With new technology advancing each day, the modern marketer must rely on both creative AND analytics to survive.
We are a group of designers, programmers and enthusiasts with a deep passion in creating, talking and reading Infographics. We started this blog sharing our passion in April 2011 and welcoming more then 80.000 visitors in the first two months we guess you share our love for Infographics!
Infographics are visual devices intended to communicate complex information quickly and clearly. By presenting information in a compact and creative format, infographics are able to quickly convey knowledge and engage its viewers. Pavel Voinov and Jozsef Arato are PhD students in the Cognitive Sciences Programme at the Central European University, Budapest.
As cognitive scientists we keep asking ourselves what knowledge society expects from us and what the implications of this knowledge are.
Bayesian models of cognition can explain how people handle the uncertainty that is constantly present in the world. In other words, we evaluate newly incoming sensory information in the light of prior experience, and this is how we constantly make fresh predictions of what it is that we are seeing, hearing and feeling. The Bayesian approach has been impressively powerful in modelling various aspects of human cognition: let’s see whether it has been useful for explaining malfunctions of the mind.
The most distinctive features of the schizophrenic mind are the so-called positive symptoms: delusions (abnormal beliefs) and hallucinations (false perceptions). Various experiments have shown that something goes wrong in the combination of prior knowledge and incoming sensory evidence. For example a weaker reliance on prior expectations can explain why schizophrenics are less susceptible to some visual illusion. A weaker influence from higher-level expectations is also shown in tasks which involve uncertainty – for example in playing stone-paper-scissors game. Another important feature of decision-making under uncertainty in schizophrenic patients is their reduced sensitivity to negative feedback once they have formed their belief. These findings are especially intriguing when linked to our knowledge about the neurotransmitter dopamine.
The Bayesian approach is also promising in modelling how this lower-level prediction error could give rise to false beliefs at higher – ’more cognitive’ – levels. Autism spectrum disorder has a clinical picture distinctively different from schizophrenia. Recently, Pellicano and Burr (2012) have proposed a Bayesian account of abnormal perception in autism. On the other hand, weak priors would also explain the phenomenon of sensory overload, that is hyper-sensitivity to ordinary sensory stimuli, like human voices or lamplight.
However, a theory has low scientific value if it can only incorporate already known facts, but can’t make predictions for new findings. What Your Church Must Do To Connect With MillennialsTags : engaging millennials, Mark Brooks, Millennials, Millennials and the church, President of The Charis Group, Reaching Millennials, Rev.
Millennials, those born between 1980 and 2000 are the largest segment in America totally 80 million.
Recent surveys by the Barna Group have shed light on this trend by examining those 18- to 29-year-olds who used to identify themselves closely with faith and the church, but who have since begun to wrestle with that identity.
MILLENNIALS PREFER TO CONNECT VIA TECHNOLOGY – They use websites and search engines primarily for information-gathering, finding volunteer opportunities, and donating online. Lesson for the Church – Set up and implement the tools of technology to connect with this group. MILLENNIALS SHARE IN MICRO WAYS – Their interactions with nonprofit organizations are likely to be immediate and impulsive. Lesson for the Church – Make it easy for Millennials to engage in the positive things your church is doing.
MILLENNIALS FACILITATE (AND RELY ON) PEER INFLUENCE – Peer influence plays an important role in motivating Millennials to volunteer, attend events, participate in programs, and give.
Lesson for the Church – Help your attending Millennials connect their friends and family to what your church is doing.


MILLENNIALS VOLUNTEER ALONG A CONTINUUM OF SUPPORT – Millennials are most likely to get hands-on with causes they care about when organizations offer a range of volunteer opportunities, from one-time commitments to long-term, pro-bono skills-based opportunities. Lesson for the Church – Find ways to engage Millennials with hands on involvement of your missions and ministries. MILLENNIALS GIVE TO HAVE AN IMPACT – Millennials are consistent in their desire to see how dollars translate into people helped. Lesson for the Church – Tell the story of what your church is accomplishing to make a positive difference in the world. Most Airbnb rentals include the entire home or apartment, at 60%, but that still leaves a good chunk of landlords who rent a spare bedroom or event room share. After a quick stint in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Tim moved to Austin, Texas at the ripe age of one.
See what makes today’s marketing professional part artist and part scientist with this informative infographic produced by Salesforce.
We will use one of the most prominent computational theories in contemporary cognitive science – the Bayesian perspective, and show how it contributed to our understanding of two prevalent mental disorders – schizophrenia and autism. As we can never be sure what the true state of the world actually is, perception works by hypothesis testing. Not being tricked by an illusion means, that in some situations, they perceive the world more veridically.
Here schizophrenic patients take less account of the past history of their contestant’s decisions and as a result follow strategies based on only the most recent evidence. In Bayesian terms they do not use the prediction error correctly to update their models of the world. In this case corrupted output from lower levels would feed into higher cognitive functions leading to faulty beliefs of a higher order.
The characteristic symptoms of this condition are repetitive behaviours and problems in social interaction and communication. Furthermore, autism is usually accompanied by a range of sensory peculiarities. While our sensitivity is modulated by the context, – we would be surprised if we heard a human voice in the middle of a forest, but not in the street. If you read the two stories carefully you can see surprising similarities between them: faulty functioning of prior knowledge is suggested as an explanatory cause for both conditions, and this cause is described in almost identical words. In fact, between high school and turning 30, 43% of these once-active Millennials drop out of regular church attendance—that amounts to eight million twentysomethings who have, for various reasons, given up on church or Christianity. They rely on social media and email for communicating and connecting with their networks, while mobile technology gives them instant access to all these channels. When inspired, they will act quickly in a number of ways, from small donations to short volunteer stints, provided that the opportunities are present and the barriers to entry are low. Even if Millennials can’t give as much as other demographic groups, they nonetheless are willing to help raise funds for causes they care about, usually by calling on friends and family.
They want their contributions, no matter the type or amount, to help achieve tangible results for a cause.
His desire to better personalize the engagement that each ministry receives from their stewardship partner led him to begin The Charis Group. One of my close friends has taken advantage of this idea and rents his spare room on 6th street in Austin.
A distinctive feature of Bayesian theories of cognition is that they provide a formal description of the mind: it can be grasped with mathematical expressions, and thus be computationally modelled. Even if you can’t discriminate individual letters, the context will help you, and you are likely to identify common words like “caution”, “danger”, “exit” etc., just by matching approximate length of a word or its salient features.
Patients were also more confident about their decisions, and raised the stakes after smaller number of sequential winnings than healthy players (Joyce et al, 2013). Abnormally high levels of dopamine found in the brains of schizophrenic patients may underlie their failures to integrate sensory (and higher order) error signals appropriately.
Altogether, within a Bayesian picture of the mind one can build a coherent story, which would explain positive symptoms of schizophrenia with strong links between neural, cognitive, and behavioural levels. The origin of these differences and its relation to the core symptoms of autism is still a mystery for psychologists.


As we remember, a prior basically means accumulated information about the environment, and a weak prior means that less account is taken of this accumulated information. The weak priors hypothesis can be tested against the sensory enhancement hypothesis: while the former suggests reduced influence of contextual information on perception, the latter predicts less noise in the sensory input for autistics. This is the weak part of the story: the theory seems to be so unspecified at the moment that it apparently fails to account for qualitative differences between two conditions, which a clinician would never confuse. And when this generation forms long-term volunteer relationships, they tend to give larger gifts, as well as encourage their friends and family to contribute, too. Yes, members of this generation are more likely to give smaller amounts to multiple organizations than to focus their giving on any one recipient. For these guesses we can use the accumulated knowledge we have acquired through past experience.
The most likely event is what we hypothesise given the new sensory signal (evidence) evaluated on the basis of the probabilities of past events (priors). Even if you can’t see any details at all, you may make a guess: this will be a case of relying solely on your priors. Healthy perception is optimally adapted to the environment, with the brain inferring the most likely patterns from raw sensory inputs.
Atypical features of autistic perception include hyper-sensitivity to ordinary incoming stimuli, enhanced focus on details, and more fragmented perception.
Joshua Skewes and colleagues (2014) tested this prediction in an experiment probing acuity of visual perception in ordinary people. We seem to be at the stage of trying to embed things in vague and extensively general principles, but small pieces of the big puzzle are yet to be defined. But the stronger their relationship with an organization, the more likely they are to give larger gifts over time. As I’ve gotten older, I still have an attachment to Airbnb in order to find the unique, quirky living spaces in the cities I visit. We continuously update our expectations based on the differences between the predicted and experienced sensory stimuli (prediction error). But when the context is not informative, and there are many probable alternatives, you will have to rely more on what your eyes deliver to the brain.
In contrast, schizophrenic patients are more influenced by what their eyes see, and less by the higher-level expectations their brain has derived from past experience.
But absence or distortion of this prediction in the brain of schizophrenic patients may create strange experience and give rise to delusional beliefs about it (Fletcher  & Frith, 2009). On the picture with kiwi fruits people with autism would likely see three separate objects rather than a triangle.
As a consequence, the perceived reality would be dominated by new incoming stimuli, and would be less influenced by internal information (priors).
For autistic people everything from the sensory stream would be preserved, and this might lead to blurring of the figure with the background in their perception. The experiment demonstrated that people with higher scores on a scale measuring autistic traits, the AQ,  were less sensitive to the context information, but were as sensitive to the noise in stimuli as the control group.
Perhaps this would sound disappointing if you expected a story like “There is a function in the normal brain which checks whether or not our beliefs are realistic.
This would explain why autistic children are less susceptible to visual illusions and are often better at accurate copying of unusual images. The part of the brain responsible for this function is broken in schizophrenics and that’s why you believe I’m an alien”. Our strong perceptual bias (or ‘prior’) for natural convex faces overrides competing information (such as shadows) and makes a concave hollow mask (bottom) perceived as a convex face (top). Unfortunately, we are not even close to the mechanical description of the “Mind as a machine”.



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