This article was co-authored by Dr Alan Woodruff, science communicator at the Queensland Brain Institute.
An emerging drug treatment is effective in mice but translating these results to humans will take time. Stroke claims five million lives worldwide each year and is the second biggest killer after ischaemic heart disease.
Current treatment for ischaemic stroke, which results from a blood clot, aren’t very effective.
By 2020, the World Health Organization predicts that worldwide, the number of years lost to disability resulting from stroke will reach 61 million. If patients are treated within around three hours of the stroke, the stroke-inducing clots can be broken down relatively efficiently using a substance called tissue plasminogen activator (tPA).
But after the clot is removed and blood starts flowing, the body produces an unwanted neuroimmune response.
These cytokines are able to recruit many other immune cells to the area, leading to further cell death. Limiting the initial release of these cytokines should therefore help to decrease the excessive local inflammatory response, leading to a decrease in tissue damage and better patient outcomes. In collaboration with Garrie Arumugam from the University of Queensland, researchers at Monash University and international colleagues in London and Hamburg, we induced strokes in mice to demonstrate that – as expected – PI3K? controlled the release of TNF-? from immune cells of the central nervous system. This suggested to us that by inhibiting PI3K? activity, we would be able to prevent the rise in TNF-? secretion and therefore limit inflammation of the brain and cell death. Two separate lines of evidence indicated this was the case: mice genetically modified to have inhibited PI3K? activity had only limited TNF-? release, and mice that were given the PI3K?-inhibiting drug CAL-101 showed similar effects.
Further, blocking PI3K? activity (through genetic manipulation or medication) decreased blood clot-induced brain damage and resulted in improved performance on neurological tests.
These results indicate that we successfully identified a pathway critical to post-treatment inflammation of the brain, and that we could limit the damage by blocking PI3K?, a key molecule within that pathway. While the genetic manipulation played a role in identifying the signalling pathway involved, it is the efficacy of CAL-101 that is particularly exciting and relevant to stroke therapy. Since initial stroke treatment is typically initiated by medically trained staff, CAL-101 (or a related molecule) could potentially be injected alongside tPA to reduce inflammation of the brain and improve patient outcomes.
The next obvious question is whether CAL-101 or a similar derivative may ultimately be used to improve stroke treatment in humans. Our study was conducted in mice, and translating findings in animal models to the development of clinical therapies can be very difficult – clinical trials of drugs fail frequently due to safety or efficacy concerns. In positive news, however, CAL-101 (also known as GS-1101 or idelalisib) has recently undergone phase three clinical trials in the United States for the treatment of certain forms of lymphoma and the results look promising.


Coronary heart disease is almost always a consequence of atherosclerosis; a build-up of cholesterol and other material in the walls of our arteries.
Please note: If you have a promotional code you'll be prompted to enter it prior to confirming your order. If you subscribe to any of our print newsletters and have never activated your online account, please activate your account below for online access. When it comes to preventing and treating high blood pressure, one often-overlooked strategy is managing stress. Low back pain has many different causes, including the normal wear and tear that comes with aging.
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It might seem like retirement is a time to take it easy and devote yourself to gardening, golfing, and napping. Sleep shortfalls can lead to a range of health problems, from being more likely to catch a cold or gain weight to increased risk of developing heart disease or diabetes. Studies have found that there are more men below the age of 30 who are consuming erection pills.
Testosterone is considered to be a super hormone for men who would like to improve their overall well-being. Testosterone is a hormone that humans, yes both male and female produces to enhance puberty, fertility and sexual libido. A male individual will experience decrease of hair or hair loss, decrease in bone and muscle mass, erectile dysfunction, low sex drive, fragile bones and worst, the growth of breast tissues which should only be present in females. Just like back in school science experiments, I therefore conclude that water is not the cause of testosterone decrease in the body but what it is contaminated with.
Previous Post5 Creative ways to maintain healthy sexual relationship with your partnerNext PostTesto Shred Trail Offer a Scam? The research was supported by a National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC) project Grant 1005964 and Prof Frederic Meunier is a Senior Research Fellow of the NHMRC. We use a Creative Commons Attribution NoDerivatives licence, so you can republish our articles for free, online or in print. Of those who survive, a significant number (around five million) live with neurological deficits that profoundly affect their quality of life.


But research published by my colleagues and I today in the journal Nature Communications shows an emerging drug treatment is effective in mice and could one day reduce the neurological impact in people who’ve suffered an ischaemic stroke. This allows the blood to start flowing again, supplying the brain with the oxygen required to keep the tissue alive. This occurs because the damaged brain tissue contains elevated levels of molecules known as proinflammatory cytokines, which regulate the body’s response to infection, inflammation and trauma.
In previous work, we showed that the secretion of TNF-? is dependent on a molecule named phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta (PI3K?). Not only was the drug effective in improving post-stroke recovery, but its effects could be seen when given up to three hours after the clot was removed and blood started flowing.
Not only does it treat lymphomas, it has the potential to alleviate the complications that arise following initial stroke treatment. Due to the large amount of stress, men below 30 are turning to erection pills which can have a lot of side effects.
We’re now also looking into other medical conditions that could be improved by reducing inflammation of the brain with CAL-101 or a similar compound. If a man has a high level of estrogen he will have more feminine traits and lowering down testosterone level.
The reason is that in a period of time, you would become dependent on these American medications. Testosterone hormones in men in particular enhance muscle bulk, increased bone mass, physical strength, agility and body hair. There are also unavoidable causes that men might not be even aware that their testosterone level has been affected. It is not really water that is the culprit but rather today’s technology of bottling water. Undescended testicles also is an unavoidable cause this is when the testicles failed to descend below the abdomen while growing up.
Bottled water contains BPA or bisphenol A a chemical used in making plastic resins such as the bottles used for drinking water and even plastic used to contain food. This herbal erection dysfunction pill is so effective that you need not have to take it for the rest of the month.



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