underlying disease process, such as with infection and immune disease. Physical examination may show poor hair coat, emaciation, pallor of mucous membranes, and dehydration.
Protein restriction should be considered when moderate azotemia persists in the well-hydrated state. Cats with renal lymphosarcoma may be presented for anorexia, lethargy, weight loss, polydipsia, polyuria, dehydration, pallor of the mucous membranes, and bilateral renomegaly. If the person’s heavy enough, or she stands on the hose for too long and the hose fully compresses, water will eventually stop flowing entirely.
Once the pressure on the limb is released, this “acid blood” is then sent back to the heart with potentially lethal consequences.
So next time Timmy the neighbor skins his knee in a bicycle accident, make sure that you instill the nick-name “stubby” before you take off your belt and cinch it around his bloody leg.
The clinical presentation falls into two categories: classical nephrotic syndrome characterized by subcutaneous oedema, ascites, proteinuria, hypercholesterolemia, and hypoalbuminemia without marked azotemia, and chronic renal failure with azotemia.
Effective use of a low protein diet is indicated by reduction in BUN, stable body weight, and stable serum albumin concentration on serial measurements.
Other findings suggestive of FIP may be present, for example, uveitis, chorioretinitis, enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes, and neurologic abnormalities. Azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, proteinuria, isosthenuria, and nonregenerative anemia may be observed on laboratory evaluation. Ask all those people on death row if excessive potassium is a good thing.  They might want to reconsider investing in a portfolio that backs the production of potassium chloride.  Cardiac arrest anyone!
Laboratory abnormalities in cats with GN include proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia, and non-regenerative anaemia. Cats with end-stage renal disease secondary to GN have the shortest survival times (a few weeks to a few months). Laboratory findings include nonregenerative anemia, azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, and isosthenuria.
Cats with FIP may have proteinuria, and, if there has been sufficient destruction of renal parenchyma, may develop azotemia. Nerves, like a well worn hose, may take some time to work properly (expand) and you may feel some tingling, “pins and needles”, during the process. Non-azotemic cats presented with the nephrotic syndrome do better and survive several months to several years[3]. Except for urine specific gravity, urinalysis findings in cats with endstage renal disease generally are unremarkable. Presumptive diagnosis of renal FIP can be made by a fine needle aspirate of the enlarged kidney and the observation of pyogranulomatous inflammation consisting of a mixture of neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasma cells. The diagnosis of renal lymphosarcoma can be made by cytologic examination of a fine needle aspirate of the kidney demonstrating a monomorphic population of immature lymphocytes.
Histologically, the lesions are those of membranous nephropathy with IgG and complement deposition[2]. Renal biopsy will allow identification of a specific disease process or confirmation of the diagnosis of chronic interstitial nephritis of unknown cause[4]. Hypokalemia occurs in 20% to 30% of cats with chronic renal failure and may be treated using oral potassium gluconate (2–4 mEq q24h).
Anabolic steroids have a low margin of safety in cats (risk of hepatotoxicity) and therefore are not routinely recommended for cats with chronic renal failure.
Vomiting and uremic gastroenteritis are less common in cats with chronic renal failure than in dogs and may be managed with famotidine (5 mg orally once per day). There is a substantial risk of antibody formation in cats treated with human erythropoietin, and the drug has not been approved for use in animals. The prognosis for cats with chronic renal failure is variable, and the disease appears to progress at different rates in different patients.



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